English Coinage of the Stuarts Pre-Commonwealth

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Deeman

Lennox issues

The farthing was initially 15-16mm diameter for Lennox type 1, increasing to 16-17mm for subsequent issues. The latter oval issue was 17-18mm x 15-16mm. The obverse depicts two lis-headed sceptres in saltire through a crown. The reverse depicts a harp surmounted by a crown. The circumscription on the obverse translates to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain' with a reverse circumscription of 'France and Ireland, King' completing his titles.





1614-24 Lennox type 1, bell privy mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp,7 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 2, flower privy mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 5 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 3, eagle's head privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 3, turtle privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 3, annulet privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 4, dagger privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRI, colon stops, 9 jewels on crown.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 4, Lombardic 'A' privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRI, colon stops, 9 jewels on crown.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 4, three lis privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRI, colon stops, 9 jewels on crown.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1614-24 Lennox type 4, trefoil privy mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRI, colon stops, 9 jewels on crown.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.





1622-24 Lennox type 5, oval flan, cross pattée privy mark on reverse. Issued for use in Ireland.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRI, starts bottom left, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, starts bottom left, bird-headed harp, 6 strings.

Deeman

Charles I

King Charles I was born in Fife on 19 Nov 1600, the second son of Anne of Denmark and James VI of Scotland, who also became King James I of England three years after Charles's birth. He became heir to the throne on the death of his brother, Prince Henry, in 1612. He was incredibly unpopular and is remembered for his disputes with Parliament. He dissolved Parliament three times in total and ruled without it for 11 years, a time known as the Personal Rule. England became divided, with some supporting Parliament and some supporting the king, and civil war broke out. In the end, it was decided that peace wouldn't be achieved whilst Charles was alive so he was tried and executed for treason. After the king's death, Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector and ruled the country as a republic for 11 years.

Charles Stuart became king of England and Scotland in 1625. He was a devout family man and a firm believer in the idea of the divine right of kings (kings are appointed by God and, therefore, their actions are not subject to judgment by men).

This belief, combined with his stubbornness and careless spending, meant that Charles almost immediately ran into trouble with Parliament over money (Parliament had the power to create new taxes), made worse by the costs of war abroad. Charles's marriage to Catholic Princess Henrietta Maria of France in 1625 was considered ominous by his Protestant subjects, especially since Catholic plots against Elizabeth I and James I were still vivid in the public memory, and because the Protestant cause was going badly in the Thirty Years War (1618-48) in Europe. Many feared he would reinstate Catholicism as England's official religion and that he wanted to rule as an absolute monarch without Parliament.

Charles dismissed his fourth Parliament in 1629, thus beginning 11 years of personal rule without Parliamentary advice or new taxes. Charles' decision was within the king's royal prerogative, but it added to the problems he would later have when he had to recall Parliament. The king gained most of the income he needed by exploiting forest laws, forcing loans, selling monopolies, and collecting ship money (a tax demanded from towns to build naval warships). These measures made him very unpopular, especially in combination with the increasingly Puritan nobility's dislike for Charles' devoutly Catholic wife and her Catholic friends at the Royal court.

Charles' attempt to impose a unified Anglican High Church liturgy and prayer book throughout Great Britain met with Scottish opposition and rebellion in 1637. He was forced to recall Parliament in order to raise money for an army to restore order, but the Short Parliament of April 1640, as it became known, questioned Charles' reasons for war against the Scots. Parliament was dissolved within weeks, creating a financial and political crisis for the king.

Parliament was called again in November of 1640, and the king was forced to make concessions in order to obtain money. Unfortunately, the Irish uprising of October 1641 again raised tensions between the king and Parliament, and Parliament issued a Grand Remonstrance (list of grievances) repeating its grievances, impeached twelve bishops and attempted to impeach the Queen.

Charles then unsuccessfully attempted to arrest five members of Parliament responsible for the Grand Remonstrance. The result was the start of the English Civil Wars. Charles raised the Royal Standard at Nottingham in 1642, and called for his loyal subjects to support him against Parliament. After almost three years of warfare, Oliver Cromwell and his New Model Army crushed the Royalist army at Naseby in 1645. Charles then surrendered to Scottish forces in 1646, which, after not reaching an agreement with him, turned the king over to Parliament in 1647. Charles was put on trial for treason; the tribunal, by a vote of 68 to 67, found the king guilty and ordered his execution in 1649.

Deeman

Charles I Coinage

The coinage of Charles I within this topic is limited to Tower Mint issues pre-Civil War 1625-42 and during the Civil War 1642-48 as noted in the 'Introduction'.

Coins were almost all struck by hand (hammered), the exception being a few strikes produced by Nicholas Briot using rolling presses. Nicholas Briot was an innovative French coin engraver, who emigrated to England and became chief engraver to the Royal Mint in 1633 and is credited with the invention of the coining-press. He began to experiment with the mechanisation of French coin production and promoted the coining press to replace the traditional hammer-striking methods of coinage production. Briot was unable to convince the French government to adopt his new technology and offered his services and machinery to Charles I. In 1626 he was commissioned to make puncheons and dies for 'certain pieces of largesse of gold and silver in memory of his Majesty's coronation', producing his successful Coronation Medal. This established his reputation. Unfortunately, his outstanding machine-made coins could not be struck at sufficient speed to supplant hand-hammering techniques.

There are three principal types of gold and silver coins struck at the Tower Mint, which may be distinguished by certain variations in the dress of the king. On the first type the king is dressed in ruff and robes and collar of the Garter; on the second type he wears a ruff and is in armour, with mantle fastened at the shoulder; and on the third he has a falling lace collar and armour, but no mantle. These changes correspond approximately to the dates 1625, 1626, and 1631. The shield on the reverse is at first square, then oval and, in the case of silver, again square.

Initial marks and year ranges for Tower Mint gold and silver under Charles



1625: lis.
1625-26: cross calvary.
1626-27: negro's head.
1627-28: castle.
1628-29: anchor.
1629-30: heart.
1630-31: plume.
1631-32: rose.
1632-33: harp.
1633-34: portcullis.
1634-35: bell.
1635-36: crown.
1636-38: tun.
1638-39: anchor (maybe upright, inverted, or horizontal to left or right).
1639-40: triangle.
1640-41: star.
1641-43: triangle in circle (transitional).

From the end of the 'star' period on 15 Jul 1641 until the King left London on 10 Jan 1641/2 (Julian/Gregorian), the Tower Mint issued coins with the 'triangle in circle' under Royal authority and possibly this continued until Parliament seized control of the mint on 10 Aug 1642. Coins from that date until the end of the 'triangle in circle' period on 29 May 1643 were definitely issued under Parliamentary authority, even though retaining Royal types. This issue mark is the commonest for all Charles I coins with huge quantities of silver were being struck over the whole period, probably more or less without interruption. With no definition available to identify the periods of authority, the issue is considered transitional.

Initial marks and year ranges for Tower Mint gold and silver under Parliament



1641-43: triangle in circle (transitional).
1643-44: P in brackets.
1644-45: R in brackets.
1645: eye.
1645-46: sun.
1646-48: sceptre.

Charles I and Parliament denominations

Gold: unite, double-crown, angel, crown.
Silver: crown, halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, half-groat, penny, halfpenny.

The halfpenny did not have any markings. A practice that commenced under James I's third coinage.

London had taken the side of Parliament in 1642 and thus the mint at Tower Hill fell out of royal control though its remaining moneyers continued to mint money in the king's name, maintaining the designs.

Initial marks and year ranges for Briot coinages



1631-32: flower & B.
1632: B (more like a signature letter rather than a mark).
1638-39: anchor & B, anchor & mullet. Also, horizontal anchor without mullet or B (as Tower issues 1638-39).

Briot denominations

Briot obtained Charles's patronage in 1625/26 to engrave the royal effigy and was given funds to operate his milling shop inside the Tower Mint during two periods, those of 1631-32 and 1638-39.

Gold: unite, double-crown, angel, crown.
Silver: crown, halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, half-groat, penny.

Gold: milled 1631-32; hammered 1638-39, no angel.
Silver: milled 1631-32, 1638-39; hammered 1638-39, only halfcrown and shilling.

There were two hammered silver issues; all are rare. The first issue comprises a halfcrown (anchor, triangle over anchor) and shilling (anchor). The second comprises an issue of three shillings. One similar to milled second issue shilling but with lozenge stops both sides (anchor, anchor over triangle or triangle); another has a large 'Aberystwyth' bust with rounded shoulder, Tower group E variety but with lozenge stops on reverse (A over anchor); and a third as Tower group F bust with stellate lace collar but with lozenge stops on reverse (triangle obverse, triangle over anchor reverse).

Copper farthings

During the reign of Charles I, farthings continued to be produced under the king's licence. Towards the end of the reign of James I, in 1623 Ludovic, Duke of Lennox acquired the additional title of the Duke of Richmond, but died a few months later without an heir. The farthing patent passed to his widow, Frances Stewart, Dowager Duchess of Richmond & Lennox, who had as partner in it, Sir Francis Crane. This patent was confirmed to them on the 30 May 1625 by Charles I upon his accession. The first farthing issues of Charles I, 1625-34, are consequently called 'Richmonds'.

In 1634 another farthing patent was issued to Henry Howard (Lord Maltravers) and Sir Francis Crane; their issues being known as Maltravers farthings and generally follow the Richmond harp design. Howard had married Lady Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Esme Stuart, 3rd Duke of Lennox in 1626, so this patent was 'passed on' to yet another member of the royal family.

In 1636, directions were given to Lord Maltravers and Sir Francis Crane "to make a new sort of farthing token which should have a little brass in the middle of the copper to distinguish the true farthings from forgeries." In an attempt to defeat the counterfeiters, who were very active during this period, design changes occurred from time to time. This was only a limited success. The introduction of a brass segment virtually defeated the forgers at a stroke. The harp on the reverse was replaced by a rose, and hence these pieces are known as the Rose farthings. Sir Francis Crane died in 1636 shortly after the rose farthing proclamation and his share went to his son, Richard Crane. The rose farthing proclamation stated that all previous farthings were to be accepted for exchange, effectively demonetising all previous issues.

In Sep 1639, Lord Maltravers and Richard Crane surrendered the patent back to the Crown. Nine days later a new patent was awarded solely to Maltravers. With the onset of the Civil War, Maltravers, now Lord Mowbray, fought for Charles and was absent from London from early 1642. Parliament took over control of the Token House in Feb 1642/3 and production ceased in late 1644. The remaining stock was melted down in 1645.

The method of manufacture of the rose farthings was seemingly achieved by pouring molten brass into a notch of the copper rod before the making of the flans.

Format

The illustrations are presented in sections as follows:

Gold hammered issues under Charles I 1625-42 and Parliament 1642-1649.
Silver hammered issues under Charles I 1625-42 and Parliament 1642-1649.
Briot's first coinage 1631-32.
Briot's second coinage 1638-39.
Pattern coins (Van der Doort, Briot, unsigned).
Copper farthings.

Deeman

Gold hammered issues under Charles I 1625-42 and Parliament 1642-1649

Unite

The unite was 33mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 20/-. The obverse depicts a robed or cuirassed crowned bust of the king left, double-arched or single-arched crown, value 'XX' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a crowned garnished square-topped or oval shield of the Royal Arms with or without the letters 'CR' at the sides, within a circumscription translating to 'Through concord, kingdoms flourish'.





1625 unite, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust in coronation robes, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, colon stops, square-topped shield.





1625 unite, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust in coronation robes, flatter single-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, no stops, square-topped shield.





1626-27 unite, negro's head initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with ruff, armour and mantle, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, no stops, square-topped shield.





1630-31 unite, plume initial mark both sides, group B/C mule.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust with ruff, armour and mantle, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR'.





1631-32 unite, rose initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with ruff, armour and mantle, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR'.





1632-33 unite, harp initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, large bust with falling lace collar, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, no stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1635-36 unite, crown initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller bust with falling lace collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'





1638-39 unite, anchor initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller bust with falling lace collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, no stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'





1640-41 unite, star initial mark both sides, group F.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, Briot bust with stellate lace collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1641-43 unite, triangle in circle initial mark both sides, group F, transitional.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, Briot bust with stellate lace collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1645-46 unite, sun initial mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust with smaller collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1646-48 unite, sceptre initial mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust with smaller collar, double-arched unjewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.

Deeman

Double-crown

The double-crown was 26-27mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 10/-. The obverse depicts a robed or cuirassed crowned bust of the king left, double-arched or single-arched crown, value 'X' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a crowned garnished square-topped or oval shield of the Royal Arms, with or without the letters 'CR' at the sides, within a circumscription translating to 'God protects His worshippers'.





1625 double-crown, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, bust in coronation robes, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1625 double-crown, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX, pellet stops, smaller bust in coronation robes, flatter double-arched crown outer arch only jewelled.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1625-26 crown, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, colon stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle, single-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1627-28 double-crown, castle initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, oval shield, no inner circle.





1631-32 double-crown, rose initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR'.





1633-34 double-crown, portcullis initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1638-39 double-crown, anchor initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, 'Aberystwyth' bust, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1640-41 double-crown, star initial mark both sides, group F.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, Briot bust with stellate lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1645 crown, eye initial mark both sides, group Da, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, re-cut bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.

Deeman

Crown

The crown was 19-20mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 5/-. The obverse depicts a robed or cuirassed crowned bust of the king left, double-arched or single-arched crown, value 'V' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a crowned garnished square-topped or oval shield of the Royal Arms, with or without the letters 'CR' at the sides, within a circumscription translating to 'God protects His worshippers'.





1625 crown, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, pellet stops, bust in coronation robes.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1625 crown, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, broader bust in coronation robes.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1625-26 crown, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX, B over G, pellet stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle, single-arched crown, wire inner circle.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEG, pellet stops, square-topped shield, wire inner circle.





1628-29 crown, anchor initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG / BR FR ET HI REX, divided by bust, colon stops, narrower bust in ruff, armour and mantle, anchor below bust.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1630-31 crown, plume initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR / FR ET HI REX, divided by bust, colon stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle, single-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no stops, square-topped shield.





1635-36 crown, crown initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1638-39 crown, anchor initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, small 'Aberystwyth' bust.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, apostrophe stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1644-45 crown, (R) initial mark both sides, group D, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.





1646-48 crown, sceptre initial mark both sides, group D, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar, unjewelled double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by crowned 'CR'.

Deeman

Angel

The angel was discontinued as a currency after Charles I. It was not revived after the Restoration.

The angel was 25-26mm diameter, 0.995 fine (23.875ct), with a value of 10/- and was the only gold coin of 0.995 fineness issued by Charles I. The obverse depicts archangel St. Michael, haloed and winged, standing with both feet on the dragon and piercing it through the mouth with a spear, the other end of which ends in a cross marking the termination of the circumscription which translates to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The figure 'X', indicating the value, is to the angel's right or left or omitted. The reverse design is a ship with three masts sailing left, large sail set on centre mast embroidered with the Royal Arms, hull ornamented with lis and lions and port-holes, lis on poop, lion at stern and prow, all within a circumscription, divided by the ship, which translates to 'The love of the people is the King's protection'.





1627-28 angel, castle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX, colon stops, value to right.
Reverse inscription is AMOR POPVLI PRÆSIDIVM / REGIS, pellet stops.





1628-29 angel, anchor initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, value to left.
Reverse inscription is AMOR POPVLI PRÆSIDIVM / REGIS, pellet stops.





1632-33 angel, harp initial mark on obverse, plume on reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, value to left.
Reverse inscription is AMOR POPVLI PRÆSIDIVM / REGIS, pellet stops.

Deeman

Silver hammered issues under Charles I 1625-42 and Parliament 1642-1649

Crown

The crown was 43mm diameter with a value of 5/-. The obverse depicts the crowned king riding left in armour holding sword in his right hand, horse with or without caparison, no ground line, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within either a garnished square-topped shield or oval shield either with or without cross fourchée, within a circumscription translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ'. In the case of the square-topped shield over cross fourchée the inscription is divided by the cross arms.





1625 crown, lis initial mark both sides, group I.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, comparison on horse, plume on horse's head and crupper.
Reverse inscription is CHRIS / TO AVS / PICE R / EGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1631-32 crown, rose initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head only.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet pattern stops, oval shield, no cross fourchée, plume over shield (Welsh silver) flanked by 'CR'.





1632-33 crown, harp initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head only.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, quad apostrophe stops, oval shield on cross fourchée, 'CR' above.





1632-33 crown, harp initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head only.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield on cross fourchée, plume over shield (Welsh silver) flanked by 'CR'.





1635-36 crown, crown initial mark both sides, group III.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no comparison, no plume.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, capsule stops, oval shield, no cross fourchée, no 'CR'.





1635-36 crown, crown initial mark both sides, group III.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no comparison, no plume.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, capsule stops, plume over oval shield, no cross fourchée, no 'CR'.





1643-44 crown, (P) initial mark both sides, group IV, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, foreshortened horse, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no comparison, no plume.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield, no cross fourchée, no 'CR'.





1645-46 crown, sun initial mark both sides, group V, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, tall horse, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no comparison, no plume.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield, no cross fourchée, no 'CR'.

Deeman

Halfcrown

The halfcrown was 34-35mm diameter with a value of 2/6. The obverse depicts the crowned king riding left in armour holding sword in his right hand, horse with or without caparison, with or without ground line, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within either a garnished square-topped shield with or without cross fourchée or garnished oval shield, within a circumscription translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ'. In the case of the square-topped shield over cross fourchée the inscription is divided by the cross arms.





1625 halfcrown, lis initial mark both sides, group I.
Obverse inscription is CA / ROLVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX, divided by sword, pellet stops, comparison with rose on horse, plume on horse's head and crupper, ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRIS / TO AVS / PICE R / EGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1625 halfcrown, lis initial mark both sides, group I.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX, colon stops, larger horse with comparison, no rose, plume on horse's head and crupper, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1625-26 halfcrown, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group I.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, larger horse with comparison, no rose, plume on horse's head, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield, no cross fourchée.





1625-26 halfcrown, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group I.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, larger horse with comparison, no rose, plume on horse's head and crupper, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield with plume above (Welsh silver).





1630-31 halfcrown, plume initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield with 'CR' above divided by lis over rose.





1631-32 halfcrown, rose initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield, plume above (Welsh silver) dividing 'CR'.





1632-33 halfcrown, harp initial mark both sides, group II.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR'.





1632-33 halfcrown, harp initial mark both sides, group II. Extremely rare with plume above shield.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, smaller horse with comparison, plume on horse's head, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR', plume above (Welsh silver).





1635-36 halfcrown, crown initial mark both sides, group III.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, horse without comparison and plume, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield.





1635-36 halfcrown, crown initial mark both sides, group III.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, horse without comparison and plume, flowing sash behind, sword upright, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, no stops, oval shield with plume above (Welsh silver).





1639-40 halfcrown, triangle initial mark both sides, group III.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, horse without comparison and plume, flowing sash behind, sword upright, rough ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield.





1640-41 halfcrown, star initial mark both sides, group IV.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, horse without comparison and plume, flowing sash behind, sword upright.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield.





1645-46 halfcrown, star initial mark both sides, group V, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, tall horse without comparison and plume, flowing sash behind, sword upright.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield.

Deeman

Shilling

The shilling was 31mm diameter. The obverse depicts a robed or cuirassed crowned bust of the king left, value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within either a square-topped shield over cross fourchée or cross moline, or a garnished oval shield, circumscribed by CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO which translates to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ'. In the case of the cross fourchée the inscription is divided by the cross arms.





1625 shilling, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust in coronation robes, high double-arched crown both jewelled.
Reverse inscription is CHRIS / TO AVS / PICE R/ EGNO, colon stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1625-26 shilling, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, bust in coronation robes, larger crown, double-arched crown only outer arch jewelled.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1625-26 shilling, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, bust with ruff, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1631-32 shilling, rose initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with more visible armour, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, garnished oval shield, 'CR' above.





1631-32 shilling, rose initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust with more visible armour, double-arched jewelled crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, garnished oval shield, plume over shield (Welsh silver) flanked by 'CR'.





1633-34 shilling, portcullis initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, garnished oval shield flanked by 'CR'.





1634-35 shilling, bell initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace, double-arched crown, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, garnished oval shield, plume over shield (Welsh silver), no 'CR', no inner circles.





1636-38 shilling, tun initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace, double-arched crown, no inner circles.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, garnished oval shield, no 'CR', no inner circle.





1636-38 shilling, tun initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, large 'Aberystwyth' bust, single-arched crown, small 'XII'.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1636-38 shilling, tun initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, small 'Aberystwyth' bust, double-arched crown, small 'XII'.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1638-39 shilling, anchor initial mark both sides (prone on rev), group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, small 'Aberystwyth' bust, single-arched crown, large 'XII'.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1639-40 shilling, triangle initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, large 'Aberystwyth' bust with rounded shoulder and square lace collar, single-arched crown, large 'XII'.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1640-41 shilling, star initial mark both sides, group F.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, large Briot bust with stellate lace collar, double-arched crown, large 'XII'.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1645 shilling, eye initial mark both sides, group F, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, large Briot bust with stellate lace collar, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.





1646-48 shilling, sceptre initial mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, short broad bust, double-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross moline.

Deeman

Sixpence

The sixpence was 26mm diameter. The obverse depicts a robed or cuirassed crowned bust of the king left, value 'VI' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within either a square-topped shield over cross fourchée or cross moline, or a garnished oval shield with date above up to 1630 (no date thereafter), then with 'CR' above followed by 'CR' at the sides and then no 'CR'. Circumscribed by CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO which translates to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ'. In the case of the cross fourchée the inscription is divided by the cross arms.





1625 sixpence, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, no stops, bust in coronation robes.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1626 sixpence, cross calvary initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, broader bust in coronation robes.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stops, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1628 sixpence, anchor initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, colon stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle.
Reverse inscription is CHRI / STO AV / SPICE / REGNO, no stop, square-topped shield over cross fourchée.





1630 sixpence, heart initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield no cross.





1630-31 sixpence, plume initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FR ET HI REX, colon stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet pattern stops, oval shield 'CR' above, no date.





1630-31 sixpence, plume initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust in ruff, armour and mantle.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet pattern stops, oval shield, plume over shield (Welsh silver) flanked by 'CR', no date.





1632-33 sixpence, harp initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield flanked by 'CR', no date.





1633-34 sixpence, portcullis initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, small bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield, no 'CR', no date.





1634-35 sixpence, bell initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, oval shield, no 'CR', no date, no inner circle.





1636-38 sixpence, tun initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, 'Aberystwyth' bust.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield over cross with lyre ends, no 'CR', no date.





1639-40 sixpence, triangle initial mark both sides, group E.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HB' REX, letter 'I' missing in Irish title, pellet stops, 'Aberystwyth' bust, single-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield on cross moline, no 'CR', no date.





1639-40 sixpence, triangle initial mark both sides, group F.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, 'Briot' bust.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield on cross moline, no 'CR', no date.





1645 sixpence, eye mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, squat bust of crude style, single-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield on cross moline, no 'CR', no date.





1646-48 sixpence, sceptre mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HIB' REX, pellet stops, late 'Aberystwyth' bust with rivetted shoulder, single-arched crown.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, pellet stops, square-topped shield on cross moline, no 'CR', no date.

Deeman

Half-groat

The half-groat was 17-18mm diameter with a value of 2d. There are two designs. Up to 1630 it was a crowned rose on both sides, differing from those of James I who had a crowned rose on the obverse and a crowned thistle on the reverse. Subsequent to 1630 the design changed to a bust on the obverse with the Royal Arms on the reverse.

Rose design

The obverse and reverse depict a crowned double rose with or without inner circles. The obverse circumscription translates to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse circumscription is JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT (JUSTITIA abbreviated) translating to 'Justice strengthens the throne'.





1625 half-groat, lis initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is C D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon & pellet stops, inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVST THRONVM FIRMAT, colon & pellet stops, inner circle.





1626-27 half-groat, negro's head initial mark both sides, group A.
Obverse inscription is C D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon & pellet stops, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVS THRONVM FIRMAT, colon after IVS, no inner circle.



Bust design

The obverse depicts a crowned bust of the king left, value 'II' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within a garnished oval shield with or without 'CR' within the same circumscription as the rose design.





1631-32 half-groat, rose initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CARO' D' G' MA' BR' FR' ET HI' REX, pellet stops, bust with ruff and mantle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, plume above shield (Welsh silver).





1631-32 half-groat, rose initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with more armour, crown breaks inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, plume above shield (Welsh silver).





1632-33 half-groat, harp initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, shield flanked by 'CR', no inner circle.





1633-34 half-groat, portcullis initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' M' B' F' ET H' REX, inverted 'R' for 'H', pellet stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, shield flanked by 'CR', no inner circle.





1635-36 half-groat, crown initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, rounder shield, no inner circle.





1639-40 half-groat, triangle initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops.





1645-46 half-groat, sun initial mark both sides, group G, under Parliament.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, colon stops, older and smaller bust.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops.

Deeman

Penny

The penny was 14mm diameter. There are two designs. Up to 1630 it was a rose on both sides, differing from those of James I who had a rose on the obverse and a thistle on the reverse. Subsequent to 1630 the design changed to a bust on the obverse with the Royal Arms on the reverse.

Rose design

The obverse and reverse depict a double rose with or without inner circles. The obverse circumscription translates to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse circumscription is JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT (JUSTITIA abbreviated) translating to 'Justice strengthens the throne'.





1625-27 penny, pellet initial mark on obverse, two pellets on reverse, group A.
Obverse inscription is C' D' G' ROSA SINE SPINA, no stops, inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVS THRONVM FIRMAT, colon after IVS, inner circle.





1625-27 penny, two pellets initial mark on obverse, one pellet on reverse, group A.
Obverse inscription is C D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon & pellet stops, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVS THRONVM FIRMAT, colon after IVS, no inner circle.



Bust design

The obverse depicts a crowned bust of the king left, value 'I' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts the Royal Arms within a garnished oval shield within the same circumscription as the rose design.





1630-31 penny, plume initial mark both sides, group B.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with ruff and mantle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops.





1630-31 penny, plume initial mark both sides, group C.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D' G' M' B' F' ET H' REX, pellet stops, bust with ruff & more armour, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, no inner circle.





1632-34 penny, two pellets initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, no inner circle.





1632-33 penny, harp initial mark both sides, group D.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA B F ET H REX, colon stops, bust with falling lace collar, inner circle.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT, pellet stops, no inner circle.

Deeman

Halfpenny

The halfpenny was 11mm diameter. Both sides depict a double rose without a circumscription.





1625-46 halfpenny, no marks.

Deeman

Briot first coinage 1631-32

Milled gold

This issue comprised the unite, double-crown, crown and the angel.

Unite

The unite was 33mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 20/-. The obverse depicts a crowned draped and cuirassed bust of the king left, double-arched crown, value 'XX' behind flanked by pellets, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a crowned garnished square-topped shield of the Royal Arms with crowned letters 'CR' over lozenges at the sides, within a circumscription translating to 'Through concord, kingdoms flourish'.





1631-32 milled unite, flower initial mark with small 'B' on obverse, signed small 'B' on reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAGN BRITANN FRAN ET HIB REX, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, lozenge stops.