English Coinage of the Stuarts Pre-Commonwealth

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Deeman

James I Third Coinage 1619-24/5

Rose-ryal

The rose-ryal was 42mm diameter, 0.995 fine (23.875ct), with a value of 30/-. The obverse depicts the king with imperial crown, seated facing on a high-back throne, decorated or plain back with decorative side pillars, robed and holding orb and sceptre, portcullis with chains at king's feet, alternating lis and roses in field within beaded lozenges. The circumscription translates to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King' divided by the portcullis. The reverse design features a quartered shield of the Royal Arms upon a long cross fourchée, value (XXX) above, beaded circle surrounding, alternating lis, lion and rose in beaded circle, surrounded by a circumscription of A DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD ET EST MIRABILE IN OCULIS NOTRIS or abbreviation thereof translating to 'This is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our eyes', Psalms 118:23.





1619-20 rose-ryal, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MA / BRI FR ET HIB REX, colon stops, decorated throne.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OC NRIS, colon stops.





1621-23 rose-ryal, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MA / BRI FR ET HIB REX, colon stops, decorated throne.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OC NRIS, colon stops.





1623-24 rose-ryal, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MA / BRI FR ET HIB REX, colon stops, decorated throne.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB IN OC NRIS, colon stops.





1624 rose-ryal, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MA / BRI FR ET HIB REX, colon stops, plain throne.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRA IN OC NRIS, colon stops.

Deeman

Spur-ryal

The spur-ryal (so called because the sun and rose resemble a spur) was 33-34mm diameter, 0.995 fine (23.875ct), with a value of 15/-. The obverse depicts the crowned facing lion holding sceptre and quartered shield of the Royal Arms flanked by value 'XV', within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King' divided by the flag. The reverse design is a rose within a radiant sun of sixteen rays, surrounded by alternating crowned lis and crowned lions passant guardant, all within a tressure of eight arches with pellet in spandrels. Whereas the second coinage spur-ryal has lions at the cardinal points, the third coinage issue has lis at the cardinal points. The circumscription reads A DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD ET EST MIRABILE IN OCULIS NOTRIS or abbreviation thereof translating to 'This is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our eyes', Psalms 118:23.





1619-20 spur-ryal, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRABI, colon stops.





1621-23 spur-ryal, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRABI, colon stops.





1624 spur-ryal, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRABILE, colon stops.

Deeman

Angel

The angel was 29-30mm diameter, 0.995 fine (23.875ct), with a value of 10/-. The obverse depicts archangel St. Michael, haloed and winged, standing with both feet on the dragon and piercing it through the mouth with a spear, the other end of which ends in a cross marking the termination of the circumscription which translates to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The figure 'X', indicating the value, is under the angel's left wing. The reverse design is a ship with three masts sailing left, large sail set on centre mast embroidered with the Royal Arms, hull ornamented with lis and lions and port-holes, lis on poop, lion at stern and prow, all within a circumscription of A DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD or abbreviation thereof translating to 'This is the Lord's doing (and it is marvellous in our eyes)'.





1621-23 angel, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DNO: FACTVM EST ISTVD, pellet stops.





1623-24 angel, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DOMINO FACTVM EST / ISTVD, pellet stops.





1624 angel, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is A DOMINO FACTVM EST / ISTVD, pellet stops.

Deeman

Laurel

The laurel was 34-35mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 20/-. The obverse depicts a draped, laureate bust left, value 'XX' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse design features a crowned quartered shield of the Royal Arms upon a long cross fourchée within a circumscription, divided by the cross, translating to 'I will make them one Nation', Ezekiel 37:22.





1619-20 laurel, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRAN ET HIBER REX, colon stops, first bust (large).
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1619-20 laurel, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, first bust (large).
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1619-20 laurel, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, 'SS' tie ends, second bust.
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1620-21 laurel, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, ties wider, third bust (rounder).
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1621-23 laurel, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, ties wider, third bust (rounder).
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1623-24 laurel, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, small ties, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1623-24 laurel, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, tie ends bracket value, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1624 laurel, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, small ties, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.





1624 laurel, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, tie ends bracket value, fifth bust.
Reverse inscription is FACIAM / EOS IN / GENTEM / VNAM.

Deeman

Half-laurel

The half-laurel was 27mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 10/-. The obverse depicts a draped, laureate bust left, value 'X' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse design features a crowned quartered shield of the Royal Arms upon a long cross fourchée within a circumscription, divided by the cross, translating to 'Henry united the Roses, James the Kingdoms'.





1619-20 half-laurel, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, first bust (large).
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1620-21 half-laurel, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, ties wider, third bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1620-21 half-laurel, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1621-23 half-laurel, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1623-24 half-laurel, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1624 half-laurel, inverted trefoil initial mark on obverse, lis on reverse.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1624 half-laurel, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.

Deeman

Quarter-laurel

The quarter-laurel was 20mm diameter, 0.916 fine (22ct), with a value of 5/-. The obverse depicts a draped, laureate bust left, value 'V' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse design features a crowned quartered shield of the Royal Arms upon a long cross fourchée within a circumscription, divided by the cross, translating to 'Henry united the Roses, James the Kingdoms'.





1619-20 quarter-laurel, spur rowel initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, second bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1621-23 quarter-laurel, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, no stops, second bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1623-24 quarter-laurel, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, second bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.





1624 quarter-laurel, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, tie ends bracket value, fourth bust.
Reverse inscription is HENRIC / VS ROSAS / REGNA / IACOBVS.

Deeman

Silver crown

The crown was 43mm diameter with a value of 5/-. The obverse depicts the crowned king right in armour holding sword in his right hand on a caparisoned horse walking, a crowned rose on the caparison, plain ground or grassy line below, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse a garnished square shield of the Royal Arms with or without plume above, within a circumscription of QUAE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET which translates to 'What God has joined let no man separate'.

Unlike the second issue, this third issue has no stops on the reverse inscription.





1621-23 crown, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, plain ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1623-24 crown, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI' FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, grassy ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1624 crown, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, grassy ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1624 crown, trefoil over lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, grassy ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops, plume over shield (Welsh silver).

Deeman

Silver halfcrown

The halfcrown was 34-35mm diameter with a value of 2/6. The obverse depicts the crowned king right in armour holding sword in his right hand on a caparisoned horse walking, a crowned rose on the caparison, with or without plain ground or grassy line below, within a circumscription translating 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse a garnished square shield of the Royal Arms with or without plume above, within a circumscription of QUAE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET which translates to 'What God has joined let no man separate'.

Unlike the second issue, this third issue has no stops on the reverse inscription and is further differentiated by having a bird-headed harp.





1620-21 halfcrown, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRAN ET HIB REX, colon stops, no ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1621-23 halfcrown, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops, plume over shield (Welsh silver).





1623-24 halfcrown, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1624 halfcrown, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX, colon stops, ground line.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.

Deeman

Shilling

The shilling was 31mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned cuirassed king's bust right, value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a square shield of the Royal Arms with or without plume above, within a circumscription of QUAE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET which translates to 'What God has joined let no man separate'.

Unlike the second issue this third issue, apart from bust variations, has no stops on the reverse inscription and is further differentiated by having a bird-headed harp.





1620-21 shilling, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1621-23 shilling, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1623-24 shilling, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1623-24 shilling, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops, plume over shield (Welsh silver).





1624 shilling, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1624 shilling, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops, plume over shield (Welsh silver).

Deeman

Sixpence

The sixpence was 26mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned cuirassed king's bust right, value 'VI' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King'. The reverse depicts a square shield of the Royal Arms, date above, within a circumscription of QUAE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET which translates to 'What God has joined let no man separate'.





1623 dated sixpence, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX. colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.





1624 dated sixpence, lis initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX. colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, pellet stops.





1624 dated sixpence, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX. colon stops, sixth bust.
Reverse inscription is QVÆ DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, no stops.

Deeman

Half-groat

The half-groat was 17-18mm diameter with a value of 2d. The obverse depicts a crowned double rose within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse depicts a crowned thistle within a circumscription translating to 'May God guard these united'.

Unlike the second issue this third issue has no stops on the reverse inscription.





1620-21 half-groat, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops.





1621-23 half-groat, thistle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops.





1624 half-groat, trefoil initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops.

Deeman

Penny

The penny was 14mm diameter. The obverse depicts a double rose within a circumscription translating to 'James, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse depicts a thistle within a circumscription translating to 'May God guard these united'.





1619-24 penny, two pellets initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops.





1619-24 penny, two pellets initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops, no inner circle.





1621-23 penny, lis initial mark on obverse, two pellets on reverse.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops.





1621-23 penny, lis initial mark on obverse, two pellets on reverse.
Obverse inscription is I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, colon stops, no inner circle.
Reverse inscription is TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, no stops, wire line inner circle.

Deeman

Halfpenny

The halfpenny was 11mm diameter. The obverse depicts a double rose without a circumscription. The reverse depicts a thistle without a circumscription.





1619-24 halfpenny, no mark on reverse.

Deeman

James I Copper Farthings

Privy marks

Copper farthings were issued under licence, first by Lord Harrington and then by the Duke of Lennox. These issues carried numerous privy marks which were changed at intervals. The patent decreed that the farthings were to carry an obverse design of two sceptres under a diadem (representing England and Scotland) and a harp surmounted by a crown on the reverse (representing Ireland). The inscription IACOBUS DEI GRATIA MAGNAE BRITANNIAE FRANCIAE ET HIBERNIAE REX was given in abbreviated form, starting on the obverse and continuing on the reverse.

Harrington privy marks:

Type 1a small flan, (tinned) on cushion of crown: A, B, C, D, F, S, ermine, millrind (four-armed iron support), pellet.
Type 1b small flan, replacing central jewel on circlet of crown: trefoil, crescent, mullet or none. Privy mark very difficult, if not impossible, to discern.
Type 1c small flan, below crown: :< (stylised grasshopper).
All type 1 Harrington farthings have an additional 'fret' symbol before FRA on the reverse.
Type 2 on reverse replacing the 'fret' symbol: cinquefoil, cross saltire, lis, mullet, trefoil.
Type 3 on reverse replacing the 'fret' symbol, large crown and harp: martlet.

Lennox privy marks:

Type 1 on reverse: bell, tower.
Type 2 both sides: flower, fusil.
Type 3 on obverse: annulet, coronet, cross fleury fitchée, cross pattée fourchée, dagger, eagle's head, fusil, key, lion passant, quatrefoil, rose, roundel, thistle, trefoil, tun, turtle, woolpack.
Type 4 on obverse, larger 9-jewel crown: Lombardic 'A', dagger, fusil, lion rampant, three lis, mascle (lozenge), stirrup, trefoil, triangle.
Type 5 oval flan, on reverse: cross pattée.


Deeman

Harrington issues

The farthing was initially 12-13mm diameter for Harrington type 1 series, increasing to 15mm for subsequent issues. The obverse depicts two lis-headed sceptres in saltire through a crown. The reverse depicts a harp surmounted by a crown. The circumscription on the obverse translates to 'James, by the Grace of God, Great Britain' with a reverse circumscription of 'France and Ireland, King' completing his titles.





1613-14 Harrington type 1a, 'B' privy mark on cushion of crown, tinned.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, fret symbol before FRA, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 1a, ermine privy mark on cushion of crown.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, fret symbol before FRA, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 1b, no privy mark.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, fret symbol before FRA, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 1b, crescent privy mark replacing central crown jewel.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, fret symbol before FRA, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 1c, stylised grasshopper privy mark on obverse below crown.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, fret symbol before FRA, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 2, trefoil privy mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 2, cinquefoil privy mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, 8 strings.





1613-14 Harrington type 3, martlet privy mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is IACO D G MAG BRIT, pellet stops, large crown.
Reverse inscription is FRA ET HIB REX, pellet stops, large harp, 7 strings.