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English Civil War Provincial Mint Issues

Started by Deeman, July 15, 2022, 02:53:03 PM

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Deeman

Chester shilling

Issued 1644/5. The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse is a crowned garnished oval or square-topped shield, with a version of the latter being upon a long cross fourchée, all bearing the Royal Arms, with precedence given to England. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ,' which, where the design has a long cross fourchée, it is divided across the quadrants of the cross.





Undated Chester shilling, triangle of pellets initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FR ET HIB REX.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, oval shield with lion skin garniture.





Undated Chester shilling, triangle of pellets initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX.
Reverse inscription is CHRIS / TO AVS / PICE R / EGN, square-topped shield, long cross fourchée.

Deeman

Uncertain location

Halfcrown with reverse unique among the silver issues of Charles I, showing the gartered arms with lion and unicorn supporters, a design normally seen on gold coinage. Hereford has been touted as the probable source.

The obverse depicts the king on horseback holding sword in his right hand, sash behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has the crowned, gartered Royal Arms, with precedence given to England, with lion and unicorn supporters, crowned letters 'CR' flanking crown, date divided by bottom of the garter. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, divided by the supporters, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





1645 dated halfcrown, small lis initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET HI REX, grassy ground below horse.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO / AVSPICE / REGNO.

Deeman

Ashby de la Zouch

Unattested and questionable 'A' location. All coins are dated 1645 and have the declaration design. Denominations attributed to Ashby de la Zouch are halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, groat and threepence.

The moneyers at Bristol appear to have continued to work until the latter months of Charles I's reign as a strong resemblance to the Bristol mints portraiture can be seen in the Ashby de la Zouch attribution. An important 'A' over 'Br' halfcrown obverse die provides the link between Bristol and 'A'. The use of the Bristol style declaration with REL PROT / LE AN LI PA in two lines also indicates links to engravers with Bristol roots.

The other denominations use a bust of Bristol style and the plumes above the declaration are of the crude Bristol style also. There is no image of the threepence. The obverse has a plumelet before the bust with value 'III' behind and the reverse has a single plumelet above the declaration. There is no initial mark. Differentiated from the Bristol issue by the date (Bristol 1644 only).

Deeman

Ashby de la Zouch halfcrown

The obverse depicts the king on horseback holding sword in his right hand, sash behind and plume in field, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (REL PROT / LE AN LI PA) in two lines between ruled lines, with three plumes above, date below, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1).





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch halfcrown, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' over 'Br' reverse. Modified Bristol die.
The second coin is a Bristol issue ('Br' below horse and date) shown for comparison.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, 'A' over 'Br' below date.





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch halfcrown, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, 'A' below date.





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch halfcrown, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Ashby de la Zouch shilling

The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with or without plumelet in front, value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (REL PRO / LEG ANG / LIB PAR) in three lines between ruled lines, with three plumes above and date below, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1).





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch shilling, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI,'A' below date.





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch shilling, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI,'A' below date.

Deeman

Ashby de la Zouch sixpence

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'VI' and only with plumelet before bust.





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch sixpence, 'A' initial mark on its side on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Ashby de la Zouch groat

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'IIII' and only with plumelet before bust.





1645 dated Ashby de la Zouch groat, 'A' initial mark on its side on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET HI REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bridgnorth

Unattested and very questionable 'B' location. All coins are dated 1646 and have the declaration design. Denominations attributed to Bridgnorth are halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, groat, threepence and half-groat.

The moneyers at Bristol appear to have continued to work until the latter months of Charles I's reign as a strong resemblance to the Bristol mints portraiture can be seen in the Bridgnorth attribution. The 'A' over 'Br' halfcrown obverse die that provided the link between Bristol and 'A' was subsequently used at 'B' clearly indicating a degree of continuity between the various locations. It is reasonable to assume that 'A' and 'B' do in fact refer to locations beginning with these letters, but the two attributed locations are suspect.

The use of a scroll for the 'B' location has all the hallmark of the influence of Thomas Rawlins.

There is no image of the half-groat. The obverse has a crowned bust left with value 'II' behind and the reverse has a large plume dividing the date. There is no initial mark.

Deeman

Bridgnorth halfcrown

The obverse depicts the king on horseback holding sword in his right hand, sash behind and plume in field, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (typically REL PROT / LE AN LI PA) in two lines, scroll above and ruled line below, with three plumes above scroll and date below line, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1).





1646 dated Bridgnorth halfcrown, plume initial mark on obverse, 'A' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, 'B' below date.





1646 dated Bridgnorth halfcrown, plume initial mark on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet over 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1646 dated Bridgnorth halfcrown, plume initial mark on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet over 'A' below horse.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, plumelet below date.

Deeman

Bridgnorth shilling

The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with or without plumelet in front, value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (REL PRO / LEG ANG / LIB PAR) in three lines, scroll above and ruled line below, with three plumes above scroll and date below line, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1).





1646 dated Bridgnorth shilling, plume initial mark on obverse, plumelet reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1646 dated Bridgnorth shilling, 'Br' initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1646 dated Bridgnorth shilling, plumelet over 'Br' initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bridgnorth sixpence

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'VI' and only with plume before bust.





1646 dated Bridgnorth sixpence, 'B' initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET H REX, plume in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bridgnorth groat

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'IIII' and only with plumelet before bust.





1646 dated Bridgnorth groat, plumelet initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1646 dated Bridgnorth groat, plumelet initial mark on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bridgnorth threepence

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'III', only with plumelet before bust and single plumelet above the declaration.





1646 dated Bridgnorth groat, plumelet initial mark on obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET HI REX, plumelet in front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Furnace Mint

After the closure of the re-opened Aberystwyth Mint in Mar 1645/6, once again the moneyers were idle. A petition was received dated 6 Mar 1646/7:

"Edmund Goodere (farmer of the mines royal in the county of Cardigan) and of the miners, smelters, refiners, and other workmen, with hundreds depending on their labours. His Majesty by letters patent authorised a mint to be erected in the Castle of Aberystwyth for the coinage of such silver only as should be raised out of the mines royal in the Principality of Wales, which Castle and the houses erected for the mint are so destroyed by the late war, that the work cannot be continued there without great charge and danger. Petitioners pray that the mint may be continued at a place called the smelting mills, near the refining house, until the castle shall be refitted, and that the officers of the Tower may be ordered to furnish the mint with stamps and workmen, as they are warranted in doing by the patent, and as they have formerly done."

A temporary mint was authorised at the Furnace silver mills near River Dyfi in 1647 as Aberystwyth Castle had been damaged. The mint was operational for a short period in 1648/9, probably using old dies from Aberystwyth. The coins from Furnace bear a crown initial mark. The denominations struck were halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, groat, threepence, half-groat and penny.

Production ceased in Feb 1648/9, just weeks after Charles I went on trial for treason, found guilty, and beheaded. His severed head was held up and exhibited to the crowd that had come to see their king's last moments.

There is no image of the shilling, but it is the Aberystwyth type (see post 4) with change of initial mark.

Deeman

Furnace halfcrown

The obverse depicts the king on horseback holding sword in his right hand, sash behind and plume in field, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse a garnished oval shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England, with large plume above. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





Undated Furnace halfcrown, crown initial mark on both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRAN ET HI REX, 'SA' replaced by large pellet.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.