Author Topic: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital  (Read 278 times)

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Offline shiblius

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Nasrids of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb bin Muhammad, AE Jital, NM, ND (after 603 AH), 3.10 gm, 15.8-16.4 mm

Obverse:
  • Taj
  • Harb Bin Muhammad
  • Al-Din
in central ornate cartouche circumscribed within a double circular border

Reverse:
  • Lillah  (transl. For Allah)
  • Muhammad
  • Rasul Allah (messenger of Allah)
  • Al-Nasir l’Din A (truncated name of the Abbassid Caliph Al-Nasir)
  • Muhammad (Khwarizm Shah as overlord)


References: Album 1427.2, Tye-125

These debased silver (billon) jitals were issued by Taj al-Din (III) Harb bin Muhammad (reign: 564-610 AH / 1169-1213 CE) as the Nasrid Amir (Malik) of Sistan. During his long reign as the Malik of Sistan, Taj al-Din was initially a vassal of the Ghorids and after the murder of Sultan Muiz al-Din in 602 AH / 1206 CE, he acknowledged the suzerainty of the Khwarizm Shah Muhammad (II) bin Tekish beginning in 603 AH / 1206-07 CE. Sistan remained a vassalage of the Khwarizm Shahs, until the Mongol takeover beginning in 619 AH / 1222 CE.

More specimens and detailed description: https://dastanesikka.wordpress.com/2021/01/12/taj-al-din-iii-harb-ae-jital/
More background on the Nasrids: https://dastanesikka.wordpress.com/nasrids-of-sistan/
« Last Edit: May 03, 2021, 11:00:07 AM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #1 on: January 13, 2021, 08:30:34 AM »
Interesting suggestion about the "alif" isolated after the name of the caliph. On this specimen i would tend to agree with that reading. But the calligraphy here is not so elegant. I looked at some other specimen with a bit more flowing characterforms, there the alif seemed more to be the upturned decorative tail of "in" ?

Anthony
« Last Edit: January 13, 2021, 09:18:22 PM by THCoins »

Offline shiblius

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #2 on: January 13, 2021, 03:35:21 PM »
I did consolidate across a sample of ten coins (from a smaller hoard).

Three main reasons:
1) The script is Kufic (with some indications of diacritical marks, and cursive constructions). In Kufic the ending with 'nun' , is usually without the ending upward loop (completing the bowl like construction). This can be substantiated by inspecting the Umayyad / Abbasid dirhams (the dates usually have words ending in 'n' e.g., khamseen, arbaeen, etc.).
2) The laqab (title) being cited is that of the Caliph and changing/truncating the laqab of the Caliph is not admissible and is a proper breach of protocol.
3) In most cases the ornamentation will be cursive like the letter 'Ha' in the construction of Muhammad in the first line (carried forward in the issues of all subsequent Nasrid rulers who issued AE/BI jitals using the same template/pattern), however the ending in the Caliph's title is linear indicating possibly a conjugation with 'Alif'
The ending / truncation can also be confirmed with specimens on Zeno.https://www.zeno.ru/showgallery.php?cat=5030

As always this is subjective inference based on evidence that points towards a clever and interesting device to direct the reading of the legend and differentiate between the central religious and political suzerains and the immediate regional political authority. Based on a different (sound) interpretation of the evidence one can arrive at a different conclusion.


Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #3 on: January 13, 2021, 08:27:14 PM »
What about this one issued under his successor ?

Offline shiblius

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #4 on: January 13, 2021, 11:11:54 PM »
Thanks for highlighting the difference in the issues of Nasr bin Bahramshah. We can also expand the analysis by looking at the other Amirs who have issues these jitals:
1) Rukn al-Din Abu Mansur (https://www.zeno.ru/showgallery.php?cat=5033) who was contemporary with Nasr bin Bahramshah (rival)
2) Adud al-Din Abu'l Muzaffar (https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=3542) the last Nasrid Amir whose jitals are known

a) in the first case compare the obverse ornamentation of the ending with the ending of the Caliph's name on the reverse
b) the linear ending stroke also holds for the seconds case

Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #5 on: January 14, 2021, 08:28:46 AM »
I am more convinced by this comparison with roughly contemporary pieces from the same region than by your previous point of the comparison with Umayyad / Abbasid dirhams. There are to many script style differences even if we consider it all Kufic. I think this comparison broadens the evidence.

Offline shiblius

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #6 on: January 14, 2021, 04:40:00 PM »
Yes, I agree.
This was a fruitful academic discourse, thoroughly enjoyed it.
Thanks for taking the time to take a look.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #7 on: January 14, 2021, 04:43:30 PM »
You're welcome, the pleasure was mine !

Anthony

Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #8 on: April 17, 2021, 01:58:43 PM »
Not much time or energy for coinage lately, but the previous discussion with Shiblius gave me some new insights, but also let some open ends in my mind.
Not all aspects of the coinage issued under Taj al-Din Harb seem to be explained by current knowledge i think. So i decided to append this to the existing thread instead of opening a new one (Hope you do not mind Shiblius ?)
First: As Shiblius indicated, According to the Album Checklist (3rd Ed.), the Tye#125 type was issued under vassallage of Khwarezmshah 'Ala al-Din Muhammad. The much scarcer Tye#123/4 types were issued earlier as independent ruler according to mr. Album.  The reason given for this is the extra "Muhammad" in the last legend line on Tye#125, under the name of the caliph, referring to the Khwarezmshah.

There is a problem with this distinction though. Which is illustrated in pictures below. First is a Tye#123 type which i discussed in a previous thread here. Second picture shows a detail from another Tye#123 specimen i selected to show the last part of the legend. The last picture firstly showed that the name of the caliph here is written fully, contrary to the Tye#125 specimen. Secondly, also here there is an additional "Muhammad" at the bottom line.
Now, stylistically, the Tye#125 specimen is later, shown by the similarity with the coins of Taj al-Din Harbs successors. But the "Muhammad" should possibly be reconsidered as being an indication of the suzerain. And if it is such an indication it may not be specific for the Khwarezmshah, but could also be the former Gorid overrulers Ghiyath/Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.
 

Offline THCoins

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Re: Nasrid Maliks of Sistan: Taj Al-Din (III) Harb Bin Muhammad AE Jital
« Reply #9 on: April 17, 2021, 01:59:13 PM »
As indicated above, the Tye#123 specimen is thought to be an earlier issue than the Tye#125 type.
That leaves one other type that is not fully explained and that is the Tye#124 type. Possibly this could also be an earlier issue, also because the style has some resemblance with the rare issues of some of Taj al-Din's predecessors, like this one on Zeno.

In the Tye catalog the legend of Tye#124 is indicated as: Obv: Kalima; Rev: "Muhammad /al-Nasir al-Din / Harb. With a questionmark for the middle line.
So this type would offer another possibility to examine the contemporary customs in treating the name of the caliph.

Below is a picture of the actual coin. It seems struck on a cast flan. The Kalima side is very similar to the coin in the Zeno link.

On the other side, the top line is missing, the "Harb" at the botom line is clear. The middle line is the interesting part. For i can not read it as "Nasir li-din Allah" in any variant. I would love to hear Shiblius' thoughts on this, but for now i think this may be not a reference to caliph al-Nasir, but to his predecessor. From 1170 to 1180AD, so well within the reign of Taj al-Din (1167-1215AD), the Abbbasid caliph was al-Mustadi bi-amri 'llah. However, if so, this also would be written in an abbreviated form ?
 
Edit: I could not find details on this coin in the modern references. But i found it is listed in the Rodgers catalog of coins sold to the government of the Punjab (1895) under the section on the maliks of Sisran. No pictures there, but his transcription of the legend also suggests a reference to caliph al-Mustadi on this one.
So Tye#124, should more logically be placed before Tye#123.
« Last Edit: April 17, 2021, 09:27:12 PM by THCoins »