World of Coins

Research and reference => Coin and medal production technology => Topic started by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:46:57 PM

Title: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:46:57 PM
It is interesting to note how many countries did not use machine-struck coins by the twentieth century. Here I would like to make a list of which countries these were, and the year (if known) when they last issued coins that were not machine-struck. In most cases I will not know the answer, so I invite our more knowledgeable members to join in.
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:48:14 PM
Going alphabetically through English names of countries, Afghanistan is the obvious place to start. When was the last cast or hammered coin(s) issued?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:51:18 PM
According to numista, Bhutan issued its final hammered coins in 1927.
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:54:50 PM
China. When were the last cast coins issued?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 06:57:29 PM
Egypt next, I think. What can our members tell us?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:00:20 PM
India must be next. Tell me if I am wrong. A complex situation geopolitically, no doubt.
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:02:08 PM
Iran next. When were the last non-machine-struck coins produced?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:03:27 PM
Japan. Should it be included in this topic?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:07:33 PM
What about Korea?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:09:38 PM
What about the various predecessors of Malaysia? And Mongolia?

Still in the M's - the Maldives? Morocco?

Nepal?

Ottoman Empire. Another complex area.
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:18:08 PM
Saudi Arabia? Hashemite Kingdom? Hejaz?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 07:28:14 PM
Siam / Thailand? Tibet?

Tunisia?

Vietnam and predecessors?

Yemen and predecessors?

Have I missed anything?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 01, 2021, 08:14:42 PM
China. When were the last cast coins issued?
China's first machine-struck coins were produced in 1882 in Jilin. Fujian followed in 1885, Guangdong in 1889. The central government in Beijing set up a coining factory in 1905. Source: A monetary history of China by Peng Xinwei. The cast coins are undated. Hartill says: "A few coins were cast at the beginning of the Republic, probably in 1912 only", showing types from Fujian and Yunnan.

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 01, 2021, 08:23:35 PM
You forgot Annam (later part of French Indo China). Last cast coins for Bao Dai (1926-1945). See also this thread (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,47389.0.html). Note: fonte = cast, frappe = struck.

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 01, 2021, 08:52:37 PM
Most of the countries you mention did not cast coins in modern history AFAIK.

Examples: Afghanistan, Bhutan, Egypt, India (though there may be examples of locally produced cast coins; I am just not aware of them), Iran (same note), Ottoman empire, Maldives, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Hejaz, Tunisia, Yemen.

Cast coins are usually clear, round and without fine detail.

Hammered coins go from so good you can't tell if they were hammered or machine struck - e.g. the Schauthalers from Brunswick or the "mazarana" rupees from India - to sloppy, off centre and roundish or worse. Some countries (notably Iran) started out with old, badly maintained presses that produced coins that look like they were hand hammered. In other words, in many countries you mention there is no sharp border between hammered and milled, as there is for British coins.

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 01, 2021, 08:56:37 PM
What about Korea?
Last cast cash struck in 1891. First machine-struck coins are dated 1884 (KM 1100)

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 01, 2021, 09:02:34 PM
Japan. Should it be included in this topic?
Yes. Changeover from cast to machine-struck around 1870. First circulating machine-struck coins in 1873.

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 01, 2021, 11:05:44 PM
So when were the last cast coins for Japan and Korea issued? In the twentieth century?
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: Figleaf on April 02, 2021, 12:02:39 AM
Your question is imprecise. In your first post, you say "used". Later on it is mostly "issued". Are trials issued? Is a cash coin used as funeral money used? If a coin has a catalogue quote of several hundreds or thousands of dollars, was it used?

You don't mention it, but are you perhaps after the year the national mint was first mechanised? How would you deal with the Maldives, where there never was a mechanised mint? All machine-struck coins were made in another country.

I just tell you what I know. You decide.

Peter
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 02, 2021, 03:17:08 AM
OK, let me be more precise. I have changed 'used' to 'issued'. After all, I myself was for example still using century-old Victorian halfpennies in the England of the 1960s, but that is not what interests me here.

You don't mention it, but are you perhaps after the year the national mint was first mechanised?

No, that doesn't interest me. Just the year when the country last issued cast or hammered coins.
Title: Re: List of countries still issuing cast or hammered coins in the twentieth century
Post by: <k> on April 03, 2021, 12:05:02 PM
Please continue, Figleaf - and other interested members - so that I can post the completed alphabetical country list, with the final year in which each country issued non-machine-struck coins. I am not knowledgeable enough to produce such a list myself.