World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Sub-Saharan Africa => South Africa => Topic started by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:23:32 PM

Title: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:23:32 PM
From Wikipedia:

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia, Angola, Botswana and South Africa. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries.

Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Namibia was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Since about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples have dominated the population and since the late 19th century have constituted a majority.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:32:17 PM
From Wikipedia:

Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. However, the British determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying, and this was annexed to the Cape province of British South Africa.

From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, what has been called the 'first genocide of the Twentieth Century' was committed, as government officials ordered extinction of the natives. In the Herero and Namaqua genocide, the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama (half the population) and approximately 65,000 Herero (about 80% of the population). Indeed, some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust. The survivors were subjected to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labor, racial segregation, and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated the apartheid established by South Africa in 1948.

The end of the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles left South Africa in possession of South West Africa as a League of Nations mandate. However, South Africa interpreted the mandate as a veiled annexation and made no attempt to prepare South West Africa for future autonomy. After World War 2, South Africa requested permission from the UN to formally annex South West Africa. When the UN General Assembly rejected this proposal, South Africa dismissed its opinion as irrelevant and began solidifying control of the territory. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to South West Africa.

In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:37:57 PM
From Wikipedia:

Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.

Below you see the country's flag. Its symbolism is as follows:

Red - represents Namibia's most important resource, its people. It refers to their heroism and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all.
White - refers to peace and unity.
Green - symbolises vegetation and agricultural resources.
Blue - represents the clear Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:40:03 PM
Below you see the country's coat of arms.

The National Flag is reproduced on the shield.

The two animals and the plant on the Coat of Arms are used symbolically.

The African Fish Eagle has excellent vision and is a symbol of the farsightedness of the country's leaders.

The Oryx antelope is renowned for its courage, elegance and pride.

The Welwitschia Mirabilis, a unique desert plant, is a fighter for survival and is therefore a symbol of the nation's fortitude and tenacity.

The headband refers to Namibia's traditions and the diamond shapes to its natural resources.

The motto "Unity, Liberty, Justice" enshrines the key principles embodied in the Namibian Constitution.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:43:37 PM
From Wikipedia:

When Namibia was under South African rule as South-West Africa, from 1920 until 1990, it used the South African rand as its currency. The Namibian dollar has been the currency of Namibia since 1993. It replaced the South African rand at par.

The rand is still legal tender, as the Namibian dollar is linked to the South African rand and can be exchanged on a one-to-one basis locally. Namibia was also part of the Common Monetary Area from independence in 1990 until the introduction of the dollar in 1993. The Bank of Namibia issued the first banknotes on 15 September 1993 and in December issued the first national coins.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:54:59 PM
The common obverse of the new coins featured the national coat of arms.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:56:28 PM
The 5 cents coin, the lowest denomination of the new coinage, was made of nickel-plated steel.

The reverse design featured an aloe plant (Aloe littoralis).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 07:57:55 PM
The 10 cents coin was also made of nickel-plated steel.

The reverse design featured a camelthorn tree (Acacia eriolaba).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 08:00:17 PM
The 50 cents coin was also made of nickel-plated steel.

The reverse design featured a quiver tree (Aloe dichotoma).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 08:02:23 PM
The dollar coin was made of brass. Curiously, the dollar sign was shown after the denominational numeral ("1") on the coin.

The reverse design featured a bataleur eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 08:03:37 PM
The 5 dollar coin, the highest denomination of the series, was also made of brass.

The reverse design featured an African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 08:05:46 PM
The Mint of Finland produced these coins. Unusually, the set did not include a 20 or 25 cents coin.

Jukka Uusitalo of Finland, who was a student at the time, designed the reverse of the 5, 10 and 50 cents. Jukka told me by email that a fellow student had produced some bird designs for the set, but the Namibians used the bird designs of a South African artist (name unknown) instead. The Mint of Finland produced the coat of arms design for the obverse of the coins.

Our forum member africancoins has since discovered that the South African artist Bernard Sargent created the bird designs for the $1 and $5 coins. Mr Sargent's middle name is Maurice. He was born in 1921. He worked for the South African company Metal Image at the time that he created the $1 and $5 designs.

 
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 12, 2018, 08:10:05 PM
Before the official coins were produced, some trial designs were minted, around 1990. I believe there were also some fantasy pieces produced around that time. Perhaps somebody could illustrate the trials and fantasies.

It would also be interesting to know to what extent South African coins circulate in Namibia.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: quaziright on August 13, 2018, 04:29:54 AM
I wonder what the triangles along the rim symbolise. What’s the significance of the number of triangles on each coin; I can’t make out a trend here
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 13, 2018, 07:14:29 AM
Excluding 5 cent coin, they indicate the serial number in order of increasing denomination, in my opinion.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 13, 2018, 11:41:56 AM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=43351.0;attach=83993;image)



The 5 cent design spoils that theory, then. Possibly it's the sun from the country's flag, and the artist has made a judgement about how many rays will fit, depending on the design.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: chrisild on August 13, 2018, 02:41:10 PM
Not sure whether the number of triangles has any specific meaning. But other sources (http://currencies.wikia.com/wiki/Namibian_5_cent_coin) support that "sun elements" theory. :) "Appearing along much of the coin's rim, excluding the areas occupied by the aloe's leaves, is a rendition of the sun similar to that on the flag of Namibia, which symbolizes life and energy."

Christian
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 13, 2018, 04:09:39 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=43351.0;attach=84000;image)



Thanks! It was a strange artistic decision to take, though. At least the rays didn't dominate the whole coin, unlike the stars on the infamous euro coins.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 14, 2018, 12:35:37 AM
5 Cent appears to have been drawn by an artist of much lower calibre since the Rays touch the rim in a haphazard manner, as compared to other coins where they are distinctly separate from the rim.

May be, initially it was not proposed to issue 1 and 5 cents but they were counted as part of proposed ( but never issued ) set. Thus the Ray count was made for each denomination. Just a plausible thought :D
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 14, 2018, 01:03:31 AM
5 Cent appears to have been drawn by an artist of much lower calibre since the Rays touch the rim in a haphazard manner, as compared to other coins where they are distinctly separate from the rim.

I disagree. His artistry is fine. We know that more than one artist worked on these designs. The Mint of Finland should have noticed the discrepancy in the distance of the rays from the rim and ensured that they were uniform. Had the Royal Mint dealt with these coins, the Royal Mint Advisory Committee would have noticed this issue and addressed it. It was simply a question of coordinating the artists, who of course did not automatically replicate each other's tendencies when drawing the minor details.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 14, 2018, 01:06:41 AM
So here are the details regarding the rays:

5 cents: 9 rays.

10 cents: 3 rays.

50 cents: 4 rays.

$1: 5 rays.

$5: 6 rays.

Each design uses a different number of rays, and the number chosen seems pretty arbitrary. Perhaps they were simply a visual aid to help people distinguish the coins more easily.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 14, 2018, 05:09:41 AM
The original designer worked on designs with 1cent having one ray(?) and 5 cents having 2 rays.
He was told that 5 cents need not be minted so he forgot about it and proceeded with the rest of 4 coins.

After a while, there was a demand for 5 cents. The new designer too thought that the number had no significance and proceeded to design a coin, not noticing that rays do not touch the rim.

For better analysis, can we have mintage figures and date of minting of each of these coins?

By now they must have had minted $10 coin too. How many rays does it have? Or this time too, new designer showed his preference for arbitrariness?

Was the need for 1 Cent never felt, even for sets? Were the sets not minted or issued?

Did the original designer leave his draft design drawings?
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 14, 2018, 11:49:23 AM
The original designer worked on designs with 1cent having one ray(?) and 5 cents having 2 rays.
He was told that 5 cents need not be minted so he forgot about it and proceeded with the rest of 4 coins.

After a while, there was a demand for 5 cents. The new designer too thought that the number had no significance and proceeded to design a coin, not noticing that rays do not touch the rim.

You need to be careful here. Are you stating facts you know, or is this another theory of yours?

There is no known $10 coin of this set.

I do not know the answers to your other questions.

Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: chrisild on August 14, 2018, 12:32:01 PM
Looked like a tongue-in-cheek comment to me. ;)
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 15, 2018, 09:30:10 AM
You need to be careful here. Are you stating facts you know, or is this another theory of yours?
Neither.
It is a hypothesis, being logically drawn to a conclusion.
There was a 10 Dollar proposed in 1996, as indicated in SCWC but I am unable to locate any image.
A 10 Dollar ( image enclosed ) was however issued as circulating commemorative but with mintage of 5 million ( as shown in WMK) , it was more circulating than commemorative.
5 cent was minted in 1993 but not in 1996 and 1998 when 10 cents minted.( data from WMK).
This indicates that demand was very low for 5 cents although I agree that without getting actual mintage, my conclusion is only more probable.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 15, 2018, 09:32:50 AM
Looked like a tongue-in-cheek comment to me. ;)
No such thing.
Sorry to disappoint you.
I am far too a serious person to indulge in any such activity.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: redlock on August 15, 2018, 10:07:45 AM
Unfortunately, I do not have mintage figures for Namibian coins. But their Central Bank puts the number of coins in circulation in their annual report. The figures for 31-Dec-2017 (in Million):

5c: 248,8
10c: 188,5
50c: 30,6
$1: 111,2
$5: 12,2
$10: 1,7

Hope this helps a bit.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: eurocoin on August 15, 2018, 11:31:37 AM
Your theory does not make much sense to me.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 16, 2018, 12:03:17 PM
Unfortunately, I do not have mintage figures for Namibian coins. But their Central Bank puts the number of coins in circulation in their annual report. The figures for 31-Dec-2017 (in Million):

5c: 248,8
10c: 188,5
50c: 30,6
$1: 111,2
$5: 12,2
$10: 1,7

Hope this helps a bit.
Interesting information but may not lead to any conclusion.
The coins in circulation is a figure derived by Central Bank by subtracting returned/ scrapped coins from original issued figure.
Smaller denomination coins are rarely returned back to the bank due to effort involved being more than returns obtainable.
In addition, smaller denomination coins are usually the coins thrown in wishing wells and other water bodies.
In addition, they are avidly collected by one coin per country or KM#1 of each country collectors.
If one looks at some other bank reports, you may find coins in circulation data for coins which are no longer legal tender. A contradiction in words?
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Pabitra on August 16, 2018, 09:18:29 PM
If one looks at some other bank reports, you may find coins in circulation data for coins which are no longer legal tender. A contradiction in words?

See

https://www.which.co.uk/news/2018/08/over-169m-round-pounds-still-in-circulation-how-to-spot-a-rare-1-coin/

In UK, not a legal tender round pound has 169 million pieces in circulation 😃
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Figleaf on August 17, 2018, 12:05:57 PM
Don't get hung up on insignificant legal detail, Pabitra. Round pounds are still around in the UK. They are being passed off to naive tourists who look like tourists, such as my wife. I found them in her small change on every single trip to the UK we made since they were demonetised.

What circulates is not what is legal tender but what is accepted as payment.

Peter
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: chrisild on August 17, 2018, 01:13:24 PM
What circulates is not what is legal tender but what is accepted as payment.

Basically agreed, but the demonetized £1 coins are not generally accepted any more. If they were, people would not have to resort to poor naive tourists. ;)

In Switzerland for example, many older coins are not legal tender any more. But if you happen to have a 10 or 20 ct/rp coin from 1938, or a 5 fr coin from 1992 (none of which are legal tender), chances are they will still be accepted as means of payment. Now as for the UK, are these old £1 coins used similarly? From what I have read, they are not. Sure, if you have an account with a bank in the UK, you may fairly easily get a pound for a pound. But in the proverbial high street?

Christian
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Figleaf on August 17, 2018, 02:29:20 PM
Any main street bank will change them, but tourists (at least tourists of my type) are always short of time and short of local information. It is significantly less of an effort for those who pass on the demonetised coins to go to a bank and change them themselves than for the duped tourist.

Anyway, my point was rather that round pounds are still around and still used for giving change, notwithstanding their legal tender status. I have no info on what goes on in other parts of the economy, but I suspect that in certain parts (e.g. street markets and wayside stalls) a native runs the same risk of getting old pound coins in change.

Peter
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 19, 2018, 12:43:47 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=43351.0;attach=83998;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=43351.0;attach=83999;image)



As for the designs, I find that the zero numeral on the denominations are too circular. This makes them look like an alphabetic letter "O", rather than the normally thinner character that is used for numeral zero.

There are other coins of other countries that show similar zeroes, but they are infrequent. Can you think of any?
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: chrisild on August 19, 2018, 01:40:52 PM
Since we are OT anyway ;) the Federal Republic of Germany did a trick - the zero on the 10 Pfennig coins is round outside but oval inside. Austria did pretty much the same thing with its 10 Schilling coin. The Dutch 10 cent types issued between 1948 and 2001 had round 0's too. And if we take collector coins into account, we get many more circular zeros ...

Christian
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on August 19, 2018, 01:56:49 PM
The Nigeria 50 kobo is a bit suspect too. Maybe the zero just looks too big, relative to the "5".
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: kena on April 18, 2019, 10:09:47 PM
I was down in Namibia for 3 weeks in March, spending most of the time in Swakopmund which is located on the coast.

The acceptance and use of credit and debit cards is common place these days since I was last there in 2007.  Back in 2007,  petrol could only be purchased with cash.

The use of the 5 cent coin has declined.  I also did not see any 1998 dollar coins this time around.  The 10 dollar coin was not widely used but I did get a couple to look at and spend from the Metro Cash & Carry store.

The tills do seem to have a good stock of each denomination.   Newest coin date found was the 2015 5 dollar coin.

South African coins and notes are freely accepted but you tend to get Namibian coins and notes back as change in Swakopmund.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Figleaf on April 25, 2019, 09:40:30 PM
The use of the 5 cent coin has declined.

END OF THE ROAD FOR THE 5-CENT COIN – CENTRAL BANK DISCONTINUES MINTING

Posted by Intern | Apr 25, 2019
The Bank of Namibia this week announced that the minting of the lowest denomination, the 5 cents coin has been discontinued.

The coin, however, will remain legal tender and accepted as a medium of payment at Namibian retailers and businesses indefinitely, the central bank said in a statement.

According to the bank the decision to discontinue the minting of the coin was due to the low recycling of the coins due to increased accumulation by members of the public in their households.

BoN Deputy Director: Corporate Communications, Kazembire Zemburuka said this resulted in unnecessary pressure being exerted on the 5 cent coin denomination, given the current high withdrawal rate noted by the bank over the past few years.

Furthermore, Zemburuka said the bank noted that the handling costs for the coin have become exorbitant for commercial banks and retailers.

“Moreover, the coin has a low purchasing power, compared to other denominations in terms of the number of goods or services that a 5 cent coin can buy,” he added.

Meanwhile the bank shall continue supplying commercial banks with the 5 cents coins with the current stock that is expected to last until the end of August.

Source: Namibia Economist (https://economist.com.na/43638/markets/end-of-the-road-for-the-5-cent-coin-central-bank-discontinues-minting/).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on June 27, 2020, 03:28:02 PM
Who remembers this FAO-themed Namibian 5 cents coin of the year 2000?

It featured a horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) on the reverse.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: kena on June 27, 2020, 03:33:18 PM
I have one, but I did not obtain it in Namibia.

No one that I know down there has ever seen that coin in circulation there.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on June 27, 2020, 03:45:01 PM
Yes, it's probably just for collectors. An attractive little piece, though.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Big_M on June 29, 2020, 01:04:38 PM
The mackerel 5c is still an official legal tender, see link below for the government gazette:

https://www.lac.org.na/laws/2000/2258.pdf (https://www.lac.org.na/laws/2000/2258.pdf)

Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: africancoins on June 30, 2020, 12:20:11 AM
That government gazette details "2000" as the date on those 5c coins. There are also "1999" dated pieces of this type. Did a government gazette ever detail those pieces ? It was not until 2004 that I got a "1999" dated piece.

Thanks Mr Paul Baker
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Big_M on June 30, 2020, 10:02:09 AM
That government gazette details "2000" as the date on those 5c coins. There are also "1999" dated pieces of this type. Did a government gazette ever detail those pieces ? It was not until 2004 that I got a "1999" dated piece.

Thanks Mr Paul Baker

No gazette for 1999 dated 5c coins.

Moreover, the 2000 independence commemoratives (gold and silver) were never gazetted in spite of having been sold by the Bank of Namibia. All other commemoratives mentioned on the BoN website have been duly gazetted.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Manfred1 on July 02, 2020, 12:19:22 PM
No gazette for 1999 dated 5c coins.

Moreover, the 2000 independence commemoratives (gold and silver) were never gazetted in spite of having been sold by the Bank of Namibia. All other commemoratives mentioned on the BoN website have been duly gazetted.

I recently had a meeting with the Principal Banking Officer at Bank of Namibia and have asked the same questions.
I have a 2000 gold N$2 coin. There are also a N$5 coin with the exact specifications as the N$2 coin.

Still waiting for answers ...
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: Big_M on July 03, 2020, 01:16:47 PM
I recently had a meeting with the Principal Banking Officer at Bank of Namibia and have asked the same questions.
I have a 2000 gold N$2 coin. There are also a N$5 coin with the exact specifications as the N$2 coin.

Still waiting for answers ...

I think MDM was involved in these, usually they use different nominals for the Smallest Gold Coin series in case the coins are minted in different gold alloys. I have a suspicion $5 is 1/25 oz of 999 gold and $2 is 1/25 oz of 585 gold, but that could be tested only by putting these coins in mass spectrometer.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: africancoins on May 10, 2021, 10:47:13 PM
There is a name missing from this topic, that of Bernard Sargent.

From page 23 of the following document on the site of Bank of Namibia.....

[link]https://www.bon.com.na/CMSTemplates/Bon/CustomDocuments/BoNResourceManual2019.pdf[/link]

>>>>All designs received for coins were rejected by the Cabinet, after which it was decided to announce a competition for coin designs in June 1992. The competition was launched in the same month with the closing date being 28 August 1992. More than 140 sets of designs were received. After scrutiny by professional artists and technical experts, the Cabinet decided to award the prize for the designs of the N$1 and N$5 to Bernard Sargent of the South African company Metal Image. The designs for 5c, 1Oc and 5Oc were awarded to the mint of Finland. Quotations for the minting of these coins had to be received by the Bank of Namibia by 9 October 1992.<<<<

This adds to what <k> said in reply number 11.

Thanks Mr Paul Baker
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on May 10, 2021, 11:18:48 PM
Excellent find! I quote my earlier post:

The Mint of Finland produced these coins. Unusually, the set did not include a 20 or 25 cents coin.

Jukka Uusitalo of Finland, who was a student at the time, designed the reverse of the 5, 10 and 50 cents. Jukka told me by email that a fellow student had produced some bird designs for the set, but the Namibians used the bird designs of a South African artist (name unknown) instead. The Mint of Finland produced the coat of arms design for the obverse of the coins.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on May 11, 2021, 02:48:16 PM
According to Mutual Art (https://www.mutualart.com/Artist/Bernard-Maurice-Sargent/873E66518354FF23), Bernard Sargent is a South African postwar and contemporary artist who was born in 1921.

Image by Bernard Sargent, copyright of Mutual Art.
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on June 08, 2021, 02:29:04 PM
See also: Namibia: pattern coins of the 1990s (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,51158.0.html).
Title: Re: The coinage of Namibia
Post by: <k> on July 24, 2021, 09:19:05 PM
See also: Namibia: unadopted sketches for the first coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,51407.0.html).