World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Sub-Saharan Africa => South Africa => Topic started by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:24:47 PM

Title: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:24:47 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39634.0;attach=74117;image)

Flag of the Republic of South Africa.



In 1965 the Republic of South Africa introduced a new coin series. The previous coins had largely retained the sizes and designs of the predecimal system, but this new coinage had new designs and was generally smaller and lighter. The 2½ cents coin was discontinued, and a 2 cents was introduced instead, which was more in keeping with a decimal system. In the previous coinage, the ½ cent and 1 cent had been brass, while the higher denominations were in silver. In the new coinage, there was no ½ cent coin at first, but the 1 and 2 cents coins were now in bronze, and the rest of the coinage was nickel, apart from the rand, which was silver.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:31:18 PM
The previous coinage had shown a full face portrait of Jan van Riebeeck, the Dutch founder of Cape Town, on the obverse. A new portrait of van Riebeeck, shown in profile, was now provided by South African numismatic artist Tommy Sasseen. South Africa maintained its adherence to the policy of apartheid (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid), and while whites were privileged under this system, the Afrikaners - not the English-speaking descendants of the British - ruled the roost, hence van Riebeeck's appearance on the coinage.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:36:06 PM
The previous coinage had shown the country name in both languages on every coin, with either SUID-AFRIKA on the left side and SOUTH AFRICA on the right, or vice versa; the positions alternated from one denomination to the next. The new coinage minted included two types of coin per denomination, one type showing only "SUID-AFRIKA" and the other only "SOUTH AFRICA".
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:40:10 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23679.0;attach=72944;image)



The reverse of the 1 cent coin featured a new design of the two sparrows, which has been a standard feature of South African coinage since 1923. The beautiful design was also the work of Tommy Sasseen.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:48:16 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=17663.0;attach=50353;image)



The reverse of the 2 cents coin featured a superb design by Jan van Zyl of a wildebeest about to charge. The wildebeest was featured here for the first time but is now a fixture on the South African coinage.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 06:53:26 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23752.0;attach=76843;image)



The 5 cents design, by Tommy Sasseen, features a blue crane (Grus paradisea), which is the national bird of South Africa. The crane has also been a feature of South African coinage ever since.

 
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:04:49 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76774;image)



The 10 cents featured an aloe, designed by Tommy Sasseen.

 
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:14:46 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=75347;image)



The protea had been a feature of the two previous coinages. Now it was depicted realistically for the first time, on the reverse of the 20 cents coin. Tommy Sasseen included a Protea cynaroides, the king protea, and Protea repens, commonly known as the sugarbush protea.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:23:53 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=75348;image)



The reverse of the 50 cents coin featured an African lily (Agapanthus africanus), an arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica) and a strelitzia (Strelitzia reginae). The initials TS show that it was another design by Tommy Sasseen.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:33:54 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=17663.0;attach=75349;image)



The one rand coin, minted in silver, showed South Africa's national animal, the springbok. This new design was by artist Jan van Zyl.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:40:23 PM
Reviewing this set, it is noticeable that the lower denominations - 1c, 2c and 5c - all includes the cents symbol (e.g. "1c"), but the higher denominations (apart from the rand) show only the numerals.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 26, 2017, 07:49:29 PM
This is a fine set, with some classic designs. I like all the animal designs, my favourite by far being the wildebeest, closely followed by the sparrows. All the animals appear very alive and realistic.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 05:43:51 AM
Now for a little political history. South Africa at this time was not a dictatorship, but a limited democracy that held elections. However, it was a highly restrictive democracy, with a limited electorate that consisted mainly of the white minority. The majority of the population was disenfranchised and oppressed.

From Wikipedia:

National Party (South Africa) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Party_(South_Africa))

The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) was a political party in South Africa founded in 1915 and disbanded in 1997. It first became the governing party of the country in 1924. It was in opposition during the World War II years but it returned to power and was again in the government from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. At this time, it began implementing its policy of racial segregation, known as "Apartheid" – the legal system of political, economic and social separation of the races intended to maintain and extend political and economic control of South Africa by the white minority. The policies of the party also included the establishment of a republic, and the promotion of Afrikaner culture.

In 1959, the Bantu Self-Government Act established so-called Homelands (sometime pejoratively called Bantustans) for ten different black tribes. The ultimate goal of the NP was to move all Black South Africans into one of these homelands (although they might continue to work in South Africa as "guest workers"), leaving what was left of South Africa (about 87 percent of the land area) with what would then be a White majority, at least on paper. As the homelands were seen by the apartheid government as embryonic independent nations, all black South Africans were registered as citizens of the homelands, not of the nation as a whole, and were expected to exercise their political rights only in the homelands. Accordingly, the three token parliamentary seats that had been reserved for white representatives of black South Africans in Cape Province were scrapped. The other three provinces – Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Natal – had never allowed any black representation.

Coloureds were removed from the Common Roll of Cape Province in 1953. Instead of voting for the same representatives as white South Africans, they could now only vote for four white representatives to speak for them. Later, in 1968, the Coloureds were disenfranchised altogether. In the place of the four parliamentary seats, a partially elected body was set up to advise the government in an amendment to the Separate Representation of Voters Act. This made the electorate entirely white, as Asians had never had any representation.

In a move unrecognised by the rest of the world, the former German colony of South West Africa (now Namibia), which South Africa had occupied in World War I, was effectively incorporated into South Africa as a fifth province, with seven members elected to represent its White citizens in the Parliament of South Africa. The White minority of South West Africa, predominantly German and Afrikaner, considered its interests akin to those of the Afrikaners in South Africa and therefore supported the National Party in subsequent elections.

These reforms all bolstered the NP politically, as they removed black and Coloured influence – which was hostile to the NP – from the electoral process, and incorporated the pro-Nationalist whites of South West Africa. The NP increased its parliamentary majority in almost every election between 1948 and 1977.

Numerous segregation laws had been passed before the NP took power in 1948. Among the most significant were the Natives Land Act, No 27 of 1913, and the Natives (Urban Areas) Act of 1923. The former made it illegal for blacks to purchase or lease land from whites except in reserves, which restricted black occupancy to less than eight percent of South Africa's land. The latter laid the foundations for residential segregation in urban areas. Apartheid laws passed by the NP after 1948 included the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, the Immorality Act, the Population Registration Act, and the Group Areas Act, which prohibited nonwhite males from being in certain areas of the country (especially at night) unless they were employed there.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 05:45:24 AM
From Wikipedia:

Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (1901 – 1966), also known as Dr. H. F. Verwoerd, was a South African professor, newspaper editor-in-chief and politician who was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his death. He is regarded as the mastermind behind socially engineering and implementing the racial policies of apartheid, the system of legal racial classification and forced racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1994.

Verwoerd played an instrumental role in helping the far right National Party (South Africa) come to power in 1948 serving as their propagandist and political strategist. He eventually rose to party leader in 1958. During his time in office Verwoerd rigidly enforced Apartheid policies through introducing further oppressive laws, which diminished the rights of ordinary individuals, especially black South Africans. He greatly empowered, modernised and enlarged the police, secret police and army. Verwoerd ordered a secret all-out offensive against those who opposed apartheid, which resulted in tens of thousands of people being detained, imprisoned, exiled, tortured or killed (Sharpeville Massacre). Verwoerd was a right wing authoritarian leader and Afrikaner nationalist. He was a strong advocate of the Afrikaner volk, language, culture and Christian religion. He held the belief that white control over South Africa could only continue if the races lived apart. He survived an assassination attempt in 1960, succumbing to a subsequent one in 1966.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 05:48:24 AM
From Wikipedia:

On 6 September 1966, Verwoerd was assassinated in Cape Town, shortly after entering the House of Assembly at 14:15. A mixed-race, uniformed parliamentary messenger named Dimitri Tsafendas stabbed Verwoerd in the neck and chest four times, before being subdued by other members of the Assembly. Four members of Parliament who were also trained doctors rushed to the aid of Verwoerd and started administering cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Verwoerd was rushed to Groote Schuur Hospital, but was pronounced dead upon arrival.

Tsafendas escaped the death penalty on the grounds of insanity. Judge Andries Beyers ordered Tsafendas to be imprisoned indefinitely at the "State President's pleasure."
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 05:52:23 AM
In 1967 a special 1 rand coin was issued to commemorate the first anniversary of the death of Verwoerd. A portait of Verwoerd by Tommy Sasseen replaced Jan van Riebeeck on the obverse. The reverse showed the springbok design as before. The coin came in both Afrikaans and English language versions.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 06:28:39 AM
As a result of the Boer wars, when the British had treated the Afrikaners brutally, many Afrikaners had developed a siege mentality and a persecution complex, maybe even a martyr complex. This had paved the way for the rise of the National Party and the extremist ideologue, Verwoerd. Not all Afrikaners were extremists: Prime Minister Jan Smuts (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Smuts) had been far more moderate in his views than Verwoerd.

During the Cold War, the USA and the West greatly feared the possible rise of communism in Africa. South Africa was staunchly anti-communist and an ally of the USA. That is presumably why the USA tolerated South Africa's policy of apartheid, since it did not wish to antagonise an important ally.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:21:02 PM
In 1968 the portrait of Jan van Riebeeck did not appear on the obverse of the circulating coinage. It appeared only on the obverse of the rand coin that was issued in sets. Instead, the portrait of the retiring president, Charles Robberts Swart, appeared on the obverse of the 1c to 50c coins, to commemorate the end of his presidency. This policy of commemorating retiring presidents became something of a numismatic tradition in South Africa.

Below you see the English language version of the obverse of the 10 cents.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:21:56 PM
The Afrikaans language version of the obverse of the 50 cents, 1968.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:33:15 PM
In 1969 Jan van Riebeeck returned to the obverse of the coinage. However, this time he did not appear on the 1 rand coin at all - either in sets or in circulation. Instead, a commemorative one rand coin was issued, to mark the end of the presidency of Dr. T.E. Dönges. The obverse portrait was again by Tommy Sasseen, while the reverse carried the usual springbok design. Below you see the Afrikaans version of the coin.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:33:42 PM
Below you see the English language version of the coin.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:36:21 PM
The reverse of the 1969 1 rand was completely new and was a one-year type only. It showed the coat of arms of South Africa with supporters (springbok on the left, gemsbok on the right).
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:41:01 PM
The portrait of Jan van Riebeeck did not appear on the coinage after 1969. Perhaps it was considered too "Afrikaner-centric" - who knows? Also, the tradition of minting two separate versions of each coin - an Afrikaans version and an English language version - was not continued after 1969. The obverse designs of the coinage therefore looked rather different in the 1970s, but the standard reverse designs did not change.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 12:43:51 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23679.0;attach=75350;image)



A ½ cent coin was not issued for the series until 1970. Unlike the other lower denominations, it did not include a symbol for "cent" and showed only the denomination. Tommy Sasseen's sparrows were again used for this design, recalling a similar situation with the coinage of the Union of South Africa, when the same ship design appeared on the halfpenny and the penny.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 01:02:13 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23679.0;attach=75351;image)



The obverse of the ½ cent showed the South African coat of arms. This design now appeared on the obverse of all the coins, except in those years when it was replaced by the portrait of a retiring president. The ½ cent coin was struck in one version only, showing "SOUTH AFRICA" on the left of the legend and "SUID-AFRIKA" on the right. This version of the positioning of the legend appeared on alternating denominations: the ½c, 2c, 10c and 50c coins. The version that showed "SUID-AFRIKA" on the left appeared on the 1c, 5c, 20c and 1 rand coins. This was similar to the practice adopted for the coins of the first series (1961 to 1964).
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 01:17:34 PM
Here is a table showing the weight of the coins in grams and their diameter and thickness in centimetres.



   Value      Weight      Diameter      Thickness      
   ½c      2      16.21      1.47      
   1c      3      19.05      1.57      
   2c      4      22.45      1.71      
   5c      2.5      17.35      1.58      
   10c      4      20.7      1.7      
   20c      6      24.2      1.84      
   50c      9.5      27.85      2.21      
   1 R      15      32.7      2.25      



By today's standards, the 50c and 1 Rand coins were still quite large.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 01:25:01 PM
Here, for comparison,  is a table showing the dimensions of the coin series of 1961 to 1964.


   Value      Weight      Diameter      Thickness      
   ½c      5.7      25.6      1.8      
   1c      9.58      31      2      
   2½c      1.41      16.3      0.96      
   5c      2.83      19.35      1.4      
   10c      5.66      23.7      1.8      
   20c      11.31      28.7      2.39      
   50c      28.28      38.8      3.04      



The 1965 series was considerably smaller and lighter than the 1961 series. The dimensions of the 1961 coins had largely been based on those of their predecimal counterparts.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 04:23:31 PM
The next retiring president to appear on the circulating coinage was Jacobus Johannes Fouché in 1976. His portrait was used on the ½c to 50c cents but not on the 1 rand coin.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 04:39:37 PM
Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs was the next president to appear on the coinage, in 1979. His portrait was used on all the coins, from the ½c to the 1 rand coin.

In the years when no president appeared on the obverse of the coins, the standard obverse of the coat of arms appeared instead.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 04:46:06 PM
Balthazar Johannes Vorster (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._J._Vorster), better known as John Vorster, appeared on the obverse of all the circulating coins of 1982.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 27, 2017, 04:54:59 PM
In 1985 Marais Viljoen appeared on the obverse of the 1 rand coin only. The rest of the coinage carried its usual coat of arms obverse.

Marais Viljoen was the last ceremonial State President of South Africa, from 4 June 1979 until 3 September 1984. He was succeeded in 1984 by Prime Minister P. W. Botha, who combined the offices in an executive presidency.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 28, 2017, 07:23:52 PM
In 1990 P. W. Botha (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._W._Botha) appeared on the obverse of the 1 rand coin only.

Pieter Willem Botha, 1916 – 2006), commonly known as "P. W." and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for "The Big Crocodile"), was the leader of South Africa from 1978 to 1989, serving as the last Prime Minister from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive State President from 1984 to 1989.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 28, 2017, 07:25:39 PM
The last ½ cent had been minted for circulation in 1979, but a final version, bearing President Vorster's portrait, was minted for proof sets only in 1982.

A few other commemorative rand coins were issued that dealt with other subjects than presidents, but I have not shown them here.
1990 was the last year of this series. A new series of even smaller and lighter coins was minted, also in 1990, but I will deal with them in a separate topic.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2017, 08:04:01 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76842;image)

Aloe arborescens (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_arborescens)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76774;image)



Let's have another look at the plants.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2017, 08:11:49 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76839;image)

Protea repens, commonly known as the sugarbush protea.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76838;image)

Protea cynaroides, the king protea.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=75347;image)

The king protea is at right centre of the design.



Can you tell the difference between the two species? Myself, I can't.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2017, 08:19:12 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=75348;image)

The 50 cents coin features an arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), an African lily (Agapanthus africanus), and a strelitzia (Strelitzia reginae).



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76837;image)

A strelitzia (Strelitzia reginae).



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76863;image)

Arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica).



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=76840;image)

African lily (Agapanthus africanus).
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on October 21, 2017, 11:03:49 PM
This set, as it first appeared in 1965, was well planned in terms of design: unlike in previous sets, no design was repeated. The three "cents" denominations below 10 cents all portrayed animals, while the three "cents" denominations with two numerals (10, 20 and 50) all depicted plants. The rand coin switched back to an animal: the springbok.

However, when the ½ cent coin was eventually issued in 1970, we once more saw a repetition, because the sparrows design from the 1 cent coin was reused. I suspect that this was in order to maintain the tradition that the sparrows always appeared on South Africa's lowest denomination of coin.

All in all, though, I regard this as a classic set, with well unified designs.
Title: Re: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa
Post by: <k> on August 10, 2018, 02:55:39 PM
See also:

1] Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,39539.0.html).

2] Coinage of the Union of South Africa (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,39634.0.html).

3] First Coinage of the Republic of South Africa (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,39951.0.html).

4] Third Coinage of the Republic of South Africa (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40508.0.html).

5] Numismatic changes in the new South Africa (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40537.0.html).

6] South Africa: design continuity (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40518.0.html).

7] South Africa: springbok design sketches by Coert Steynberg (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,47126.0.html).

8] Tommy Sasseen, Coin Designer (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,42543.0.html).