World of Coins

Modern Asian coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens => Indian subcontinent: Mughal, Princely states and colonial (1526-1947) => Mughal central government => Topic started by: Overlord on July 27, 2008, 01:50:13 PM

Title: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins, Surat mint
Post by: Overlord on July 27, 2008, 01:50:13 PM
Obverse
Coin 1
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/IMG_4890.jpg)
Coin 2
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/IMG_4897.jpg)

I think I see the kalima in the central portion of the obverse. Is this kalima-e-tayyabah (i.e., lā ilāha illā-llāh muhammadan rasūlu-llāh)?. The kalima is probably surrounded by the following:

(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Abu.jpg)
bi-saud Abu Bekr (by the truth of Abu Bekr)

(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Umar.jpg)
wa 'adl 'Umar (and the justice of Umar)

(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Uthman.jpg)
bi-azram 'Uthman (by the modesty of Uthman)

(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Ali.jpg)
wa 'ilm 'Ali (and the wisdom of Ali)

In which directions should I attempt to find parts of the above inscriptions on these coins ??? I think Abu Bekr is the one at the bottom, Ali is probably (my) right, but I have no clue about the others.


Reverse
Coin 1
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/IMG_4892.jpg)
Coin 2
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/IMG_4899.jpg)

The central portion has (in two lines)
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Insce.jpg)
Shah Jahan Badshah Ghazi (Shah Jahan, emperor, one who fight against infidels).

The corner inscription should probably be
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/ins.jpg)
shihab ed-din Muhammad sahib qiran sari zarb [mint name] (Flame of the faith of Muhammad, second lord of the favourable conjunction of the planets, minting of [mint name])

Is the following break-up of the above inscription correct?
at the bottom:
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/bottom.jpg)
on my right:
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Right.jpg)
at the top corner:
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Top.jpg)
on my left:
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/left-1.jpg)

I can't make out the mint name.
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Oesho on July 27, 2008, 11:48:35 PM
Both coins have the mintname Surat.
The first coin is dated 1044/Ry.7, on the 2nd coin the date is off the flan.
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Rangnath on July 28, 2008, 04:48:45 AM
Thanks for presenting your question this way Overlord.  It was quite enlightening as was the beautiful calligraphy on the first coin.  The Moghuls had dozens of mints but we see many Moghul coins that were minted in Surat.  Oesho,was that one of the most productive of Moghul mints?
richie
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Oesho on July 28, 2008, 11:49:49 AM
It was the Bandar-i-Mubarak, the harbour of the Empire and port of entrance for the NW-part of the Empire. In the major port of the country the largest turn-over of goods will take place (which require also a lot of minted currency). All precious metals, whether in currency or ingots had to be the declared at the customs and was brought to the Mint for converting into the coins of the Empire. Moreover at the costume house each passenger is carefully checked to see whether no precious metals or so where hided. Checking was very strict. In 1666, the Frenchman Thevenot (1633-1667) describes his experiences as follows: Visited (examined) we were, but in so severe and vexatious a manner, that though I did expect it, and had prepared myself for it beforehand, yet, I had hardly patience enough to suffer the searchers to do whatsoever they had in mind to, though I had nothing about me but my clothes; and indeed, it is incredible what caution and circumspection those people use to prevent being cheated. And in this manner they proceed. Thevenot also relates how passengers were led into the Ishahbandari (custom house), office of the Shabandar (highest harbour-/ customs-authority) and his officials one by one. Every passenger was registered by a clerk and searched extensively: "He must take of his cap or turban, his girdle, shoes, stockings and all the rest of his cloths, if the searchers think fit. They feel his body all over. That search is long and takes up about a quarter of an hour for every person."
Another traveller, Ovington (1653-1731), wrote around 1690 regarding the mint at Surat: "Whatever strange coin comes into the hands of the Mughal's officers, it is melted down, and converted into rupees, which are stamped with the particular characters of the emperor then reigning.".
Nevertheless the strict control, some people managed to smuggle coins into the country. See Numismatic Digest, vol.#29-30 (2005-2006) A Hoard of Ducats from India, by J. Lingen, pp.155-172.
The large volume of trade (all the foreign trading companies had a factory at Surat) and the strict control on the import made the mint at Surat one of the most important of the whole Empire.
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Overlord on July 28, 2008, 06:52:19 PM
Thanks a ton, Oesho. Where do you read the year (on the first coin) and the mint name? Is my break-up of the reverse corner inscription correct? Also, in which order do the names of the four caliphs appear on the obverse? Do these always appear in the same order on all coins?
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Rangnath on July 28, 2008, 10:56:05 PM
I love the description of Port Security at Surat.  It very much reminds me of moving through an American Airport!
richie
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Oesho on July 29, 2008, 11:03:26 AM
Thanks a ton, Oesho. Where do you read the year (on the first coin) and the mint name? Is my break-up of the reverse corner inscription correct? Also, in which order do the names of the four caliphs appear on the obverse? Do these always appear in the same order on all coins?
The date is on the lefthand side of the obverse inscription (written vertically 1.44). The regnal year 7 is written within the square of the obverse, right in the in the left-bottom corner.
The order in which the four calipshs are shown on the coins is: Abu Bakr below, left: Umar, top: Uthman and right: Ali.
They always appear in the same order and (so far as I have observed) also on the same locations on the square area type coins of Shah Jahan.
The transcriptions and translations of the inscriptions are correct.
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Overlord on July 29, 2008, 06:31:18 PM
Thanks again Oesho. I hope I found the year (green circle) correctly.
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/C1-2.jpg)

Does the mint name (Surat) (http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/Surat.jpg) indeed appear in the region circled purple in the following image? I can barely make out anything at the same location on the second coin  ???
(http://i265.photobucket.com/albums/ii203/amitvyas03/C2-1.jpg)
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Oesho on July 29, 2008, 07:44:16 PM
The green circle should be shifted slightly upwards (its now is only around the 44) The figure which looks like a + is part of the decorative knot on the corners of the square.
Thew mintname Surat (Te-re-waw-Su<; pronounce: Sur't) is inscribed in three figures Suw R T. You show only the first two figures, but should add the last figure (Te) to it.
This Te is shown written by you in front of Shahib-ud-Din Muhammad Sahib Qiran Sani (see above).
Title: Re: Mughal Dynasty: Shah Jahan, two Rupee coins
Post by: Overlord on August 01, 2008, 06:32:42 PM
Thanks again, Oesho.