World of Coins
Modern Asian coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens => Indian subcontinent: Mughal, Princely states and colonial (15261947) => Mughal central government => Topic started by: Coinsforever on July 09, 2011, 03:37:18 AM

All experts ,
I appreciate if you throw some light on the terms used at various regimes of Mughal era coins...........
How to identify (DAM, DAMRI,TANKA,TANKI,ANNA, RUPEE, HALF RUPEE, QUARTER RUPEE......etc.) in terms of :
1. Weight
2. Metal/Billion
3. Size
4. Regnal years/Illahi months etc
5. Any other feature............
Any table , chart or spread sheet will be helpful.
Cheers ;D

Early at the beginning of his reign, Akbar has adopted the monetary system built by Sher Shah, based on the silver rupee divided in 40 copper dams, and with a gold mohur of 9 rupees. (No billion coins are now in use, coins are struck only in gold, silver or copper).
The dam is the new name of the "paisa" of Sher Shah.
Standard weights are as following : Gold mohur : 11,03 g / silver rupee :11,53g (11,5/12 tola) / copper dam : 20,96 g
(the tola's weight at Akbar time was close to 12 g) The fractions of the dam are :
half dam : nisfi
1/4 dam : damra
1/8 dam : damri
1/10, 1/16, 1/20 also exist
The denominations "damra" and "damri" appear on few mintless coins, all dated Ilahi 33 (33rd regnal year = 996 AH)
Since regnal year 40, Akbar introduces the "tanka", a heavy copper coin with a value of 2 dam (>41 g), and the dam becomes a "nim tanka", the new coins bear these denominations : "tanka Akbar shahi" or " nim tanka Akbar shahi" + Ilahi date and persian month.
At the same time, the "tanki" is created, with his multiples : 2 and 4.
The tanki is equivalent to a 1/5 dam or 1/10 tanka. only a few mints have struck tanka and tanki
1 tanki (ek tanki) = 4,1 g (scarce coin)
2 tanki (do tanki) = 8,2 g
4 tanki (cho tanki)= 16,4 g
These new denominations were not used by Akbar's successors (with few and scarce exceptions)
Later, a new weight standard was put in place for the dam by Aurangzeb with a "light weight" of c.14g, (it seems that few mints have kept the 20g standard), and the light dam was then mostly named "paisa".
The rupee / anna system appears later with the british, with a new standard weight for the tola (11,66g)
1 anna = 4 pice
1 rupee = 16 annas
I hope that could be useful..

I hope that could be useful..
Hi Saro ,
The information is certainly useful , Thanks for sharing ..............
I have initiated the activities in that direction to compile the data and will try to close this open end in best possible way .
Most of data/ sources available are based on assumptions /presumptions without evidence / proof of those historical events and their impact on coins of Mughal eras.
It's challenging but not an impossible task ,will let you know as soon as complete it.
Cheers ;D

You are right, according to Akbar's coinage standard, we mainly have the chronicles of Abu Fazl (A'iniAkbari) as sources of the time, and the weights of the coins under Akbar are known from him.
He gives the weight of the dam as "1 tola 8 mashas and 7 rati"; we know that 1 tola = 12 mashas and 1 masha = 8 rati, but what was the exact weight of the tola is the question...
 J.Prinsep, in XVIII°c.made calculations and gave the weight of a tola of 186 grains (12,0342g)
 AnquetilDuperron, a french orientalist who stayed in mughal empire and Gujarat from 1755 to 1762 (G.Deleury "Les Indes florissantes"), said : "le tola est un cube de plomb à 14 faces de 6 lignes en carré, 4,5 d'épaisseur, pesant 3 gros 10 grains 3/4"
The french "gros" = 3,82g and 1 "french grain" =0,0531152g, which gives 12,031 g for 1 tola
It is to notice that these two sources are in very good agreement, and if we take 1 tola = 12,034g, the weights of rupee and dam become:
1 rupee = 11,533g
1 dam = 20,935 g
These weights well fit with the surviving coins, taking account of the wear of coins (mainly for the dams which have had for many of them a very long life time.

Thanks for taking the time to discuss this Saro. I too find this quite helpful.
richie

Finally I could able to compile the list with weight of coins issued during Mughal period.
It is still under draft stage required consultation from experts before releasing it.
Cheers ;D

Nice piece of information.
:)

It is still under draft stage required consultation from experts before releasing it.
Based on suggestions by expert members from India & Overseas in this field.
The Weights table will be ready to release shortly with scope of further updation progressively .
Thanks to all for their contribution & guidance.
Cheers ;D

Excellent initiative, impressive teamwork. Glad WoC helped realise this. 8)
Peter

The table with coins & metal composition posted here (http://aan09numismatics.blogspot.com/2011/10/mughaldynastycoinsmughaldynastywas.html).
All those who are interested in this field kindly review .
There is further scope of improvement in the table based on future attribution of new coins with unlisted weights & metal composition.
I would appreciate and welcome comments & suggestions on the weight data.
Cheers ;D

Can it be explained what it meeans:
1000 Tola (Mohurs) 11.93
I see no relation between the denomination and 11.93 (weight?, which is not possible, unless it is an amount in kg.) Just be more precize and explain were the digits stand for.

Can it be explained what it meeans:
1000 Tola (Mohurs) 11.93
I see no relation between the denomination and 11.93 (weight?, which is not possible, unless it is an amount in kg.) Just be more precize and explain were the digits stand for.
Well notice , it should be read as 11,935.8 gm .
Thanks for correction.
Cheers ;D

You need to check all figures!
See for instance:
Nazarana 200 Mohurs 2.17
100 Mohurs 1.09

I've corrected the weights of these : Gigantic coins (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,6611.0.html)
Thanks again , I still find lot of improvement required in area of silver /copper coins weights to be tabulated accordingly.
Cheers ;D