Author Topic: Delhi Sultanate, Khiljis: Qutb al-Din Mubarak (716-720 AH,1316-1320AD), 8 Gani  (Read 4095 times)

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Offline Overlord

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A couple of coins from my collection...

Qutb-ud-din Mubarak (1316 - 1320 AD)
 
Obverse: qutb al-dunya wa'ldin, abu'l muzaffer khaliffa allah
Reverse: mubarak shah al-sultan ibn al-sultan

No, I didn't 'read' these inscriptions ;D
Can anyone translate them, please?


« Last Edit: September 14, 2013, 10:33:05 PM by capnbirdseye »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Qutb-ud-din Mubarak (8 gani)
« Reply #1 on: February 09, 2008, 06:07:10 PM »
Obverse: qutb al-dunya wa'ldin, abu'l muzaffer khaliffa allah
Reverse: mubarak shah al-sultan ibn al-sultan

obv: the pole star of the world and of the faith, son of the victorious caliph of god
rev: the auspicious lord, the sultan son of the sultan

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Qutb-ud-din Mubarak (8 gani)
« Reply #2 on: February 09, 2008, 07:48:13 PM »
Thanks Peter.
Oesho,
do you feel that in this case, the word "Mubarak" refers to the name of the Sultan, auspiciousness or to both?
richie
(without reference to wealth or crown)

Offline Oesho

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Re: Qutb-ud-din Mubarak (8 gani)
« Reply #3 on: February 10, 2008, 11:16:32 PM »
Mubarak is the sultan's name. Mubarak can be translated as Blessed, Happy or Auspicious, but as the own name of the Sultan it should not be translated. So the reverse can be read as: Mubarak Shah sultan son of the sultan.

Offline Overlord

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‘Ala’ al-Din Muhammad suffered from many troubles in his later years and success no longer attended him. His naturally violent temper became uncontrollable and he allowed his infatuation for Malik Kafur to influence all his actions. His health failed, dropsy developed, and he died in January 1316. According to some, the infamous Malik Kafur helped his disease to a fatal termination.

Malik Kafur placed an infant son of ‘Ala’ al-Din (Shihab al-Din ‘Umar) on the throne, reserving all power for himself. He imprisoned, blinded, or killed most other members of the royal family. His criminal rule, however, lasted only thirty-five days and he and his companions were beheaded by their slave guards.

Mubarak Khan, a son of ‘Ala’ al-Din who had escaped destruction, was placed on the throne as Qutb-al-Din Mubarak. The young sultan turned out to be wholly evil. He was infatuated with a youth named Hasan, whom he ennobled under the style of Khusru Khan. "During his reign of four years and four months, the sultan attended to nothing but drinking, listening to music, debauchery, and pleasure...". By good luck the Mongols did not attack. Had they done so, they would have encounterd little resistance.  Qutb-al-Din Mubarak attained two military successes. His officers tightened the hold of his government on Gujarat and he personally led an army against Harpal Deo, the king of Deogiri who had revolted. The king offered little resistance and was barbarously flayed alive. After his triumphant return, the sultan became even worse.

"He gave way to wrath and obscenity, to severity, revenge, and heartlessness. He dipped his hands in innocent blood, and he allowed his tongue to utter disgusting and abusive words to his companions and attendants.... He cast aside all regard for decency and presented himself decked out in the trinkets and apparel of a female before his assembled company..."

Ultimately, Mubarak was murdered by his minion Khusru Khan "and the basis of the dynasty of ‘Ala’ al-Din was utterly razed".

Obverse: In centre: Qutb Al-Dunya Wa Al-Deen (Axis/Pole of world and of faith). In Margins: Abu Al-Muzaffar Khalifat Allah (Father of [the] conqueror [i.e., the supreme conqueror], Deputy of God]


Reverse: Mubarak Shah Al-Sultan Ibn Al-Sultan (Mubarak Shah, the Sultan, son of the Sultan), 718

(Ref. R 1023, Goron D271, T 422.1)

Breakup of the inscription
Obverse
Centre: Kaf+Toe+Be=Kutb
           Alif+Lam=Al
           Da+Nun+Ye (medial form)=Dunya
           Waw=Wa
           Alif+Lam=Al
           Da+Ye+Nun=Deen
Margins: Alif+Be+Waw=Abu
            Alif+Lam=Al
            Mim+Zoe+Fe+Re=Muzaffar
            Khe+Lam+Fe+He (?)=Khalifah           
            Alif+Lam+Lam+He=Allah

Reverse
            Mim+Be+Alif+Re+Kaf=Mubarak
            Shin (initial form)+Alif+He (detached form)=Shah
            Alif+Lam=Al
            Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan
            Alif+Be+Nun=Ibn
            Alif+Lam=Al
            Sin (medial) (invisible on these coins!)+Lam+Toe+Alif+Nun (detached form)=Sultan



Offline Rangnath

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I love this particular coin. Thanks for the work on it.
richie

Offline Figleaf

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The Khiljis were a blood-thirsty and maybe mentally somewhat unstable clan, apparently.

I can't tell you how amazed I am at your learning capacity, Overlord. The difference between your first and last post in this thread expresses it clearly. Ain't it something ...

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Overlord

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I can't tell you how amazed I am at your learning capacity, Overlord. The difference between your first and last post in this thread expresses it clearly. Ain't it something ...
Peter
I think that is just a reflection of the excellent teaching abilities of the members of this board.