Difference between revisions of "Glasgow Corporation Tramways"

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David Capper (Farebox 1969) reported that Glasgow initially used a fare system of ½d for 1 stage and 1d for 2 to 4 stages for adults.  
David Capper (Farebox 1969) reported that Glasgow initially used a fare system of ½d for 1 stage and 1d for 2 to 4 stages for adults.  


A proposal to make the ½d fare valid for a 2 stage journey was defeated in 1910. This led to a ¾d 2 stage fare experiment being considered. In order to avoid the conductors having to deal with farthings, passengers had to pay 1½d for a token, which they retain and presented for another two stage journey on any part of the system - an early discount retrun ticket. This was was launched in January 1911. The result was that the number penny fares reduced but there was an increase in traffic and many passengers started buying two stage tokens instead of halfpenny tickets. The result was an increase in revenue. Consequently the two-stage fare, which was a temporary experiment, was retained.
A proposal to make the ½d fare valid for a 2 stage journey was defeated in 1910. This led to a ¾d 2 stage fare experiment being considered. In order to avoid the conductors having to deal with farthings, passengers had to pay 1½d for a token, which they retain and presented for another two stage journey on any part of the system - an early return ticket. This was was launched in January 1911. The result was that the number penny fares reduced but there was an increase in traffic and many passengers started buying two stage tokens instead of halfpenny tickets. The result was an increase in revenue. Consequently the two-stage fare, which was a temporary experiment, was retained.


As was typical of municipal systems, the increase in costs in 1919 led to the tramway operation running at a loss. This led to the ½d fare for one stage being increased to 1d. As a compensation measure Glasgow Corporation made 2 stage tokens available for bulk discount sale. They were sold from tramway kiosks and at offices at 12 for 9d, a nominal value of ¾d. To facilitate this over a million tokens were produced in a wide variety of shades and die varieties. Over 750,000 were sold prior to the launch. The new fares  came in to operation from June 1920. The 2 stage tokens were withdrawn in July 1926. People who had 2 stage tokens could have two of them exchanged for a penny and halfpenny token - tokens that, although not abolished, had been withdrawn from circulation.
As was typical of municipal systems, the increase in costs in 1919 led to the tramway operation running at a loss. This led to the ½d fare for one stage being increased to 1d. As a compensation measure Glasgow Corporation made 2 stage tokens available for bulk discount sale. They were sold from tramway kiosks and at offices at 12 for 9d, a nominal value of ¾d. To facilitate this over a million tokens were produced in a wide variety of shades and die varieties. Over 750,000 were sold prior to the launch. The new fares  came in to operation from June 1920. The 2 stage tokens were withdrawn in July 1926. People who had 2 stage tokens could have two of them exchanged for a penny and halfpenny token - tokens that, although not abolished, had been withdrawn from circulation.

Revision as of 19:47, 11 September 2022

Glasgow Corporation took over the Glasgow tram system from the Glasgow Tramway and Omnibus Company in 1894. It absorbed the tram systems of adjacent towns such as Paisley, Coatbridge and Clydebank. By 1922 there were 1000 trams and over 100 miles of track.

David Capper (Farebox 1969) reported that Glasgow initially used a fare system of ½d for 1 stage and 1d for 2 to 4 stages for adults.

A proposal to make the ½d fare valid for a 2 stage journey was defeated in 1910. This led to a ¾d 2 stage fare experiment being considered. In order to avoid the conductors having to deal with farthings, passengers had to pay 1½d for a token, which they retain and presented for another two stage journey on any part of the system - an early return ticket. This was was launched in January 1911. The result was that the number penny fares reduced but there was an increase in traffic and many passengers started buying two stage tokens instead of halfpenny tickets. The result was an increase in revenue. Consequently the two-stage fare, which was a temporary experiment, was retained.

As was typical of municipal systems, the increase in costs in 1919 led to the tramway operation running at a loss. This led to the ½d fare for one stage being increased to 1d. As a compensation measure Glasgow Corporation made 2 stage tokens available for bulk discount sale. They were sold from tramway kiosks and at offices at 12 for 9d, a nominal value of ¾d. To facilitate this over a million tokens were produced in a wide variety of shades and die varieties. Over 750,000 were sold prior to the launch. The new fares came in to operation from June 1920. The 2 stage tokens were withdrawn in July 1926. People who had 2 stage tokens could have two of them exchanged for a penny and halfpenny token - tokens that, although not abolished, had been withdrawn from circulation.


Crude Design - Probably earliest produced 1894-1910
GLA.101.jpg
Source
Filename GLA.101
Value ½d
Add Desc. Simple fish, wreath of 4 lines, crude bishop, crozier on bishop's right
Size (mm) 22 x 3
Manufacture Dark Blue
Notes GLA.Crude Varieties
Vulcanised Fibre - Probably produced 1910-1920
GLA.0005f.jpg
Source (Smith 420AK)
Filename GLA.0005f
Value ½d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22.75 x 2.5
Manufacture Black Fibre
Notes GLA.Fibre1 Varieties
GLA.0001f.jpg
Source (Smith 420AN)
Filename GLA.0001f
Value 1d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22.25 x 2.75
Manufacture Light Brown or Grey Fibre
Notes Example may have turned light brown from grey through age/use
GLA.Z01d.jpg
Source (Smith 420AU, 420AV)
Filename GLA.Z01d
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Bishop with tram driver's cap
Size (mm) 22.75 to 24.25, 2.5 thick
Manufacture Maroon Fibre
Notes GLA.Fibre2 Varieties
GLA.2S001e.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.2S001e
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Bishop to CO, pointed hat. TRAMWAYS wider than banner and offset left. Curved bird
Size (mm) 24 x 2.5
Manufacture Maroon Fibre
Notes
The vulcanised fibre 2 Stage Tramway tokens have close die similarity to the large green 1/2d Transport tokens, which are made from celluloid. See GLA.Large 1/2d Transport Varieties. Even before the change of name to Glasgow Corporation Transport, Glasgow Corporation ran buses and took over the underground. The indication is that although these tokens say Transport, they pre-date the change of name.
Bakelite - Design suggests experiment before fibre tokens. Probably about 1910
GLA.Z01gvi.jpg
Source (Smith 420AJ)
Filename GLA.Z01fvii
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22.3 to 23.2, 3.5 thick
Manufacture Maroon Bakelite
Notes GLA.Bakelite Varieties
The simple design and similarity of the arms wreath to the vulcanised fibre issue indicates that the type below followed on from the vulcanised fibre issue.
Celluloid Type 1 - Probably about 1920
GLA.Z01fiii.jpg
Source (Smith 420AX)
Filename GLA.Z01fiii
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Tree of six clumps, fish at 45deg
Size (mm) 21.7 x 2.5
Manufacture Light Maroon and Maroon Celluloid
Notes
The similarity of the arms wreath to the vulcanised fibre issue indicates that the type below followed on from the vulcanised fibre issue. The bishop is square in this type and looks like a bit like a garden gnome. This is the only early celluloid issue indicated with ½d and 1d denominations.
Celluloid Type 2 - Probably produced 1910-1920
GLA.3001.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.3001.jpg
Value ½d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22.4 x 2.3
Manufacture Dark Blue Celluloid
Notes
GLA.0005d.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.0005d
Value ½d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.8 to 22.3, 1.5 to 2.3 thick
Manufacture Light Turquoise to Dark Turquoise Celluloid
Notes GLA.Half3 Varieties
GLA.001a.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.001a
Value 1d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.6 to 22.1, 2 to 2.5 thick
Manufacture White Celluloid
Notes GLA.One3 Varieties
GLA.30031.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.30031
Value 1d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.6, 2.2 thick
Manufacture Translucent Light Yellow Celluloid
Notes Front is flat design, partially incuse. Example may have turned light yellow from white through age/use
GLA.Z01fiv.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01fiv
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.5 x 2.5
Manufacture Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage3 Varieties
The design and similarity of the arms wreath to the previous type indicates that the type below followed on from that type. The bishop is much thinner. There are varieties with the crozier on the bishop's right and the crozier on the bishop's left.
Celluloid Type 3 - Probably about 1920
GLA.Z01fv.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01fv
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Crozier on bishop's right
Size (mm) 21.2 to 21.6, 2.3 to 2.6 thick
Manufacture Light Maroon to Dark Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage2a Varieties
GLA.2S042c.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.2S042c
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Crozier to bishop's left
Size (mm) 21.3 to 21.7, 2.2 to 2.5 thick
Manufacture Light Maroon to Dark Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage2b Varieties
For this type the design has substantial double wreath, one pointing up and one pointing down The bishop's crozier is on the bishop's left.
Celluloid Type 4 - Probably about 1920 to 1925
GLA.Z01b.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01b
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22
Manufacture Black Plastic
Notes
File:GLA.Z01c.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01c
Value 0
Add Desc. Two Stage
Size (mm) 22
Manufacture Black Plastic
Notes holed
GLA.Z01f.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01f
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.4 to 22.1, 2.3 to 2.7 thick
Manufacture Light Maroon to Dark Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage3a Varieties
The similarity of the bishop and arms wreath to the transport tokens first main issues indicates that the type was the last tramways type to be issued. The wreath is a single full wreath pointing up. This is the only other celluloid issue indicated with ½d and 1d denominations. They were probably produced in 1926 to facilitate the withdrawl of the 2 stage tokens.
Celluloid Type 5 - Probably produced 1920-1926
GLA.5002c.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.5002c.jpg
Value ½d
Add Desc. Probably produced 1926
Size (mm) 21.6 to 22.1, 2.2 to 2.5 thick
Manufacture Light Turquoise to Turquoise Celluloid
Notes GLA.Half5a Varieties
GLA.5001b.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.5001b
Value 1d
Add Desc. Probably produced 1926
Size (mm) 21.7 x 2.5
Manufacture White Celluloid
Notes GLA.One5 Varieties
GLA.Z01fvi.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01fvi.jpg
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.5 x 2.5
Manufacture Red Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage5a Varieties
GLA.Z01fviii.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01fviii.jpg
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 21.3 to 22.1, 2.2 to 2.6 thick
Manufacture Light Maroon to Dark Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage5b Varieties
GLA.502SF.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.502SF.jpg
Value 2 Stage
Add Desc. Fine detail.
Size (mm) 21.7 to 22.1, 2.2 to 2.5 thick
Manufacture Light Maroon Celluloid
Notes GLA.2Stage5c Varieties
Blind Tokens - issued during/after WW1
GLA.B005.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.B005
Value ½d
Add Desc. Blind
Size (mm) 25x21
Manufacture Oval Brass
Notes
GLA.B01.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.B01
Value 1d
Add Desc. Blind
Size (mm) 24x20
Manufacture Oval Brass
Notes
Glasgow Corporation Tramways 2 Stage - Comparison of Types
GLA.Z01f.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01f
Value 0
Add Desc. Two Stage
Size (mm) 21.5 to 24.25, 1.5 to 3.5 Thick
Manufacture Various - Red/Maroon
Notes GLA.Z01f Varieties
Glasgow Corporation Tramways - Type to be confirmed
File:GLA.0005a.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.0005a
Value ½d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 23
Manufacture White Plastic
Notes 1894-1929
File:GLA.0005b.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.0005b
Value ½d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 23
Manufacture Dark Red Plastic
Notes
File:GLA.001c.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.001c
Value 1d
Add Desc.
Size (mm) 22
Manufacture Dark Blue Plastic
Notes
File:GLA.Z01a.jpg
Source (Smith)
Filename GLA.Z01a
Value 0
Add Desc. Two Stage
Size (mm) 22
Manufacture Lemon Plastic
Notes