Author Topic: Information: Personalities & Events on Indian coins  (Read 117934 times)

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paisepagal

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Re: Personalities & Events on Indian coins
« Reply #60 on: August 31, 2012, 09:11:38 AM »
RAJIV GANDHI 1944 - 1991

The son of perhaps India’s most autocratic Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi was always seen as someone pushed into the highest levels of politics and government; a situation which he neither wanted and indeed attempted to avoid. However, fate would see to it that following the loss of his brother and mother, Rajiv was put in the unenviable position to take over the reins of the Congress Party and become India’s youngest Prime Minister.

Prior to his forced plunge into politics, Rajiv studied at Trinity College, Cambridge & later on at Imperial College, London (neither of which he graduated from). There, he met his soon-to-be Italian wife, Antonia Maino (aka Sonia Gandhi) and the two would eventually settle in Delhi where Rajiv trained to become a commercial pilot of the Indian Airlines. Apart from being part of the Nehru-Gandhi bloodline, Rajiv’s life was fairly unremarkable until the death of Sanjay made Indira lean more on her only-remaining son which resulted in Rajiv joining active politics as an MP from Amethi (Sanjay’s constituency). In 1985, with the assassination of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv was unanimously elected as the President of the congress. His utterings such as “When a giant tree falls, the earth below shakes” in reference to his mother’s death only seemed to worsen the anti-sikh riots that had just engulfed Delhi and many accused him of going-slow on arresting rioting mobs, many of which were lead by congress party men.

Shortly after assuming the Congress mantle, Rajiv requested President Zail Singh to dissolve parliament (as it was nearing its tenure) and rode back to power on a wave of sympathy with the party garnering its biggest victory in decades. Under Rajiv Gandhi, the government slowly started dismantling the license raj-system, modernizing the bureaucracy, industry and education system with phones, computers, modern machinery & techniques etc. But among his negatives, he undermined the secular and gender neutral character of Indian democracy. In 1985, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of providing alimony to Shah Bano, a muslim divorcee. But fundamentalists protested against the verdict claiming it to be an encroachment on Muslim Personal Law. The Rajiv govt. submitted to the pressure and passed legislation that nullified the court’s judgement.
On foreign policy, the Rajiv govt. laid more emphasis on friendship with the US, China & Pakistan while maintaining a steady alliance with the Soviet Union. However, among his mistakes, he was widely criticized for deploying Indian forces to reverse a coup that overthrew Maldives longtime autocratic President Gayoom and for interfering in the Sri Lankan civil war which lead to the death of over 1500 Indian peace-keeping army personnel.

Between 1989-1991, several allegations of corruption against the government and Rajiv Gandhi emerged, from billions of dollars of black money stashed away in Swiss Banks to the Swedish Bofors Guns kickback deal (from which Rajiv Gandhi was posthumously exonerated in 2004). The opposition united behind VP Singh’s Janata Dal and formed the government following the 1989 election. However internal squabbling meant that the Janata Dal govt. collapsed by 1991 and fresh elections were called. During his campaign tour through Tamil Nadu, Rajiv Gandhi would meet his end at Sriperumbudur. A LTTE woman suicide bomber, with explosives strapped to her stomach, walked up to Rajiv and bowed to touch his feet. That action detonated the explosive killing Rajiv and atleast 14 others. The blast was powerful enough, that the victim’s bodies were strewn over a fairly large area, a fact that was captured in photographs of the blast scene.
 
Rajiv Gandhi would leave behind a wife, and two children. While his legacy is still being debated, his family continues to hold sway over the Congress with Sonia as its President and Rahul as the heir-apparent. 

Wikipedia.org : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajiv_gandhi
« Last Edit: September 07, 2012, 12:53:29 PM by paisepagal »

paisepagal

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Re: Personalities & Events on Indian coins
« Reply #61 on: October 09, 2012, 02:25:10 PM »
150TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOTILAL NEHRU (1862 - 2012)

Born to an affluent Kashmiri Brahmin family, Motilal Nehru has in many ways not only played a direct role in India’s freedom struggle, but has also profoundly influenced the political landscape of the country through his progeny. Motilal passed the matriculation examination from Kanpur, thereby becoming among the first Indians to receive a western-style education. He went on to qualify “Bar at Law” from the University of Cambridge and enlisted as a lawyer in the English courts. However, he built his practice in Allahabad where his elder brother was already an established lawyer at the High Court. With the death of his brother in 1887, Motilal became the head of the Nehru household supporting his own family as well as those of his siblings. In 1909, he reached his professional peak by appearing in the Privy Council of Great Britain and became increasingly politically active following his stint as Chairman of the Board of Directors of “The Leader”, a prominent daily journal published in Allahabad. Thereafter he joined the Congress and went on to twice serve as its President. He was one of the driving forces behind the Non-Cooperation movement and although close to Mahatma Gandhi (thanks to Gandhi, Motilal would dramatically change his lifestyle to exclude western clothes & goods), the two fell out over the riots at Chauri Chaura. Motilal joined the Swaraj Party that contested elections in the British-sponsored councils in 1923, but later resigned and re-joined the Congress following the assembly’s rejection of a Constitutional draft conferring full Dominion Status to India. In 1928, Motilal chaired the famous Nehru Commission of the Congress to demand Dominion status to counter the all-British Simon Commission that advocated only limited autonomy. His health began to fail between 1929-1931, a time when his glamourous son Jawarharlal entered politics and took over the Congress Presidency from him. Despite his illness, Motilal continued his political agitation, albeit on a lower key, breathing his last on 6 Feb 1931.

Fun Fact: Ironically, the fourth member of the Nehru-Gandhi family to be commemorated on a coin although he is infact the patriach of the family

Wikipedia.org:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motilal_Nehru

Read the WoC discussion here
« Last Edit: September 12, 2013, 06:24:59 PM by paisepagal »

paisepagal

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Re: Personalities & Events on Indian coins
« Reply #62 on: September 02, 2013, 05:34:34 PM »
SILVER JUBILEE MATA VAISHNO DEVI SHRINE BOARD 2012

This article has been redacted from the Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board's Website. I would be happy to include more detail if anyone wants to add. Please make the comments in Comments on "Personalities & Events on Indian coins" or PM me

The Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine, located at 5300 feet above sea-level in the Trikuta Hills present day Jammu & Kashmir, is one of India’s most renowned Hindu temples with millions of devotees traversing across the country to procrastinate themselves before the Mother Goddess. The temple is also regarded as one of the most important Shaktipeeths since this is where Goddess Sati’s head fell as Lord Shiva carried her corpse in deep sorrow following her self-immolation. The temple is believed to be in continuous existence for ~700 years although the cave housing the three ‘pindies’ (a small rock structure with three heads) was discovered much earlier by Pandit Shridhar who Mata Vaishno Devi appeared to and instructed to hold a feast in her honour.

Mata Vaishno Devi is an amalgamation of Spiritual Energy of Mahakali, Mahasaraswati and Mahalaxmi, with the express purpose to uphold righteousness among human kind and to eventually become one with Vishnu. Born to pious parents in South India, the girl came to be called Vaishnavi to denote her lineage from Vishnu and by the age of nine, after accumulating wisdom well beyond mortal capacity, turned inwards towards meditation in her quest to be closer to Lord Vishnu. She therefore renounced all worldly comforts and exiled herself to the forest where she plunged herself into Tapasaya (deep meditation). Lord Ram, an avatar of Lord Vishnu chanced on her during his 12 year exile, and Vaishnavi, realizing who he was, begged him to marry her (to merge with him in a more spiritual sense). However, Lord Ram considered her unprepared and sworn to monogamy in his current form, dissuaded her with a promise that he would meet her again. True to his word, after his victory, Lord Ram once again appeared to Vaishnavi disguised as an old man. However Vashnavi could not recognize him, falling into deep distraught when she realized her failure. Lord Ram in consoling her, advised her to set up an ashram in the mountains of North India promising to meet her again in Kalyug (the cusp of the Old and New) when he will begin his new incarnation as Kalki. With Ram’s blessing, word of Mata Vaishno Devi spread far and wide and people flocked to her ashram.

Pandit Shridhar organized a grand feast in accordance with Mata Devi’s wishes. Bhairav Nath, a tantric who attended this feast made unwanted advances towards Vaishnavi. In order to avoid confrontation, Vaishnavi fled to the mountains so that she could continue her meditation in peace. However, Bhairav continued stalking her and during the chase, Vaishnavi shot a warning arrow into the ground creating the Baanganga River and leaving her footprints on its banks at Charan Paduka. Unperturbed, Bhairav continued his advances and Vaishnavi was finally forced at the caves to take on the form of Maha Kali and slay Bhairav Nath by lancing off his head. However, moments before death, Bhairav repented for his actions and pleaded for the Goddess’ mercy. Mata Vaishno Devi in acknowledging his genuine love for her decreed that her devotees would pay homage to him at the place where his skull fell as the last venue on their pilgrimage. Mata Vaishno Devi would then go on to immerse herself in deep meditation taking on the form of the Rock with three Pindis (each signifying the three goddesses that Vaishnavi represents)

Fun Fact: First Indian coin since 1950 to carry an image of a Hindu Deity

Official Website of the Shrine Board: https://www.maavaishnodevi.org/
Read the WoC discussion here and here
« Last Edit: October 25, 2013, 12:45:55 PM by paisepagal »

paisepagal

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Re: Personalities & Events on Indian coins
« Reply #63 on: September 12, 2013, 05:32:31 PM »
150TH ANNIVERSARY OF MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA 2012

The next silo in this ongoing thread, I know virtually nothing about this man. Time for some research and then a report back on what I learned!

Born into a conservative Brahmin family in 1861, Madan Mohan Malaviya, who would later be honoured with the prefix “Mahamana” (meaning Great Mind) was an important figure in the freedom movement, not only because of his role in the Indian National Congress, but due to his emphasis on spreading awareness about various issues through newspapers and his accomplishment in setting up the Benaras Hindu University in 1916. Schooled in Sankrit during his primary years and then matriculating from the Muir Central College and obtaining a B.A from University of Calcutta, Malaviya went on to join politics in 1886 by attending the 2nd annual Congress session in Calcutta under Dadabhai Naoroji’s Presidency. Malaviya made his mark through his editorship of newspapers such as the Hindustan Times, The Union and The Leader. He would also go on to obtain a Law degree to practice in the Allahabad Court besides acting as Congress President four times between 1909-32. He was a member of the Imperial Legislative council and then the Central Legislative Assembly between 1912-1926 playing an active lead role in the Non-cooperation movement and the agitation against the Simon Commission. However, he was against the Congress’ participation in the Khilafat Movement which he felt was communal in that it involved needless appeasement of the Muslim community. In protest against the Congress’ soft stand on separate electorates for minorities, Malaviya eventually left the party and started the Congress Nationalist Party which contested the 1934 elections to the central legislature and won 12 seats. In 1916, along with Annie Besant, Malaviya was instrumental in setting up the Benaras Hindu University and served as its Vice Chancellor till 1939. In addition, he also has a lasting legacy in popularizing Scouting in India under the guidance of Justice Vivian Bose (although Scouting was already introduced by the British earlier albeit only among the expat community)

Fun Fact: Although the Bombay 'M' mint mark (signifying Proof strikes) has by now been used (probably accidentally) on circulation commemorative coins such as Tilak and Basaveshwara, in this case, coins bearing the 'M' mintmark are about as common as the Diamond mintmark which is usually the Bombay mintmark engraved on business strikes.

Wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madan_Mohan_Malaviya

Read the WoC discussion here
« Last Edit: September 13, 2013, 10:14:19 AM by paisepagal »

paisepagal

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Re: Personalities & Events on Indian coins
« Reply #64 on: September 13, 2013, 05:06:06 PM »
150 YEARS OF KUKA MOVEMENT 1857 - 2007

Keep visiting this thread to read the next installment.. it'll be packed with action, blood and gore...not to mention a lot of swords, cannons and blowing up stuff  ;D ...well all that ....but a story of true sacrifice and courage.