Author Topic: Is using money Unsafe for Health?  (Read 5985 times)

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Offline Bimat

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Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« on: March 26, 2011, 06:30:48 AM »
India’s grubby banknotes
March 25, 2011 3:44 pm by Akanksha Awal

India’s trillion dollar economy is thriving on hard cash transactions – but something nasty is lurking among the banknotes.

Drug-resistant strains of E. coli and 15 other bacteria can be found on almost all notes in the country, according to a study conducted in Mumbai by Manipal University.

Of every 100 rupees spent in India, 97 are spent in cash, according to Visa, the payments processing firm. That makes India the world’s second largest consumer of currency, second only to China. But 98 per cent of Indian currency is contaminated, according to the study.

Every single note sampled in the study and 96 per cent of the coins carried at least one kind of bacteria. The strains found can cause severe gastric and respiratory diseases, according to the researchers.

India’s humid climate and the national habit of keeping notes at home in insalubrious places such as underneath shoes contribute to the problem. Crumpled, dirty and soiled notes are commonplace, spreading germs across the country and across the social classes – turning banknotes into a public health hazard, the report warns.

India had 56,549m banknotes in circulation in March 2010, mostly low-denomination notes, according to the RBI, the central bank. Notes of lower denominations (Rs10 and Rs20) carry the most pathogens.

The RBI has been trying to implement a clean note policy since 2002 with limited success. The bank recently asked commercial banks to pitch in by stopping re-circulation of damp, mutilated cash and screening notes dispensed in ATMs for cleanliness.

The bank has also run tests with cleaner, polymer-based notes to replace the paper-based Rs10 note.

“If the pilot proves successful, we will mainstream the use of plastic currency,” Governor D Subbarao had said at a conference this year.

The problems of pathogens on currency is not restricted to India. But given the low rate of adoption of electronic payment systems in the country, it demands an urgent solution.

Source : FT. Com
« Last Edit: October 02, 2011, 09:16:16 AM by Bimat »
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Offline nomadbird

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #1 on: March 26, 2011, 11:09:58 AM »
recently in National geographic channel...."I did not know that" program showcased that UK's 95% of the currency has any one form of Drug in it.... or some bacterias......
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Offline Figleaf

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #2 on: March 26, 2011, 11:36:20 AM »
US banknotes show cocaine traces
Page last updated 17 August 2009

The US capital has the highest level of banknotes that have traces of cocaine

The largest study of banknotes has found that 95% of dollar bills in Washington DC bear traces of the illegal drug cocaine.

The figure for the US capital is up 20% over two years.

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts in Dartmouth tested notes from more than 30 cities worldwide.

They say the rise observed in the US may be due to increased drug use caused by higher stress levels linked to the global economic downturn.

Bank notes can pick up traces of cocaine directly from users snorting it through rolled up bills or when cash is stacked together.

Stress factor?

Besides Washington, other big US cities such as Baltimore, Boston and Detroit had the highest average cocaine levels on their dollar bills.

Dr Yuegang Zuo, who led the research, said: "To my surprise, we're finding more and more cocaine in banknotes.

"I'm not sure why we've seen this apparent increase, but it could be related to the economic downturn, with stressed people turning to cocaine."

Other countries where notes were tested were Canada, Brazil, China and Japan.

China had the lowest rates, with only 12% of its bills contaminated.

In the US the cleanest bills were collected from Salt Lake City, home of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, better known as the Mormons.

Source: BBC
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Offline Ukrainii Pyat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #3 on: March 26, 2011, 01:33:42 PM »


In the US the cleanest bills were collected from Salt Lake City, home of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, better known as the Mormons.

Source: BBC

Where they will only find traces of "Jello" on them, Mormons have the highest consumption of Jello in the whole USA.
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Offline Bimat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #4 on: August 01, 2011, 03:57:23 PM »
Paper currency tainted with drugs and bisphenol A

It is one of those solid facts that people spout: "All bank notes are contaminated with cocaine." Well, in this case, it could well be true. Studies on Euro notes in 2005 revealed that every note was affected while 90% of US dollars were coated with cocaine, according to results disclosed in 2009.

Now, you can add another statement of fact about paper currency. It is all contaminated with bisphenol A. That may not ring any immediate alarm bells but it should. BPA is recognised as an endocrine disruptor, and has been shown to cause reproductive problems and cancer in lab animals. It has also recently been linked to male infertility and may be an agent in several other diseases.

So, it was a worrying development when two scientists based in the US discovered that every bank note that they examined had BPA on its surface. Kurunthachalam Kannan and Chunyang Liao from the Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the State University of New York at Albany, examined the currency of 21 different countries with the same results. Total contamination.

So, where does the BPA originate from? Its main source is industrial chemistry as a monomer for producing polycarbonate plastics which are used in the manufacture of plastic bottles, construction materials such as roofing, electronic components, computer discs and DVDs, among others.

BPA resins are also used to line food containers to protect the food inside but they have been found to migrate into the food to be consumed by humans. Other sources of human exposure are inhalation and dermal routes, especially in occupational situations. However, the discovery of BPA on bank notes provides a novel type of human exposure that has not been considered previously.


Every bank note contaminated

Kannan and Liao collected the currency from currency exchange stands at airports in the USA, Japan and Korea and graded them as fresh or used, although they were all thought to have been in general circulation.

Small sections were removed from the bottom left and top right corners and the middle of each of the 51 notes with a hole punch and they were spiked with a deuterated BPA internal standard.

The sections were extracted with methanol for analysis by LC/MS on a C18 column. BPA was eluted with an increasing flow of methanol in water for electrospray ionisation in negative-ion mode, followed by multiple reaction monitoring for BPA and the standard. The recovery was estimated at 105 ± 14.3% and the detection limit was 0.5 ng/g.

All bank notes were contaminated with BPA at amounts ranging from 0.001-82.7 µg/g. In most cases, the BPA levels in the centres of the notes were higher than at the corners, with mean values of 6.26 ± 13.2 µg/g compared with 4.18 ± 9.93 and 4.37 ± 11.4 µg/g for the lower left and upper right corners.

The levels in the corners might be lower because they are handled more often than the centres of the bank notes, encouraging transfer to the hands, but the research duo offered another explanation which was related to a proposed mechanism for currency contamination in the first place.


Thermal cash receipts to blame

It is known that cash register receipts produced on thermal paper have a thin coating of BPA. So, it is possible that BPA is transferred from a receipt to a bank note when the two are placed together in a wallet. The centres of the receipts and currencies are likely to be in contact the most.

This theory was tested by placing seven bank notes from five countries next to thermal receipt paper for 24 hours in wallets before the currency was analysed for BPA as before. Notes with low initial levels of BPA displayed 100- to 1000-fold increases in concentration after contact, whereas those with high initial concentrations increased two-fold.

So, this transfer mechanism does appear to be feasible. This was supported by the fact that the BPA levels on older bank notes were higher than on newer ones, the longer circulation periods allowing more time for transfer and accumulation.

BPA has a high dermal absorption coefficient, so the data collected in this study were used to estimate human exposure via dermal absorption from bank notes, using a series of standard criteria.

The values were regarded as relatively low at 0.0001-2.10 ng/day, which are smaller than those for dust exposure reported recently in the USA. So, contact with bank notes probably represents a minor exposure pathway for the general public. The situation might be more serious for people who are occupationally exposed to currency, such as bank tellers and shop assistants.

Having found drugs of abuse and now bisphenol A, it is natural to ask what else is contaminating paper currency. In this case at least, the health affects are minimal, even though all notes tested were affected.

Source: Separations Now
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Offline FosseWay

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #5 on: August 01, 2011, 04:32:55 PM »
These stories rank alongside the revelation that the Pope is Catholic and the exclusive scoop, obtained only through illegal phone hacking, that bears defecate in forests.

There are bacteria all over everything virtually all the time. That includes the inside of my mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, if there weren't, I'd have some monster gas pains. So what if [insert hyper-deadly pathogen of choice] has been found on coins and notes? When was the last time you ate one of either? Personally I'd consider the risk of transmission of E. coli or any other illness of the digestive system by money as being extremely remote, but if you're worried about it, just wash your hands before eating.

Rather than getting wound up about possible contamination of a product that isn't intended to go anywhere near someone's digestive system, the powers that be should concentrate on providing clean drinking water and air conditioning. That's not just advice for India, either -- here we get fairly regular problems with cryptosporidium in the water and legionnaire's disease in the air con, not to mention all the hospital-acquired infections that do the rounds.

Offline Bimat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #6 on: August 01, 2011, 04:38:08 PM »
These stories rank alongside the revelation that the Pope is Catholic and the exclusive scoop, obtained only through illegal phone hacking, that bears defecate in forests.

There are bacteria all over everything virtually all the time. That includes the inside of my mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, if there weren't, I'd have some monster gas pains. So what if [insert hyper-deadly pathogen of choice] has been found on coins and notes? When was the last time you ate one of either? Personally I'd consider the risk of transmission of E. coli or any other illness of the digestive system by money as being extremely remote, but if you're worried about it, just wash your hands before eating.

Rather than getting wound up about possible contamination of a product that isn't intended to go anywhere near someone's digestive system, the powers that be should concentrate on providing clean drinking water and air conditioning. That's not just advice for India, either -- here we get fairly regular problems with cryptosporidium in the water and legionnaire's disease in the air con, not to mention all the hospital-acquired infections that do the rounds.
You are quite right about bacteria present on banknotes, but drugs...grrr... ::) :-\

Someone should do a similar study on polymer banknotes too; would it show different results? (I don't mean complete absence, but the population of bacteria should be less...)

Aditya
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Offline FosseWay

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #7 on: August 01, 2011, 05:24:23 PM »
To be fair, I don't think a given banknote has to have been used to snort drugs, or even been used as payment in a drug deal, for it to have traces of drugs on it. Some drugs come in extremely fine powder and minute quantities of it get everywhere. I think for some substances tests can detect down to the monomolecular level. The same is true of firearms residue and artificial radioisotopes. People got their knickers in a twist when radioactive iodine-131 from Fukushima was detected in Europe. Without some idea of how much of a pathogen, chemical or radioisotope is being detected, how that differs from the normal readings both for that class of object and for other objects used and handled daily in a similar way, and what the level is that's harmful to humans, this kind of story is just sensationalist tabloid nonsense.

Offline Coinsforever

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #8 on: August 01, 2011, 11:46:52 PM »
For circulating bank notes such contamination do exist, not only bank notes but coins too are affected.

In some countries a very less amount , some where more and some are affected heavily .

Now a days in some (Private)  banks cashiers are wearing gloves at counters to distribute notes. Even I've seen at Money exchange counters at Airports wearing Gloves for protection against any possible disease due to contamination.

Cheers ;D
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Offline Ukrainii Pyat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #9 on: August 02, 2011, 03:42:31 PM »
Silver does have a low level of anti-biotic properties to it.  Unfortunately it is not used in circulating coinage anywhere.  Paper money is not only a biohazard, it always returns to it's nominal value - 0.
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Offline Coinsforever

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #10 on: August 02, 2011, 11:47:58 PM »
To avoid possible infections.

Now a days the crews deployed for filling cash at ATMs  are  taking precautions usually wearing gloves , they are avoiding directly  touching notes by bare hands.

Cheers ;D
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Offline Bimat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #11 on: August 11, 2011, 03:26:10 PM »
Czech banknotes among world’s most potentially toxic

US scientists find traces of bisphenol A in paper money worldwide; greatest concentrations in Brazilian, Czech and Australian currencies.

A study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology shows that paper money worldwide contains bisphenol A, or BPA, a potentially toxic substance found in plastics, thermal paper and other products.

The highest BPA levels were in paper money from Brazil, the Czech Republic and Australia while the lowest occurred in paper money from the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, according to the American Chemical Society, which publishes the journal.

US scientists Kurunthachalam Kannan and Chunyang Liao’s analysis of 156 pieces of paper money from 21 countries found that all contained traces of BPA. “Although high levels of BPA were measured in paper currencies, human exposure through dermal [skin] absorption appears to be minor,” the article notes.

The source of the BPA — an endocrine disruptor, meaning it mimics the action of the sex hormone estrogen, that is linked to a variety of health problems — is not the banknotes themselves but the thermal-paper cash register receipts that people put near their currency in wallets, purses and pockets.

The amounts of BPA on dollars, Euros, rubles, yuans, Czech crowns and other currencies, are higher than in house dust, but human intake from currency is at least 10 times less than those from house dust, the researchers said.

Kannan and Liao found the mean and median concentrations of BPA in paper currencies from Brazil (36.1 and 23.3 μg/g) were higher than those (3.40 and 0.763 μg/g) found in currencies from other countries; concentrations of BPA in currency bills from Brazil were followed by those of the Czech Republic (29.2 and 24.3 μg/g), Australia (9.26 and 9.49 μg/g), Vietnam (9.05 and 7.49 μg/g), and Singapore (8.34 and 8.25 μg/g).

What is bisphenol A?

Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is a chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications. We can find it in the fillings in our mouths as well as in CDs and DVDs, microwaves and other kitchen appliances. It is present throughout dwellings in water piping and flooring, used in the production of brake fluid, electric insulation and flame retardants.

Dozens of studies have demonstrated the hormonally active chemical can negatively impact a whole series of biological processes, causing imbalance in the immune system and having a detrimental impact on fertility. Early childhood bisphenol A contamination can directly lead to a host of serious illnesses later in life, including cancer and diabetes.

Source: Czech Position

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Offline Bimat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #12 on: September 29, 2011, 05:24:32 PM »
General News of Thursday, 29 September 2011

Cedi Notes Carry Bacteria

A study conducted by two Ghanaian scientists has revealed that 98.6 per cent of Ghanaian cedi notes are contaminated with bacteria.

According to the study, which was conducted between November 2008 and February 2009, some of the cedi notes were contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms which could spread diseases.

The study established that one-cedi notes were the most contaminated, followed by the five-cedi notes and the 10-cedi notes.

The study was conducted by Mr Patrick Feglo and Mr Michael Nkansah of the Department of Clinical Microbiology of the School of Medical Sciences and the Department of Medical Laboratory Technology of the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, respectively, both of the College of Health Sciences of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST).

Their findings are published in the African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(22) pp. 2375-2380, November 18, 2010 and can be accessed online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr

The study revealed that some of the bacteria had the potency to cause tuberculosis, leprosy and buruli ulcer, as well as food poisoning, minor skin infections and severe life-threatening infections, depending on the mycobacterium species.

“Pathogenic micro-organisms that may survive on the Ghanaian currency notes may serve as a potential source of enteropathogens causing food poisoning because in Ghana food vendors serve food with the hands and at the same time handle currency notes as they sell,” it noted.

After the laboratory analyses of 70 cedi notes of various denominations, 112 different bacteria were isolated from 69 currency notes, representing a contamination percentage of 98.57.

“One of the currency notes which appeared new and ‘seemingly clean’ did not grow any bacterium,” the study revealed.

The staggering revelations of the study mean that people who handle cedi notes but do not have the habit of washing their hands before eating stand a high risk of getting infected with various kinds of diseases.

Many Ghanaians do not have the habit of washing their hands before eating, a practice that has moved health authorities to embark on an annual hand-washing campaign and awareness creation of the essence of washing hands before eating and after visiting the wash room.

The researchers observed that Ghanaian currency notes were handled by all manner of people, including food vendors who served food and handled currency notes at the same time, making the notes dirty and cross-contaminated.

The study, therefore, sought to determine bacterial species and the level of contamination of the cedi notes in circulation. In that regard, the researchers collected cedi notes at random from food vendors in Kumasi for the scientific investigation.

It involved the collection of cedi notes at random from ready-to-eat food sellers on the KNUST campus.

It was an observational cross-sectional study involving 70 currency notes collected at random. The currency notes studied were 30 one-cedi notes, 30 five-cedi notes and 10 of the 10-cedi notes.

Each currency note was collected directly into a sterile plastic bag and transported to the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, KNUST, soon after collection and examined for bacterial contamination.

Source: Ghana Web

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Offline nomadbird

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #13 on: October 02, 2011, 09:12:49 AM »
Can multiple topics be created from this post, rather than having " Indian Banknotes are Unsafe for Health "

Alreay here many other countires are talked about.....I dont like INdia name being denounced...
 
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Offline Bimat

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Re: Is using money Unsafe for Health?
« Reply #14 on: December 02, 2011, 03:07:54 PM »
One in ten banknotes contaminated with cocaine

6:30AM GMT 02 Dec 2011

More than one in ten British banknotes is tainted with cocaine, according to tests carried out by police.

An inquiry for the Home Office's advisory council for the misuse of drugs showed 11% of notes in circulation tested positive for traces of the drug - a rise from 4% in 2005.

The findings were based on regular testing by 15 police forces, the Guardian reported. They reinforce Britain's position as the cocaine capital of Europe.

The inquiry was told by police experts that longer pub hours may have contributed to the rise, with men in their 20s using cocaine to stay awake while out drinking.

Detective Chief Inspector Trevor Williamson, of the Association of Chief Police Officers, said officers believed there was a direct link between cocaine use and drinking and a rise in violence.

Pc Adrian Parsons, a drugs expert for Kent Police, said the use of the drug was now widespread across all social classes and not just confined to "champagne Charlies in the City".

He said: "It's my personal view that the change in licensing laws led to a rise in the use of cocaine.
"We have got extended licensing hours, we have got people who are not ramming as much down their necks as before 11pm and who are going all night.

"Cocaine is everywhere. It's a drug we see all over the place."

Last month figures showing one in 20 people had taken cocaine in the past year led to Britain being branded the cocaine capital of Europe.

Source: The Telegraph
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