Author Topic: Dictators on Coins  (Read 20987 times)

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Offline <k>

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #30 on: July 31, 2011, 03:11:27 PM »
Jozef Tiso.





After first annexing the Sudetenland for the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler encouraged Jozef Tiso, a Catholic priest and the leader of the Slovak People’s Party, to declare Slovakia’s independence. Tiso declared Slovakia independent on 14th March 1939. The next day Hitler invaded what was left of Czechoslovakia, which he turned into the Nazi “protectorate” of Bohemia and Moravia.

Slovakia became a Nazi satellite or puppet state. Tiso became the president and authoritarian dictator of the country. Though he was more of an old-fashioned authoritarian conservative than a fascist, he did allow many of Slovakia’s Jews to be deported to their death in Germany, until late 1942. The tide of war then turned, and Slovakia was occupied by the Soviets in April 1945 and reintegrated into Czechoslovakia. Tiso was found guilty of state treason and hanged in April 1947.

See also: Slovakia: Two states, three coinages.

Offline <k>

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #31 on: July 31, 2011, 03:26:44 PM »


After Hitler defeated France, Maréchal Philippe Pétain, a French military hero of the First World War, became head of the "French State", or the Vichy regime, as it is known. He did this, he claimed, to save part of France from the bitterness of occupation. No doubt he was sincere in this belief, but the verdict of history has been harsh, and nowadays he is largely regarded as a Nazi collaborator. He set up a reactionary authoritarian regime, which allowed the deportation of foreign-born Jews to Nazi Germany, and he also agreed to send his own citizens to Nazi Germany as industrial workers.

After the war he was tried and sentenced to death but De Gaulle, who was President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic at the end of the war, commuted it to life imprisonment on the grounds of Pétain's age and his World War I contributions. Pétain was eventually imprisoned on a remote French island in the Atlantic, where he died in 1951.

See also: France 5 francs 1941 Maréchal Philippe Pétain.


Offline <k>

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #32 on: July 31, 2011, 05:18:45 PM »


Jean-Bédel Bokassa was born in 1921 and died in 1996. In 1962 he was made commander-in-chief of the army of the Central African Republic by President David Dacko, his cousin. In December 1965, Bokassa lauched a coup against his cousin and proclaimed himself president.

His career after that was typical of the worst of the African leaders. In 1976 he had himself crowned Emperor, and changed the name of his country to the Central African Empire. From Wikipedia: The coronation ceremony lasted for two days and cost 10 million GBP. The ceremony was organised by French artist Jean-Pierre Dupont. Parisian jeweller Claude Bertrand made his crown, which included diamonds. Bokassa sat on a two-ton throne modeled in the shape of a large eagle made from gold. His regalia, lavish coronation ceremony and regime of the newly formed Central African Empire were largely inspired by Napoleon I. The ceremony consumed one third of the Central African Empire's annual budget and all of France's aid money for that year, but despite generous invitations, no foreign leaders attended the event.

In the 1970s there were rumours reported in the European press that Bokassa was mad and consumed human flesh. Eventually France, his main supporter, became embarrassed by his brutality and invaded the country, overthrowing Bokassa and restoring Dacko to power.

To read more about Bokassa, visit the Wikipedia webpage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-B%C3%A9del_Bokassa

Bokassa died in the Central African Republic in 1996.

In 1970, the Central African Republic issued various gold coins to celebrate the 10th anniversary of its independence. The coins depict Bokassa on the obverse.

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #33 on: July 31, 2011, 05:23:30 PM »
With the exception of many of the Venetian doges, most of the world rulers before 1795-1848 can be seen as dictators. Here is an example of one with a particularly bad press: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Nero to his enemies.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #34 on: July 31, 2011, 05:43:13 PM »
In my mind, Antonio Salazar qualifies as a dictator of Portugal, but he didn't make it on a coin. Or did he? His name appears on a Portuguese commemorative for the Salazar bridge, now known to the world as the Ponte 25 de Abril.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline chrisild

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #35 on: July 31, 2011, 06:16:30 PM »
No, Salazar never appeared on Portuguese coins. But lots of dictators or authoritarian rulers have never been depicted on the coinage of their countries: Hitler (much to the chagrin of many nazi coin collectors 8) ) and Stalin (just on that commem from Czechoslovakia), and lots of others from Eastern Europe, South America, Africa, etc.

In the Americas, Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner come to mind. But by and large, the dictators over there did not appear on money. May also be because they were often part of a junta. Guess that is also the reason why the Greek coins from about 40 years ago, once the dictatorship became a republic, did not depict Georgios Papadopoulos ...

Christian

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #36 on: July 31, 2011, 06:49:31 PM »
Castro is on Cuba KM 253, 254, 255 and 257 1 peso 1989 revolution, 612 1 peso Vatican meeting and higher denominated pseudo coins. Stroessner is on several pseudo coins of Paraguay. Peron didn't make it, but Evita did. She probably doesn't count, though.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline FosseWay

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #37 on: July 31, 2011, 07:36:48 PM »
Seeing those Franco coins reminds me of how poor a likeness of him they are, in my opinion. They don't look anything like the portrait of him on the stamps of the same period (which themselves show him younger than he really was -- he was getting on for 80 when he died); the stamps though are a closer representation of what he looked like in real life.

Figleaf: In my mind, a dictator is someone who rules autocratically without any constitutional legitimacy other than that created by him himself. This rules out hereditary leaders where the constitution, or well established custom, provides for a familial succession. That does not diminish the appalling barbarities perpetrated by some kings, emperors and such over the centuries. Essentially my view of a dictator is an absolute monarch who is not in office by virtue of birth. So, Cromwell = dictator, Charles I = not dictator; Robespierre = dictator, Louis XVI = not dictator -- without prejudice to anyone's assessment of those men's various activities in furthering their hold on power.

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #38 on: July 31, 2011, 10:10:10 PM »
So how do you fit in William the conqueror, Elisabeth I (excluded from succession by law), William III and George I?

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline <k>

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #39 on: July 31, 2011, 10:20:18 PM »
The infallible meeting the infallible.

Offline FosseWay

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #40 on: July 31, 2011, 10:26:37 PM »
BTW this is in response to Figleaf's last.

Hehe, there are always going to be difficult ones...  ;)

William III and George I: I wouldn't term these as dictators as to all intents and purposes they were constitutional monarchs. OK, they had more power than our current queen but are closer to her position than that of Charles I or Louis XIV.

Elizabeth was excluded from the succession but reinstated later. I don't think she merits the appellation 'dictator' any more than her father.

William I: an interesting case. To the English he meant something different than to the Normans, for whom he was a normal dynastic monarch (albeit a duke rather than a king).

I'm not disputing the dictatorial tendencies of many of these rulers, btw -- just trying to get to the bottom of why we reserve the word 'dictator' for non-royals who achieve and maintain power purely on their military might and not by appealing to the legitimacy of an institution or God.

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #41 on: July 31, 2011, 11:11:16 PM »
Seriously, I think your method rewards winners (George I, farther away from formal succession than the Stuart pretenders, William III, driving the legal king off the throne) and punishes losers (Cromwell & son, losing out to the Stuarts in the end). For a non-English example, look here. Was Louis Napoléon a dictator because he usurped the leadership of the country for the benefit of another dictator (not unlike father Tiso, represented in this thread), or was he a regular bloke doing his smelly best to do a good job and failing in the end? Clue: he may have been the most popular Dutch king ever.

So now, it's my turn to define dictator. I go back to the Roman Republic times, when a dictator was a military leader with extraordinary powers for wartime only. I define a dictator as one who 1) has effectively no political opposition and in addition 2) in practice needs no permissions, money allocations or additional power to conduct war.

Shoot. I'll help. This definition lets father Tiso off the hook.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline chrisild

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #42 on: August 01, 2011, 12:19:50 AM »
Seeing those Franco coins reminds me of how poor a likeness of him they are, in my opinion. They don't look anything like the portrait of him on the stamps of the same period (which themselves show him younger than he really was -- he was getting on for 80 when he died); the stamps though are a closer representation of what he looked like in real life.

One reason could be that, on those stamps, Franco looks looks at you so to say. On the coins (see the two Franco coins that coffeetime posted) you have his profile. Here are two images of 1 peseta coins, from Wikipedia. The first one (1953/56) shows the earlier type, the second one (1966/75) has the later type. That second type I find more characteristic ...
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/1953_1_Pesetas.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/1975_1_Pesetas.jpg

Christian

Offline andyg

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #43 on: August 01, 2011, 12:28:07 AM »
One reason could be that, on those stamps, Franco looks looks at you so to say. On the coins (see the two Franco coins that coffeetime posted) you have his profile. Here are two images of 1 peseta coins, from Wikipedia. The first one (1953/56) shows the earlier type, the second one (1966/75) has the later type. That second type I find more characteristic ...
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/1953_1_Pesetas.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/1975_1_Pesetas.jpg

Christian


you know, I must have looked at thousands of those over the years - and never noticed two portraits   :o
always willing to trade modern UK coins for modern coins from elsewhere....

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Dictators on Coins
« Reply #44 on: August 01, 2011, 12:47:46 AM »
The other way around for me. I thought the portrait on the 5 pesetas 1949 (KM 778) was different from that on later coins (e.g. KM 786, its successor), but I can't see a difference now.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.