News:

Sign up for the monthly zoom events by sending a PM with your email address to Hitesh

Main Menu

Manx Coinage 18th Century Non-Regal Issues

Started by Deeman, September 17, 2023, 05:35:19 PM

Previous topic - Next topic

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Deeman

Introduction

The history of the Isle of Man, otherwise simple known as Mann, appears to have gained stability in 1405 when Henry IV granted the island to Sir John Stanley on a feudal basis with fees and homage promised to all future kings of England. The title of Earl of Derby was conferred on the Stanleys in 1485 by Henry VII after the Battle of Bosworth Field.

The Earls of Derby held the island, first as 'Kings' and later, in 1609, as 'Lords of Mann' when that title became enshrined in law tied to the condition that the island would be passed to family descendants. As a consequence of the 1609 Act the Isle of Man was inherited in 1736 by James Murray, second Duke of Atholl, when the tenth Earl of Derby died without any surviving issue. James Murray was essentially forced to sell the lord proprietary rights and control over the isle's customs under the Isle of Man Purchase Act (also known as the Act of Revestment) to the British Crown in 1765 for £70,000 as a consequence of the flourishing smuggling trade conducted to and from the island.

The first distinct Manx minor coinage was introduced in 1709. Prior to that date, Irish, Scottish and English coins circulated freely on the island. The Stanleys issued this first coinage which was followed by unofficial issues under lease in 1723 and 1725. The Stanleys then had a second issue in 1733 with James Murray producing a final non-regal issue in 1758. Regal Manx coinage was first issued by George III in 1786.

Deeman

Coinage of the Stanleys

All the issues under the control of the Earl of Derby have the Stanley crest on the obverse with the family's motto 'Sans changer' (without change) above and the date below. The Stanley crest is an eagle with wings addorsed (turned back to back) upon a swaddled child in wicker basket atop a cap of maintenance.

The origin of the eagle and child is said to have been assumed on account of Sir Thomas Latham who, in the 14th century, had a daughter but no son to carry on the name. As the story goes, it is said that a serving wench, Mary Oskatel, had borne him an illegitimate son, and to enable him to present the baby boy to his wife for adoption, he arranged for the child to be left at the base of a tree in which there was a bird's nest (in some accounts an eagle's nest), which Sir Thomas had been observing. He took care that the baby was not lying there long and hastened home to acquaint his lady and family with his 'miraculous' discovery. His wife agreed that they should adopt him for their heir and he was named Oskatel. In spite of the success of his plan, Oskatel pre-deceased Sir Thomas and he left all his estate and wealth to his daughter Isabel. The daughter eventually married Sir John Stanley and in memory of her half-brother persuaded him to include the 'Eagle and Child' in the crest of the family's coat of arms.

A cap of maintenance is a ceremonial cap worn to keep a coronet secure and comfortable on the head, thus its function being to simply maintain the coronet in place.

An adaptation of the ancient Celtic triskelion symbol (or triskele, Greek for three legs) appears on all the reverses with the circumscription 'Quocunque jeceris stabit' translating to 'whichever way you throw, it will stand'. The symbol has three legs armoured with spurs, pointedly turning left (clockwise) on the early issues, but changing to an anti-clockwise direction on later issues. The regal coinage adopted a clockwise direction, as does the national flag.

The first issue by James Stanley comprised cast pennies and halfpennies dated 1709. This was followed by unofficial issues from Richard Maguire and Josiah Poole who had leased the customs of the Isle of Man from James Stanley. They struck shillings, sixpences, pennies and halfpennies in 1723 and a halfcrown in 1725. A second issue by James Stanley in 1733 comprised pennies and halfpennies.

Deeman

James Stanley first issue

These are cast copper pennies and halfpennies with the triskelion turning clockwise. Proclaimed coinage by Act of Tynwald on 12 Jun 1710. The coins may have been produced on the island, although the Act states that they were sent over from England.

Earl of Derby 1709 cast copper penny, clockwise triskelion, S7401.jpg

1709 dated penny, 29mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, rosette stops.
Reverse inscription is QVOCVNQVE GESSERIS STABIT, initial rosette, pellet stops.

Earl of Derby 1709 cast copper halfpenny, clockwise triskelion, S7402.jpg

1709 dated halfpenny, 24mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stops.
Reverse inscription is QVOCVNQVE GESSERIS STABIT, pellet stops.

Deeman

Maguire & Poole first issue

No coinage was proclaimed by Act of Tynwald between 1710 and 1733, so the Maguire & Poole issues are an unofficial coinage. Richard Maguire, a Dublin banker, and Josiah Poole, a wealthy Liverpool merchant, leased the customs of the Isle of Man from the Earl of Derby in Mar 1721 for the sum of £1,050 a year. It soon became apparent that it was going to be difficult to transact everyday business due to the shortage of coinage in circulation. Sample coins were prepared in 1721 based on the 1709 design, but were refused approval to strike up a quantity of the coins by James Stanley. Two years hence and the situation became so serious that they acquired another pair of dies, probably by William Wood, and had the coins unofficially produced. Probably manufactured locally, almost certainly at Ballasalla by the Wilks family, who later assisted Samuel Topping and Amos Dyall with the manufacture of the 1733 coinage in Castle Rushen, Castletown.

The coinage, dated 1723, consisted of shillings and sixpences in silver and pennies and halfpennies in copper. The shilling was struck from the penny dies and the sixpence from the halfpenny dies. The triskelion turns anti-clockwise. All are very rare.

Maguire & Poole 1723 silver shilling, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7403.jpg
Maguire & Poole 1723 copper penny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7405.jpg

1723 dated shilling and penny, 28mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stop.
Reverse inscription is QVOCVNQVE GESSERIS STABIT, initial domino 5 of pellets, pellet stops, pellets on armour.

Maguire & Poole 1723 silver sixpence, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7404.jpg
Maguire & Poole 1723 copper halfpenny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7406.jpg

1723 dated sixpence and halfpenny, 25mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stop.
Reverse inscription is QVOCVNQVE GESSERIS STABIT, pellet stops, pellets on armour.

Deeman

Maguire & Poole second issue

In 1725, Maguire & Poole coined a silver halfcrown. According to Manx Government papers they were almost instantly suppressed by the Legislature of the Isle. Consequently they are extremely rare.

Maguire & Poole 1725 silver halfcrown, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7407.jpg

1725 dated halfcrown, 33mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stop.
Reverse inscription is QUOCUNQUE GESSERIS STABIT, initial domino 5 of pellets, pellet stops.

Deeman

James Stanley pattern penny

An unadopted pattern copper penny was struck in 1732 with design changes. The neck of the eagle is greatly arched, the baby and cradle are redesigned with an olive branch bearing eight leaves added to the head of the cradle, the date flanks the cradle, the triskelion turns clockwise with the feet dividing the inscription which has jeceris spelt correctly, and 'I D and 1' for Jacobus Darbiensis (James Derby) and one (penny) appear between the limbs.

Earl of Derby 1732 pattern copper penny, clockwise triskelion.jpg

1732 dated pattern penny, 29mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stop.
Reverse inscription is QUOCUNQUE IECERIS STABIT, initial domino 5 of pellets, pellet stops.

Deeman

James Stanley second issue

Under a proclaimed coinage by Act of Tynwald 25 Jun 1733, pennies and halfpennies were produced on the Island by Amos Topping and Samuel Dyall in Castle Rushen, Castletown. The dies were made by William Wood's family. The coins were struck in bath metal, copper and silver. It is reported that the bath metal (alloy of zinc and copper) was obtained by the melting down of some disused cannons in Castle Rushen.

The triskelion turns anti-clockwise, jeceris is spelt correctly. The penny has 'I D and 1' for Jacobus Darbiensis (James Derby) and one (penny) between the limbs. The halfpenny has 'I D and ½'.

Earl of Derby 1733 bath metal penny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7408.jpg

1733 dated bath metal penny, 29mm diameter.
Obverse inscription is SANS CHARGER, pellet stop.
Reverse inscription is QUOCUNQUE IECERIS STABIT, pellet stops, pellets on armour.

Earl of Derby 1733 copper penny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7408.jpg

1733 dated copper penny.

Earl of Derby 1733 silver penny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7408a.jpg

1733 dated silver penny.

Earl of Derby 1733 bath metal halfpenny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7409.jpg

1733 dated bath metal halfpenny, 24mm diameter.

Earl of Derby 1733 copper halfpenny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7409.jpg

1733 dated copper halfpenny.
 
Earl of Derby 1733 silver halfpenny, anti-clockwise triskelion, S7409a.jpg

1733 dated silver halfpenny.

Deeman

James Murray, Duke of Atholl, issue

Having inherited the Lord of Mann title in 1736, it was not until 1758 due to scarcity of small change that coinage was proclaimed by Act of Tynwald, the Act still continuing the issues of 1733 as legal currency. In consequence 60,000 pence and 72,000 halfpence copper pieces were issued. The coinage was struck in Birmingham by John Florry and the original invoice in the archives states that he also struck 47 silver pennies.

The obverse has the monogram 'AD' for Atholl Dux, above is a ducal coronet and the date is below. The reverse has the triskelion turning anti-clockwise and the design shows subtle changes to the 1733 issue with the kneecaps being more pronounced and only the front of the limb armoured between knee and ankle. The letter 'J' now starts jeceris.

Duke of Atholl 1758 copper penny, S7410.jpg

1758 dated copper penny, 30mm diameter.
Reverse inscription is QUOCUNQUE JECERIS STABIT, pellet stops.

Duke of Atholl 1758 silver penny, S7410a.jpg

1758 dated silver penny.

Duke of Atholl 1758 copper halfpenny, S7411.jpg

1758 dated copper halfpenny, 25mm diameter.

Offa

All coins are equal but some are more equal than others