English Civil War Provincial Mint Issues

Started by Deeman, July 15, 2022, 02:53:03 PM

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Deeman

Bristol sixpence

Issued 1643-44. The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'VI' and with the 1643 issue having a different reverse circumscription of CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





1643 dated Bristol sixpence, 'Br' monogram initial mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET H REX, no plumelet.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.





1644 dated Bristol sixpence, 'Br' monogram initial mark on reverse on its side.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET H REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bristol groat

Issued 1644. The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'IIII'.





1644 dated Bristol groat, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1644 dated Bristol groat, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, 'Br' monogram below date.





1644 dated Bristol groat, 'Br' monogram initial mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET HIB REX, larger bust, plume front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bristol threepence

Issued 1644. The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'III'.





1644 dated Bristol threepence, open book initial mark on obverse. Aberystwyth die obverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG B F ET H REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.





1644 dated Bristol threepence, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, plumelet front of bust.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI.

Deeman

Bristol half-groat

The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'II', no plumelet before bust and no date.





Undated Bristol half-groat, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIP INIMICI, 'Br' monogram below declaration.

Deeman

Bristol penny

The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with value 'I' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse design is a large plume within a coronet with a circumscription of JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT which translates to 'Justice strengthens the throne.'





Undated Bristol penny, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F E H REX.
Reverse inscription is IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT.

Deeman

Exeter Mint

On 4 Sep 1643, following a siege, Exeter surrendered to Prince Maurice and the city remained in Royalist hands until 9 Apr 1646. On 3 Jan 1643/4 Sir Richard Vyvyan received a Royal Commission to set up a mint in Exeter but he had, however, within three weeks of its capture, received plate there to be coined anticipating that Exeter would be chosen as a mint. There is no mention of the Truro mint after Sep 1643 leaving over a three-month period to the establishment of the Exeter mint. Uncoined bullion from Truro would have been somewhat risky to transport to Exeter. Therefore, there is a strong possibility that the Truro mint remained open until Exeter was ready to start operations with coins that came late from Truro or early from Exeter being listed as 'Truro or Exeter'. Coins dated 1644 or 1645 were all struck at Exeter, but it is difficult to draw a clear line between the two mints for the undated coins.

The only gold coin struck at Exeter was the undated unite (20/-). The silver coins struck at Exeter were the half-pound (10/-), crown (5/-), halfcrown, shilling, sixpence, groat, threepence, half-groat and penny. The initial mark was usually the rose, occasionally a castle or 'Ex'. Higher silver denominations down to the shilling were struck 1643-45, with the lower denominations only struck in 1644. None are dated 1646 because, at that time, the year ended 24 Mar and therefore 1646 was only two weeks old when Exeter succumbed to the Parliamentarians.

A halfcrown exists retro-dated to 1642, clearly an anomaly with the date for a coin struck at Exeter. The obverse depicts the king, holding a field marshal's baton aloft, galloping over arms and the reverse shows a scroll-garnished shield with lion's paws at the sides and with 1642 in a cartouche below. In a study of the Truro and Exeter mints, Edward Besley demonstrated, by examining the punches used in the shield, that the 1642 halfcrown was struck on two separate occasions, but during the period in which Exeter was active in 1644 and not at Truro. Vyvyan's order at Truro was to strike coins in gold and silver "with the forms now current within the realm" and this coin clearly doesn't conform. There is no firm evidence as to why the date 1642 was used. The obverse design is somewhat similar to that used on the Scottish Rebellion medal by Thomas Simon in 1639 when the king raised his royal standard in preparation for the Bishops War, perhaps drawing a parallel with design and date to Nottingham in 1642 at the start of the English Civil War.

Deeman

Exeter unite

The unite was struck in 0.917 fine 'crown' gold (22ct). The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left with the value 'XX' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse has a crowned garnished oval shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England, with or without crowned letters 'CR' flanking the shield. There are two circumscriptions starting and finishing at the crown. Where the shield is flanked by the crowned letters 'CR' it is FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, translating to 'Through concord, kingdoms flourish.' Without the crowned letters 'CR' flanking the shield it is CULTORES SUI DEUS PROTEGIT, translating to 'God protects His worshippers.'





Picture from a book plate. Undated Exeter unite, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription is CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT, no letters flanking shield.

For the unite with crowned letters 'CR' flanking the shield, the Chester example (see post 73) is representative but the initial mark is a rose for Exeter.

Deeman

Exeter half-pound and crown

The obverse depicts the king on horseback to left facing viewer, holding sword in his right hand, with or without bow in sash behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse is a garnished oval shield of the Royal Arms, with precedence given to England. In the first and fourth quarters have the lions of England arranged quarterly with the French lis (dating from the claim to the French throne made by Edward III in 1340), the lion of Scotland is in the second quarter and the harp of Ireland in the third. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





Undated Exeter crown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.

The half-pound coin was struck from the crown dies pictured above on a thick flan.





Undated Exeter crown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.





1644 dated Exeter crown, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date divided by initial mark.





1645 dated Exeter crown, rose initial mark on obverse, 'Ex' reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.





1645 dated Exeter crown, castle initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BRI FRA ET HI REX, no bow in sash.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.

Deeman

Exeter 1642 retro-dated halfcrown

The obverse depicts the king on horseback to left, holding a field marshal's baton in his right hand, galloping over arms, flowing sash behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse design is a garnished shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England with lion's paws at the sides and with 1642 in a cartouche below. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





1642 retro-dated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, garniture with lion's paws at sides.





1642 retro-dated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark on obverse, Exeter rose reverse.



Struck in high quality and with only a small number made, it was possibly made as a commemorative. Only 21 known examples, five of which are in museums.

Deeman

Exeter halfcrown

Issued 1643-45. The obverse depicts the king on horseback to left, holding sword in his right hand, flowing sash behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. There are two reverse designs. One is a garnished shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England within a circumscription of CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.' The first issue had an oblong shield flanked by the letters 'CR'. The other has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (REL PRO LE / ANG LIB PAR) in two lines between ruled lines, with three plumes above and date below, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1) starting at 9 o'clock.





Undated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FRA ET HIB REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, garniture of 8 even scrolls.





Undated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FRA ET HIB REX, bow in sash.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.





Undated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, Briot horseman, lumpy ground line.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, garniture of 8 even scrolls.





Undated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, Briot horseman, lumpy ground line.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, garniture inverted.





1644 dated Exeter halfcrown, Truro rose initial mark on obverse, Exeter rose reverse. Officially pierced full-weight coin allowing it to circulate during the great recoinage of 1696 until sufficient new coin had been minted.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, Briot horseman, lumpy ground line.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter halfcrown, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M BR FR ET HI REX, short portly king on ill-proportioned horse.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter halfcrown, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M BR FR ET HI REX, short portly king on ill-proportioned horse.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date divided by initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter halfcrown, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX, horse with twisted tail.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter halfcrown, Exeter rose initial mark on obverse, 'Ex' reverse at 9 o'clock.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX, horse with twisted tail.
Reverse inscription is EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI, date flanked by pellets, 'Ex' below date.





1645 dated Exeter halfcrown, Exeter rose initial mark on obverse, castle reverse.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX, horse with twisted tail.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.

Deeman

Exeter shilling

Issued 1643-45. The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with value 'XII' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. There are two reverse designs. One has a garnished shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England within a circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ,' dated and undated. An early issue has the shield flanked by the letters 'CR'. The other, dated 1645, has an abbreviation of the king's declaration to protect 'the religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament' (RELIG PROT / LEG ANG / LIB PAR) in three lines between ruled lines, with three plumes above and date below, all within the circumscription EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI which translates to 'Let God arise and let His enemies be scattered' (Psalms 68.1). (No images of shield flanked by 'CR' and declaration type.)





Undated Exeter shilling, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.





1644 dated Exeter shilling, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.





1645 dated Exeter shilling, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.

Deeman

Exeter sixpence

Issued 1644. The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, value 'VI' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse is a garnished oval shield bearing the Royal Arms, with precedence given to England, within a circumscription of CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ.'





1644 dated Exeter sixpence, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date to left of initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter sixpence, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MAG BR FR ET H REX, smaller bust and letters (from groat punch).
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO, date divided by initial mark.

Deeman

Exeter groat

Issued 1644. The designs and inscriptions follow those of the shilling but with value 'IIII' and date on obverse.





1644 dated Exeter groat, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, date to right of initial mark.
Reverse inscription is CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO.

Deeman

Exeter threepence

Issued 1644. The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, value 'III' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse is a square-topped shield upon a long cross fourchée bearing the Royal Arms, with precedence given to England. The circumscription is CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO, translating to 'I reign under the auspices of Christ,' divided across the quadrants of the cross.




1644 dated Exeter threepence, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G MA BR F E H RE.
Reverse inscription is CHRIS / TO AVS / PICE R / EGN, 1644 above shield.

Deeman

Exeter half-groat

Issued 1644. The obverse depicts the crowned bust of the king left in lace collar and armour, with value 'II' behind, within a circumscription translating to 'Charles, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, king'. There are two reverse designs. One has a garnished shield of the Royal Arms with precedence given to England and the other has a large rose, both designs within the circumscription JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT, abbreviated and misspelt, which translates to 'Justice strengthens the throne.'





1644 dated Exeter half-groat, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription is THRO IVSTI FIRMAT, date to left of initial mark.





1644 dated Exeter half-groat, Exeter rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is CAROLVS D G M B F ET HI REX.
Reverse inscription is THRO IVSTI FIRMAT, date to left of initial mark.