English Coinage of the Tudors

Started by Deeman, May 12, 2022, 10:50:15 AM

Previous topic - Next topic

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Deeman

Edward VI - Henry VIII posthumous coinage - testoon

As the period of debasement progressed, counterfeit coinage became an even greater problem than normal. The counterfeiter was effectively able to do illegally what the government was doing legally by debasing the coinage, and they could produce coins that were as good as the official issues and still make a good profit.

The testoon was scheduled to be demonetised on 31 Dec 1548. The government's plan was to 'convert' testoons during 1548 to the then current 4 oz. coinage of groats and smaller denominations but because the deadline for demonetisation was the end of the year people continued to use them and so conversion was initially slow. Bullion to the mint was once again in decline and silver output from the mint was down, so in Oct 1548 the government raised the price the mint paid for silver. As such many of the earlier finer testoons were melted privately and were sold back to the mint as bullion at a profit instead of being surrendered as demonetised coin.

The posthumous testoon had a value of 12d at a weight of 120 grains, 0.25oz troy at 0.333 fine, 30-31mm diameter. The obverse of the testoon depicts a crowned, bearded facing bust, the crown having a single jewelled arch, within a circumscription commencing with an initial mark which translates to 'Henry 8, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king.' The reverse depicts a crowned Tudor rose flanked by the crowned letters 'h-R' within a circumscription, commencing with an initial mark, of POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'I have made God my helper' from Psalms 54:4, whilst Bristol issues have CIVITAS BRISTOLIE which cannot be easily distinguished from those struck during Henry's reign.





1547-48 testoon, London, pellet in annulet initial mark both sides. (Extremely rare.)
Obverse inscription is hЄnRIC 8 DI' GRA' AGL' FRA' z hIB' RЄX, lozenge stops, bust 3 (cropped hair, no jewels on band).
Reverse inscription is POSVI DЄVm ADIVTORIVm mЄVm, sleeve stops.

Deeman

Edward VI - Henry VIII posthumous coinage - groat

The posthumous groat had a weight 40 grains, 0.0833oz troy at 0.333 fine, 24mm diameter. The obverse depicts a three-quarter crowned bust facing right, the crown having a single jewelled arch, within a circumscription which translates to 'Henry 8, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king.' The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms. There are two types of reverse circumscriptions divided across the quadrants of the cross. Tower issues have POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'I have made God my helper' from Psalms 54:4, whilst other mints identify the city in their circumscription.





1547-51 groat, London, grapple initial mark on reverse.
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB' REX, lozenge stops, bust 6 (without cloak, wearing a garment with a falling collar).
Reverse inscription is POSVI / DEV' A / DIVTOR / E' MEV, lozenge stops, rose in cross-ends.





1547-51 groat, Southwark, 'E' initial mark on reverse. ('E' was the initial letter for under-treasurer John York's surname in Latin.)
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB' REX, bust 5.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS/ LON / DON, rose in cross-ends.





1547-50 groat, Canterbury, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB' REX, lozenge stops, bust 6.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS/ CAN / TOR, rose in cross-ends.

Deeman

Edward VI - Henry VIII posthumous coinage – half-groat

The posthumous half-groat had a weight 20 grains, 0.0417oz troy at 0.333 fine, 19mm diameter. The obverse depicts a three-quarter crowned bust facing right, the crown having a single jewelled arch, within a circumscription commencing which translates to 'Henry 8, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king.' The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms. Reverse circumscriptions, divided across the quadrants of the cross, are POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'I have made God my helper' from Psalms 54.4 (Tower) and REDDE CUIQUE QUOD SUUM EST or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'Render to each that which is his own' (Durham House), whilst Bristol, Canterbury, Southwark and York mints identify their city (CIVITAS LONDON for Southwark).





1547-51 half-groat, London, arrow initial mark on obverse, 'K' on reverse.
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' R' AG' FR' z HI' REX, bust 1.
Reverse inscription is POSVI / DEV' AD / IVTOR / E' MEV.





1547-51 half-groat, York, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' R' A' F' z HIB' REX, lozenge stops, bust 1.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / EBO / RACI.





1547-51 half-groat, Southwark, 'E' initial mark on reverse. ('E' was the initial letter for under-treasurer John York's surname in Latin.)
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' AG' FR' Et HI' REX, letters 'Et' Latin for 'and', lozenge stops, bust 1.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS/ LON / DON, lozenge stops.





1548-49 half-groat, Durham House, bow initial mark on reverse. (Extremely rare.)
Obverse inscription is HENRIC 8 D' G' R' AGL' FRA' z HI' REX, bust 1.
Reverse inscription is REDD / CVIQ / QD SV / VM EST, annulet in cross-ends.





1549 half-groat, Bristol Castle, 'TC' monogram both sides (under-treasurer Thomas Chamberlain).
Obverse inscription is hЄnRIC 8 D' G' AnG' FR' z hIB' RЄX, bust 1.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / BRIS / TOLIЄ, lis after TAS.

Deeman

Edward VI - Henry VIII posthumous coinage – penny

The posthumous penny had a weight of 10 grains, 0.0208oz troy at 0.333 fine, 15mm diameter. The obverse design is either a crowned, bearded bust facing (London, Bristol, Canterbury, Southwark and York) or a three-quarter crowned bust facing right (London, Durham House, Canterbury and York) with a circumscription which translates to 'Henry, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms. The circumscription, which is split across the quadrants formed by the cross, identifies the mint with the exception of Durham House which has an abbreviation of REDDE CUIQUE QUOD SUUM EST translating to 'Render to each that which is his own.'





1547-51 penny, London, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is H D G ROSA SINE SPI, lozenge stops, facing bust.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON.





1547-51 penny, London, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is H D G ROSA SINE SPIN, lozenge stops, three-quarter bust.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON.





1547-50 penny, Canterbury, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is H D G ROSA SINE SP, facing bust.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / CAN / TOR, CANTOR over LONDON.





1547-49 penny, Bristol Castle, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is hЄ 8 D G ROSA SInЄ SPInA, facing bust.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / BRIS / TOLIЄ, lis after TAS.





1548-49 penny, Durham House, bow initial mark on reverse. (Extremely rare.)
Obverse inscription is H D G ROSA SINE SPI, double struck, three-quarter bust.
Reverse inscription is RED / CVIQ / Q SV / EST, annulet in cross-ends.

Deeman

Edward VI - Henry VIII posthumous coinage – halfpenny

The posthumous halfpenny had a weight of 5 grains, 0.0104oz troy at 0.333 fine, 11mm diameter. The obverse design is a crowned, bearded bust facing with a circumscription which translates to 'Henry, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse design is a long cross fourchée dividing the coin into four quadrants circumscribed by an inscription identifying the mint, split across the quadrants with each inner quadrant having a trio of pellets.





1547-49 halfpenny, London.
Obverse inscription is [H D G ROSA SINE SPI].
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON.

Deeman

#65
Edward VI 1547 gold pattern set

A small series of artistic gold patterns or coronation commemoratives of 1547 were produced of half-sovereign diameter and of weights from that of a full sovereign down to that of a gold crown.



The half-sovereign design features a crowned Tudor rose with stem and six leaves, flanked by the letters 'E-R', within a circumscription translating to 'Edward VI, king of England, France and Ireland etc.' The reverse has a four-line inscription translating to 'Insignia of the most potent king of England' with 1547 below.



Obverse inscription is EDWARD' VI REX ANG FRANC HIBER &C, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is INSIGNIA / POTENTISSI / MI REGIS A / NGLIE / 1547, rosette stops.



The obverse of the crown design depicts the profile cuirassed bust of the king, uncrowned, facing right with the same circumscription as that on the half-sovereign but commencing with a rose initial mark. The reverse features the same design as that of the obverse of the half-sovereign with the circumscription, commencing with a rose initial mark, of SCUTUM FIDEI PROTEGET EUM translating to 'The shield of faith shall protect him.'



Obverse inscription is EDWARD' VI REX ANGL FRANC HIBER &C, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, rosette stops.

Deeman

Edward VI first period half-sovereign

The half-sovereign had a value of 10/- and was issued at 20ct, 0.833 fine at a weight of 96 grains, 0.2oz troy with a 29-30mm diameter. Struck from Henry VIII dies with a youthful portrait. The obverse depicts the king with imperial crown seated facing on a high-back throne with decorative side pillars, wearing his coronation gown and holding orb and sceptre, a Tudor rose at king's feet. The circumscription translates to 'Edward 6, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse design features a crowned quartered shield of the Royal Arms supported by a crowned lion and a dragon with a monogram ER in cartouche below. The circumscription reads JESUS AUTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT or abbreviation thereof translating to 'But Jesus passing through their midst went His way', Luke 4:30.





1547-49 half-sovereign, London, arrow initial mark both sides. (Arrow for under-treasurer Sir Martin Bowes.)
Obverse inscription is EDWARD 6 D' GRA' AG' / FRANC z HIB' REX, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is IHS AVTE' TRANSIE PER MEDI' ILLOR' IBAT, lozenge stops.

Deeman

Edward VI first period crown and half-crown

The first period crown had a value of 5/- at a weight of 48 grains, 0.1oz troy at 0.833 fine (20ct), 24mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned Tudor rose flanked by the crowned letters 'E-R' within a circumscription RVTILANS ROSA SINE SPINE (dazzling rose without a thorn). The reverse depicts a crowned shield with the arms of England and France flanked by the crowned letters 'E-R' within a circumscription EDWARD 6 D G AG FR z HIB REX (Edward 6, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king). The initial mark is an arrow on both sides.

The first period crown is exceedingly rare and no image is available.

The first period half-crown had a value of 2/6 at a weight of 24 grains, 0.05oz troy at 0.833 fine (20ct), 19mm diameter. It has the same obverse and reverse designs apart from the letter 'E-R' being uncrowned. The inscriptions are also practically the same, again with the arrow initial mark.

As with the crown, the half-crown is exceedingly rare and no image is available.

The designs are depicted on the Henry VIII equivalent half-crown pictured below.



Deeman

Edward VI 1547 pattern shilling

Patterns for a new 12d coin, struck in 0.925 fine silver at 26mm diameter, bearing the portrait and titles of Edward VI had been prepared as early as 1547 but it was not until 24 Jan 1549 that a substantive issue was authorised.

The obverse depicts the profile cuirassed, crowned bust of the king facing right with a circumscription, commencing with a rose initial mark, translating to 'Edward VI, king of England, France and Ireland etc.' The reverse design features a crowned, garnished, oval quartered shield of the Royal Arms with or without the letters 'E-R' flanking the shield within a circumscription of TIMOR DOMINI FONS VITÆ (The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life) followed by the date 1547 in Roman numerals.





1547 dated pattern shilling, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI REX ANGL FRAN HIBER &C, lozenge stops, rose between FRAN and HIBER.
Reverse inscription is TIMOR DOMINI FONS VITÆ M D XLVII, lozenge stops.





1547 dated pattern shilling, rose initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI REX ANGL FRANC HIBER &C, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is TIMOR DOMINI FONS VITÆ M D XLVII, slipped trefoil stops, 'E-R' flanking shield

Deeman

Edward VI first period groat

The first period groat had a weight 40 grains, 0.0833oz troy at 0.333 fine, 24mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned profile bust facing right, the crown having a single jewelled arch, within a circumscription which translates to 'Edward 6, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king.' The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms. There are two types of reverse circumscriptions divided across the quadrants of the cross. Tower issues have POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'I have made God my helper' from Psalms 54:4, whilst Southwark has CIVITAS LONDON (City of London).





1547-49 groat, London, arrow initial mark both sides. (Arrow for under-treasurer Sir Martin Bowes.)
Obverse inscription is EDWARD 6 D' G' AG' FR' z HIB' REX, hollow lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is POSVI / DIV' AD / IVTOR / E' MEVM.





1547-49 groat, London, arrow initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDOARD 6 D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB' REX, hollow lozenge stops. (EDOARD Gallicised spelling.)
Reverse inscription is POSVI / DIV' AD / IVTOR / E' MEV'.





1547-49 groat, Southwark, 'E' initial mark on reverse. ('E' was the initial letter for under-treasurer John York's surname in Latin.)
Obverse inscription is EDWARD 6 D' G' AG' FR' z HI' REX, hollow lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON, hollow lozenge stops.

Deeman

Edward VI first period half-groat

The first period half-groat had a weight 20 grains, 0.0417oz troy at 0.333 fine, 19mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned profile bust facing right, the crown having a single jewelled arch, within a circumscription which translates to 'Edward 6, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king.' The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms. There are two types of reverse circumscriptions divided across the quadrants of the cross. Tower issues have POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM or abbreviation thereof which translates to 'I have made God my helper' from Psalms 54:4, whilst Southwark and Canterbury issues have CIVITAS LONDON and CIVITAS CANTOR (or CANTON) respectively.





1547-49 half-groat, Southwark, 'E' initial mark on reverse. ('E' was the initial letter for under-treasurer John York's surname in Latin.)
Obverse inscription is EDWARD 6 D' G' AG' FR' [z HI'] REX, hollow lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON.





1547-49 half-groat, Canterbury, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is EDOARD 6 D' G' AGL' FRA' z HI' REX, no stops. (EDOARD Gallicised spelling.)
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / CAN / TON.

Deeman

Edward VI first period penny

The first period penny had a weight 10 grains, 0.0208oz troy at 0.333 fine, 15mm diameter. The obverse depicts a crowned profile bust facing right with a circumscription which translates to 'Edward, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn', with regnal number added in Bristol issue. The reverse design is a long cross fourchée surmounted by a square-topped shield bearing the King's arms within a circumscription split across the quadrants formed by the cross, identifying the city.





1547-49 penny, London, arrow initial mark both sides. (Arrow for under-treasurer Sir Martin Bowes.)
Obverse inscription is H D G ROSA SINE SP, hollow lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / LON / DON.





1547-49 penny, Bristol Castle, no initial mark.
Obverse inscription is ЄD 6 D' G' ROSA SInЄ SPInA, hollow lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / BRIS / TOLIЄ, saltire stops, trefoil after TAS, trefoil in cross-ends.

Deeman

Edward VI first period halfpenny

The first period halfpenny had a weight of 5 grains, 0.0104oz troy at 0.333 fine, 11mm diameter. The obverse design is a crowned profile bust facing right with a circumscription which translates to 'Edward, by the Grace of God, a rose without a thorn'. The reverse design is a long cross fourchée dividing the coin into four quadrants circumscribed by an inscription identifying the mint, split across the quadrants with each inner quadrant having a trio of pellets.





1547-49 halfpenny, Bristol Castle. (Extremely rare.)
Obverse inscription is Є' D' G' ROSA SInЄ SPn, trefoil after ROSA.
Reverse inscription is CIVI / TAS / BRIS / TOLI, trefoil in cross-ends.

Deeman

Edward VI second period sovereign and treble sovereign

The second period sovereign had a value of 20/- and was issued at 22ct, 0.917 fine at a weight of 169.5 grains, 0.353oz troy with a 35mm diameter. The treble-sovereign had a value of 60/- and, in essence, was a piedfort being of standard diameter but treble weight. Both had the 'Y' initial mark.

The obverse depicts the king with imperial crown seated facing on a high-back throne with decorative side pillars, wearing doublet and hose, and holding orb and sceptre. The circumscription translates to 'Edward VI, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king'. The reverse design features a crowned quartered shield of the Royal Arms supported by a crowned lion and a dragon with a 'ER' in cartouche below. The circumscription reads JESUS AUTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT or abbreviation thereof translating to 'But Jesus passing through their midst went His way', Luke 4:30.





1549-50 sovereign or treble-sovereign, Southwark, 'Y' initial mark both sides. ('Y' was initial mark of under-treasurer Sir John York, which became 'y' when he transferred to the London Tower mint.)
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI DEI GRA' AGL' FRAN Et HIBER' REX, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is IHS AVTE' TRANCIENS PER MEDI' ILLOR' IBAT, lozenge stops.

Deeman

Edward VI second period half-sovereign

The second period half sovereign had a value of 10/- and was issued at 22ct, 0.917 fine at a weight of 84.75 grains, 0.177oz troy with a 27-28mm diameter. The obverse depicts the profile cuirassed bust of the king, either uncrowned or crowned, facing right. The reverse design features a crowned, garnished, oval quartered shield of the Royal Arms flanked by the letters 'E-R'. The circumscription relating to the king translates to 'Edward VI, by the Grace of God, England, France and Ireland, king'. Circumscriptions relating to mottoes are TIMOR DOMINI FONS VITAE (The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, Proverbs 14:27), SCUTUM FIDEI PROTEGET EUM (The shield of faith shall protect him) and LUCERNA PEDIBUS MEIS VERBUM TUUM (Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, Psalms 119:105).

The uncrowned busts have the motto on the obverse and the king's titles on the reverse, whereas the crowned busts have the king's titles on the obverse and the motto on the reverse.





1549-50 half-sovereign, uncrowned bust, London, arrow initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, rosette stops.
Reverse inscription is EDWARD VI D G AGL FRA z HIB REX, lozenge stops.





1549-50 half-sovereign, uncrowned bust, Southwark, 'Y' initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, rosette stops.
Reverse inscription is EDWARD VI D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB REX, lozenge stops.





1549 (dated 1548 by Julian calendar) half-sovereign, uncrowned half-length bust, Durham House, bow initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM MDXLVIII, slipped trefoil stops.
Reverse inscription is EDWARD VI D G ANGL FRA z HIBER REX, slipped trefoil stops.





1549 half-sovereign, uncrowned bust, Durham House, bow initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is LVCERNA PEDIBVS MEIS VERBVM TVVM, crescent stops.
Reverse inscription is EDWARD VI D G ANGL FRA z HIBE REX, saltire stops.





1549-50 half-sovereign, crowned bust, London, grapple initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI D G AGL FRA z HIB REX, rosette stops.
Reverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, rosette stops.





1549-50 half-sovereign, crowned bust, London, swan initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI D' G' AGL' FRA' z HIB REX, lozenge stops.
Reverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, rosette stops.





1549 half-sovereign, crowned half-length bust, Durham House, bow initial mark both sides.
Obverse inscription is EDWARD VI D G ANGL FRA z HIBER REX, slipped trefoil stops.
Reverse inscription is SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM, slipped trefoil stops.