Author Topic: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707  (Read 2287 times)

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Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #30 on: June 19, 2021, 01:00:40 PM »
Charles I second silver coinage 1636

This was a hammered coinage of denominations half-merk (6/8d), 40d (quarter-merk) and 20d (eighth-merk).

They were struck owing to the pressing need for small coin within the realm, and were ordered in a currency value last used prior to the Union of the Crowns and to be struck using a hammer as had been custom and practice.



Silver half-merk



Obverse: CAROLVS·D·G·SCOT:ANG:FR·&·HIB:R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with VI/8 behind bust (for 6/8d).
Reverse: CHRISTO·AVSPICE·REGNO· (I reign under the auspices of Christ), crowned shield of Scottish Arms.



Silver 40 pence



Obverse: CAR:D·G·SCOT:ANG:FR·&·HIB:R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XL behind bust (for 40d).
Reverse: SALVS·REIP:SVPR·LEX· (The safety of the State is the supreme law), crowned thistle.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: CAR:D·G·SCOT·ANG·FR·&·HIB·R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d).
Reverse: IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #31 on: June 19, 2021, 01:16:26 PM »
Charles I silver pattern pieces 1636

Nicholas Briot was first employed at the Royal Mint in 1628 and appointed chief engraver in 1633. Between 1635-38, he held the office of Master of the Mint in Scotland jointly with his son-in-law, John Falconer. He promoted the coining press to replace the traditional hammer-striking methods of coinage production. By 1632 he had managed to re-coin all the existing English denominations using his new machine. Briot’s new methods, however, met with resistance, particularly in Scotland where the Privy Council had firmly expressed itself against 'the introduction of ‘any novelties in our mint'. Following further discussions and negotiations, and after some deliberation, the Privy Council gave way and ordered that, for an experimental period of several months, money should be wrought by the mill. At the end of the period the Council would continue or forbid its further use. In 1637 automated practices were introduced.

Pattern milled pieces of denominations half-merk, 40d and 20d were struck by Briot in 1636, in the style of the hammered versions of that year. Briot probably made these beautiful patterns to substantiate his plea to be allowed to introduce machinery into the mint.

All pieces have a lozenge above and below the value behind the bust, a ‘B’ below the bust and use lozenge dividers for the inscriptions.
The half-merk is dated 1636 above the crown on the reverse.
The 40d has a crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’ flanking the thistle.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: ♦CAR♦D’G’SCOT♦ANG♦FR♦ET♦HIB♦R♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d), lozenge above and below value, ‘B’ below bust.
Reverse: ♦IVSTITIA♦THRONVM♦FIRMAT♦ (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’ flanking thistle.



Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #32 on: June 21, 2021, 01:49:45 PM »
Charles I milled coinage 1637-41

Overview of coinage covering the second gold issue and the third silver issue.

These coins were produced by Briot’s mill and press machinery. Under Briot’s standard of excellence, they were an enormous improvement on any gold or silver coins previously struck in Scotland. But, after Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638, there was a rapid falling off in standard. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many dies are badly executed and, on many specimens, parts of the legend are off the flan. By the last coinage there was a further deterioration, with poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

The 1637-41 coinages are sub-divided into five issues:
1. Briot's issue with ‘B’, 1637/8.
2. Intermediate issue, silver 30/- & 12/- only, no letter, 1637/8.
3. Falconer's first issue with ‘F’, 1638/9.
4. Falconer's second issue with ‘F’, 1639/40.
5. Falconer's anonymous issue, 1641.

Coins issued:
Gold: Unit(e) £12 (£1 sterling) Briot and Falconer’s first issue.
Gold: Double crown £6 (10/- sterling) Briot and Falconer’s first issue.
Gold: Britain crown £3 (5/- sterling) Briot.
Gold: Half-crown 30/- (2/6d sterling) Briot.
Silver: 60/- (5/- sterling) Briot.
Silver: 30/- (2/6d sterling) Briot, intermediate, Falconer’s second and anonymous issues.
Silver: 12/- (1/- sterling) Briot, intermediate and all Falconer’s issues.
Silver: 6/- (6d sterling) Briot and all Falconer’s issues.
Silver: Half-merk 6/8d (Scots) Briot.
Silver: 40d (Scots) Briot and Falconer’s first issue.
Silver: 20d (Scots) Briot and all Falconer’s issues.

The gold coins were struck from bullion recently brought into the kingdom from Guinea. There are two varieties of unit(e)s struck by Briot, one with the initial ‘B’ at the end of the obverse inscription and the other with the ‘B’ at the beginning. There are two varieties for the double crown, one with the king wearing a Scottish crown and, on the other, an English crown, with both have the initial ‘B’ below the bust. The Britain crown also has both crown types with the ‘B’ at the end of beginning of the obverse inscription. The half-crown only features the Scottish crown.

Of the seven silver denominations of Briot's issue, four were based on the English crown/sixpence and three on the Scottish merk. Since the half-merk was worth 6/8d Scots, there was little need for both a 6/- piece, and the half-merk was soon discontinued, shortly followed by the 40d piece. Eventually, only the 20d piece survived from the merk series.

Most coins of Briot have the initial ‘B’ on both obverse and reverse. The main exception is the 20d piece which always has a ‘B’ on the reverse. Those of Falconer have the letter ‘F’ on the obverse, which can also appear on the reverse.

Briot's penchant for lozenges is much in evidence, for they are commonly found as stops and are usually placed in a variety of positions near the value. Most of Falconer's coins have pellet stops, but a few have lozenges, as on Briot's. None of Briot's coins are dated. The practice of dating six-shilling pieces, begun in 1605 when a coin of this value was first introduced in Scotland, was now discontinued.

Early coins of Charles I, before 1636, used a portrait very similar to that of his father, facing right. That changed with Briot and Falconer coinage which used a left facing portrait except on the gold unit(e). The same applied to the crown and half-crown where the equestrian portrait is to the right on early coins and to the left after 1636.

Certain features on third coinage issues.
• On some denominations the king wears a Scottish crown (lis between crosses) and on others an English crown (cross between lis). On the merk series the crown, appropriately, is always Scottish, while on the 6/- pieces it is always English. On the 12/- and on some of Briot's gold denominations both varieties of crown are found.
• In the obverse legends MAG BRIT (or some variation) is on most values, but in the merk series SCOT ANG is more normal; some issues of 40d and 20d pieces have both types of legend.
• In the obverse legends an ampersand gradually displaces ET.
• Many legends are incomplete because the die-sinker misjudged the space needed to insert the full legend on the die. In some cases, the legend has been completed or almost completed by using smaller letters from a different font. A few of Briot's dies are marred in this manner, but these imperfections are more commonly found on Falconer's issues.

On the intermediate issue (limited to 30/- and 12/- silver issues) there is very little variation in the obverse from Briot's coin. The rendering of the king's features is in a different style. Both sides of each coin have a thistle-head mintmark. On the 12/- the king wears a Scottish crown. These two coins are sometimes confused with similar values of Falconer's anonymous issue. The intermediate coins are of much neater workmanship than the latter. On the 30/- the tip of the king's sword reaches the edge of the coin, whereas on the anonymous issue 30/- it extends only to the inner circle. On the intermediate 12/- the bust extends to the outer circle; on the anonymous issue 12/- it is surrounded by the legend.

Falconer's first issue is clearly distinguishable from his others by the fact that on all values the bust extends to the edge of the coin, the legend commencing at 7 o'clock. All have the initial F on the reverse.

On Falconer’s second issue 12/-, 6/- and 20d may be distinguished from similar values of other issues since the legend completely surrounds the bust and begins at 1 o'clock, and all values have an initial ‘F’ on obverse or reverse. On the 30/-, 12/- and 6/- a leaved thistle mintmark is normally found on both obverse and reverse, but occasionally it is replaced by a thistle-head or is omitted. The thistle head is a common feature of the anonymous issue for these values. Lozenge stops occur on one variety of 30/- and one 12/-.

Falconer’s anonymous issue are similar in appearance to those of the second issue, but they do not have an ‘F’ on either obverse or reverse.


Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #33 on: June 21, 2021, 02:00:16 PM »
Charles I second gold issue 1637-39

Coins issued:
Unit(e) £12 (£1 sterling) Briot & Falconer.
Double crown £6 (10/- sterling) Briot & Falconer.
Britain crown £3 (5/- sterling) Briot.
Half-crown 30/- (2/6d sterling) Briot.
Gold unit(e) 1637/8 Briot





Obverse: CAROLVS♦D:G♦MAG♦BRITAN♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned cuirassed bust facing right, holding orb and sceptre. Thistle after REX followed by prone letter ‘B’.
Reverse: HIS♦PRÆSVM♦VT♦PROSIM♦ (I am put in authority, that I may serve), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters.



Gold unit(e) 1638/9 Falconer



As Briot issue but slight differences in bust rendering, thistle flanked by lozenge followed by a weak prone letter ‘F’.



Gold double crown 1637/8 Briot



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦MAG♦BRIT♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned cuirassed bust facing left. King’s crown English style. Prone letter ‘B’ below bust to the right.
Reverse: ♦VNITA♦TVEMVR♦ (We preserve them in unity), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters.
Also issued with king wearing Scottish crown.



Gold double crown 1638/9 Falconer



As Briot issue but slight differences in bust rendering and supine letter ‘F’ below bust to the right. Inscriptions have pellet stops, not lozenges. Again, king wearing English crown.



Gold Britain crown 1637/8 Briot



As Briot double crown but with FR for FRAN in obverse inscription. Again, king wearing English crown.
Also issued with king wearing Scottish crown.



Gold half-crown 1637/8 Briot



As Briot double crown but no letter ‘B’, ‘C’ & ‘R’ not crowned and king wearing Scottish crown.



Gold half-crown 1637/8 Briot



As Briot double crown but R for REX in obverse inscription and ‘C’ & ‘R’ not crowned. There would have been the letter ‘B’ on the obverse had it not been blundered. Again, king wearing English crown.


Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #34 on: June 21, 2021, 04:13:09 PM »
Charles I third silver issue – Briot 1637/8

Coins issued:
60/- (5/- sterling)
30/- (2/6d sterling)
12/- (1/- sterling)
6/- (6d sterling)
Half-merk 6/8d (Scots)
40d (Scots)
20d (Scots)



Silver 60 shillings



Obverse: thistle mintmark, CAROLVS♦D:G♦MAGN♦BRITANN♦FRANC♦ET♦HIBERN♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), armoured figure of Charles riding left on horse holding sword upright, grassy ground line below. Prone letter ‘B’ above thistle mintmark.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS♦CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET♦ (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms. Prone letter ‘B’ to right of thistle mintmark.



Silver 30 shillings



Obverse: anemone mintmark, CAROLVS♦D:G♦MAGN♦BRITAN♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), armoured figure of Charles riding left on horse holding sword upright, grassy ground line below. Letter ‘B’ to left of anemone mintmark.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms. Letter ‘B’ to left of thistle mintmark.



Silver 12 shillings



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦MAG♦BRIT♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, XII behind bust (for 12 Scottish shillings or English pence). Letter ‘B’ to bottom right of bust.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters. Prone letter ‘B’ above left end of crown.



Silver 6 shillings



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦MAG♦BRIT♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, VI behind bust (for 6 Scottish shillings or English pence). Letter ‘B’ to bottom right of bust. King’s crown always English style.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters.



Silver half-merk



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦SCOT♦ANG♦FR♦ET♦HIB♦R♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, VI/8 behind bust (for 6/8d), VI flanked by a lozenge. Prone letter ‘B’ to bottom right of bust.
Reverse: CHRISTO♦AVSPICE♦REGNO♦ (I reign under the auspices of Christ), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters.



Silver 40 pence



Obverse: ·CAR·D:G·SCOT·ANG:FR·&·HIB:R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XL behind bust (for 40d) with lozenge above and below.
Reverse: ·SALVS·REIPVB·SVPREMA·LEX· (The safety of the State is the supreme law), crowned thistle with prone letter ‘B’ above.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: CAR·D:G·SCOT·ANG·FR·ET·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, XX behind bust (for 20d) with lozenge above and below.
Reverse: IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle, prone letter ‘B’ above crown to the left.



Silver 20 pence



As above, but supine letter ‘B’ after obverse inscription and reverse inscription ending with a pellet.



Silver 20 pence



As above, but supine letter ‘B’ under thistle and pellets at start and end of reverse inscription.
« Last Edit: June 21, 2021, 05:01:44 PM by Deeman »

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #35 on: June 21, 2021, 07:46:50 PM »
Charles I third silver issue – intermediate 1637/8

Coins issued:
30/- (2/6d sterling)
12/- (1/- sterling)



Silver 30 shillings



Obverse: thistle mintmark, CAROLVS♦D:G♦MAGN♦BRITAN♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), armoured figure of Charles riding left on horse holding sword upright, grassy ground line below. Thistle after REX.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms. Thistle before QVÆ.



Silver 12 shillings



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦MAG♦BRITAN♦FR♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, XII behind bust (for 12 Scottish shillings or English pence). Thistle after REX.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters. Thistle above crown right of centre.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #36 on: June 21, 2021, 07:52:08 PM »
Charles I third silver issue – Falconer’s first 1638/9

Obverse inscription starts at 7 o’clock.

Coins issued:
12/- (1/- sterling)
6/- (6d sterling)
40d (Scots)
20d (Scots)



Silver 12 shillings



Obverse: CAROLVS♦D:G♦MAG♦BRITAN♦FR♦ET♦HIB♦REX (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XII behind bust (for 6 Scottish shillings or English pence).
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ♦DEVS:CONIVNXIT♦NEMO♦SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters. Prone letter ‘F’ above crown.



Silver 6 shillings



Obverse: CAR♦D:G♦MAG♦BRIT♦FRAN♦ET♦HIB♦REX♦ (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left, VI behind bust (for 6 Scottish shillings or English pence). King’s crown always English style.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters. Prone letter ‘F’ above crown.



Silver 40 pence



Obverse: CAR·D:G·SCOT·ANG·FR·ET·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XL behind bust (for 40d).
Reverse: ·SALVS·REIPVB·SVPREMA·LEX (The safety of the State is the supreme law), crowned thistle, prone letter ‘F’ above crown.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: CAR·D:G·SCOT·ANG·FR·ET·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d).
Reverse: IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle, supine letter ‘F’ after inscription.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #37 on: June 22, 2021, 05:31:48 PM »
Charles I third silver issue – Falconer’s second 1639/40

Obverse inscription starts at 1 o’clock and completely circumscribes the bust.

Coins issued:
30/- (2/6d sterling)
12/- (1/- sterling)
6/- (6d sterling)
20d (Scots)



Silver 30 shillings



Obverse: leafed thistle mintmark, ·CAROLVS·D:G·MAG:BRITAN·FRAN:&:HIB:REX: (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), armoured figure of Charles riding left on horse holding sword upright, grassy ground line below. Prone letter ‘F’ under horse’s hind hoof.
Reverse: leafed thistle mintmark, QVÆ:DEVS:CONIVNXIT:NEMO:SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms.



Silver 12 shillings



Obverse: leafed thistle mintmark, CAROLVS·D·G·MAGN·BRITAN·FRANC·ET·HIB·REX· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XII behind bust (for 12 Scottish shillings or English pence). Prone letter ‘F’ after REX.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET· (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters.



Silver 6 shillings



Obverse: leafed thistle mintmark, CAROLVS·D:G·MAG·BRIT·FR·ET·HIB·REX (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with VI behind bust (for 6 Scottish shillings or English pence). King’s crown always English style.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARE (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’, lozenge below letters. Last two letters (RE) of inscription are small. Prone letter ‘F’ above crown.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: CAR·D·G·SCOT·ANG·FR·&·HIB·R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d).
Reverse: ·IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle, prone letter ‘F’ above crown.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #38 on: June 23, 2021, 04:53:33 PM »
Charles I third silver issue – Falconer’s anonymous 1640/1

Obverse inscription starts at 1 o’clock.

Coins issued:
30/- (2/6d sterling)
12/- (1/- sterling)
6/- (6d sterling)
20d (Scots)



Silver 30 shillings



Obverse: leafed thistle mintmark, ·CAROLVS·D:G·MAG·BRIT·FRAN·&·HIB·REX· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), armoured figure of Charles riding left on horse holding sword upright, grassy ground line below.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET· (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms.



Silver 12 shillings



Obverse: thistle mintmark, ·CAROLVS·D:G·MAG·BRIT·FRAN·&·HIB·REX· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XII behind bust (for 12 Scottish shillings or English pence). King’s crown is English style.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET· (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’.



Silver 6 shillings



Obverse: leafed thistle mintmark, CAR·D·G·MAG·BRIT·FR·ET·HIB·REX· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with VI behind bust (for 6 Scottish shillings or English pence). King’s crown always English style.
Reverse: thistle mintmark, QVÆ·DEVS·CONIVNXIT·NEMO·SEPARET (What God has joined together, let no man put asunder), crowned shield of Scottish Arms flanked by crowned ‘C’ and ‘R’.



Silver 20 pence



Obverse: CAR·D·G·SCOT·ANG·FR·&·HIB·R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d).
Reverse: ·IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle.



Silver 20 pence variant



Obverse: mintmark lozenge, CAR·D:G·MAG·BRIT·FRAN·&·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with XX behind bust (for 20d).
Reverse: IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned thistle.


Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #39 on: June 23, 2021, 04:59:16 PM »
Charles I fourth silver coinage 1642

The English Civil war ended this coinage in the year it began. During the war, Scotland struck a few copper coins but after the war the Edinburgh mint closed and Scotland used the regular coins of the Commonwealth of England.

Coins issued:
3/- (3d sterling)
2/- (2d sterling)



Silver 3 shillings



Obverse: ·CAR·D·G·SCOT·ANG·FRAN·&·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with thistle head behind bust.
Reverse: ·SALVS·REIP·SVPR·LEX (The safety of the State is the supreme law), crowned Scottish Arms.



Silver 2 shillings



Obverse: CAR·D:G·MAG·BRIT·FRAN·&·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left.
Reverse: ·IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned shield of Scottish Arms.



Silver 2 shillings



Obverse: CAR·D·G·SCOT·ANG·FRAN·&·HIB·R· (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned bust facing left with II behind bust (for 2/-).
Reverse: IVST·THRONVM·FIRMAT· (Justice strengthens the throne), crowned shield of Scottish Arms.


Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #40 on: June 24, 2021, 12:48:51 PM »
Charles I third copper coinage 1642-50

For several years the Earl of Stirling's coins appear to have been acceptable to the people of Scotland, and were circulated throughout nearly to the exclusion of other small coins. But at length circumstances arose which developed serious objections to them. The ‘Stirling’ turners were subject to forgery. The forgeries were underweight, the letter ‘N’ was invariably reversed and inscriptions were more or less blundered or imperfect of indifferent execution. In 1639, by order of the Privy Council, their value was reduced to a penny. The’ Stirling’ turners were demonetised in 1642 and were replaced by issues of heavy turners in the period 1642-50. This coinage was the only coin struck in Scotland during the Civil War.

During the two periods 1642-50 and 1663-68 large numbers of twopenny pieces, or turners, were struck in Scotland, which were three times heavier than the ‘Stirling’ turners. There have been discussions in regards to the attribution of the turners to Charles I or Charles II. There are two distinct varieties: one has just the initials ‘C R’ crowned as the obverse type and has a lozenge mintmark on both sides, except in a very few cases where the lozenge is omitted or a pellet has been substituted; the other variety has ‘C RII’ and also differs from the first in having a whole series of mint-marks on both obverse and reverse. On neither variety is there a regnal number after the king's name.

The ‘Stirling’ turners from 1632 had a crowned ‘C II R’, the ‘II’ being for the value. As the people of Scotland were familiar with turners, the ‘II’ was dropped from the issues between 1642-50. Following their re-introduction in 1663, it is thought that the ‘II’ after ‘R’ was added for the value because of the time lapse between the two issues. Additionally, in the original warrant of Feb 1642, the coin type is carefully described and there is no mention in it of a ‘II’ after the ‘C R’. The spelling errors of IMPVNE in the reverse inscription of the ‘Stirling’ turners have been found to have been repeated in ‘CR’ issues, but none have been found in ‘C RII’ issues. There are further ‘C R’ familiarities with Briot/Falconer issues that substantiate the attribution of ‘C R’ issues only to Charles I, with ‘C RII’ issues being assigned to Charles II.



Copper twopence (turner)



Obverse: mintmark? CAR·D·G·SCOT·ANG·FRA·ET·HIB·R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned ‘C R’ with lozenge between ‘C’ and ‘R’.
Reverse: lozenge mintmark, NEMO·ME·IMPVNE·LACESSET (No one shall hurt me with impunity), thistle.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #41 on: June 25, 2021, 11:36:10 AM »
Charles II 1660-85

Charles was the eldest surviving son of Charles I. He was 12 when the Civil War began and two years later was appointed nominal commander-in-chief in western England. With the parliamentary victory he was forced into exile on the continent. He was in the Netherlands when, in 1649, he learnt of his father's execution.

In 1650, Charles did a deal with the Scots and was proclaimed king on 5 Feb 1649. With a Scottish army he invaded England but was finally defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Despite being hunted for nearly seven weeks he finally managed to escape to France.

The period of Parliamentary rule was termed the Commonwealth. Tensions grew with the army under Cromwell until he dismissed Parliament and took control himself as Lord Protector. After his death in 1658, his son Richard ruled instead, with notable lack of success, and circumstances began to favour a restoration of the monarchy. Charles II made clear his desire for reconciliation in the Declaration of Breda, April 1660. In May 1660 Parliament proclaimed Charles II king and he returned to England a few days later.

Although those who had signed Charles I's death warrant were punished, the new king pursued a policy of political tolerance and power-sharing. His desire for religious toleration, due in large part to his own leanings towards Catholicism, were to prove more contentious. He made a number of attempts to formalise toleration of Catholics and Non-conformists but was forced to back down in the face of a strongly hostile parliament.

The early years of Charles's reign saw the plague in 1665 and the Great Fire of London in the following year. In 1665-67 England was at war with the Dutch (Second Anglo-Dutch War), ending in a Dutch victory. In 1670, Charles signed a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France. He undertook to convert to Catholicism and support the French against the Dutch (Third Anglo-Dutch War 1672-1674). In 1677, Charles married his niece Mary to the Protestant William of Orange, partly to re-establish his own Protestant credentials. Although Charles had a number of illegitimate children with various mistresses, he had none with his wife, Catherine of Braganza. His Catholic brother James was thus his heir. Knowledge of his negotiations with France, together with his efforts to become an absolute ruler, brought Charles into conflict with parliament, which he dissolved in 1681. From then until his death, he ruled alone.

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #42 on: June 25, 2021, 11:51:08 AM »
Charles II first coinage 1663-75

After the war the Edinburgh mint closed and Scotland used the regular coins of the Commonwealth of England. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King on the death of his father, he did not strike coins in Scotland until 1664, subsequent to an Act of 12 Jun 1661 ordering a silver coinage. No gold coins are mentioned in the Act, although a gold coinage was contemplated none were struck during the reign due to an extreme shortage of bullion. His silver denominations were multiples of the merk. At this time, the Scottish one merk coin was similar to an English shilling, but it was valued at 13/4d Scots. The coining presses used for the first coinage were the same as those used by Briot and Falconer from 1637 onwards. The silver coins are all dated.

The turners are characterised by ‘C RII’ on the obverse. A variety of mint-marks occur on both sides of the turners - 2 pellets, 3 pellets, 4 pellets, pellet cross, cinquefoil, sexfoil, rosette, lion, cross with rosette above. This is the last undated Scottish issue.

Coins issued:
Silver: 4 merk (£2/13/4d) dated 1664/5, 70, 73-75. Two-leafed thistle behind top of head 1664; two-leafed thistle below bust 1664-73; ‘F’ below bust 1674/5. All dates have a miniature of St George slaying the dragon below the bust to the right.



Silver: 2 merk (£1/6/8d) 1664, 70, 73-75. Two-leafed thistle behind top of head 1664; two-leafed thistle below bust 1664-73; ‘F’ below bust 1674/5.
Silver: Merk (13/4d) 1664-66, 68-75. Two-leafed thistle below bust 1664-73; ‘F’ below bust 1674/5.
Silver: Half-merk (6/8d) 1664-73, 75. Two-leafed thistle below bust 1664-73; ‘F’ below bust 1675.
Copper: Turner (2d) 1663-68.



Silver 4 merk dated 1664



Obverse: CAROLVS II·DEI·GRA (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing right, thistle behind head to the left.
Reverse: ·MAG· / BRI·FRA / ET·HIB· / REX·16 / 64 (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), split around crowned interlinked Cs in the angles of cruciform shields with Scottish lion in first and third positions; LIII over 4 at centre for value (53/4d); miniature of St George slaying the dragon below the bust to the right.



Silver 4 merk dated 1673



As 1664 dated piece but with thistle below bust; different rendering to bust.



Silver 4 merk dated 1674



As 1664 dated piece but without thistle and with ‘F’ below bust; different rendering to bust, pellets either side of CAROLVS and pellet after GRA.



Silver 2 merk dated 1664



Obverse: CAROLVS ·II·DEI·GRA· (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing right, thistle behind head to the left.
Reverse: ·MAG· / BRI·FRA / ET·HIB· / REX·16 / 64 (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), split around crowned interlinked Cs in the angles of cruciform shields with Scottish lion in first and third positions; XXVI over 8 at centre for value (26/8d).



Silver 2 merk dated 1673



As 1664 dated piece but with thistle below bust; pellet after CAROLVS but no pellet before II; colon between DEI and GRA.



Silver 2 merk dated 1675



As 1664 dated piece but with ‘F’ below bust; pellet after CAROLVS but no pellet before II; colon between DEI and GRA.



Silver merk dated 1664



Obverse: CAROLVS· II·DEI·GRA· (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing right, thistle below bust.
Reverse: ·MAG· / BRI·FRA / ET·HIB· / REX·16 / 64 (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), split around crowned interlinked Cs in the angles of cruciform shields with Scottish lion in first and third positions; XIII over 4 at centre for value (13/4d).



Silver merk dated 1675



As 1664 dated piece but with ‘F’ below bust.



Silver half-merk dated 1671



Obverse: CAROLVS· II·DEI·GRA· (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing right, thistle below bust.
Reverse: ·MAG· / BRI·FRA / ET·HIB· / REX·16 / 71 (King of Great Britain, France and Ireland), split around crowned interlinked Cs in the angles of cruciform shields with Scottish lion in first and third positions; VI over 8 at centre for value (6/8d).



Silver half-merk dated 1675



As 1671 dated piece but with ‘F’ below bust.



Copper twopence (turner) 1663-68



Obverse: pellet cross mintmark, CAR·D:G·SCOT:ANG·FRA·ET·HIB:R (Charles, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), ‘C·R··II’ with Scottish crown above, ‘II’ for 2d.
Reverse: mintmark? NEMO·ME·IMPVNE·LACESSET (No one shall hurt me with impunity), thistle.

« Last Edit: June 26, 2021, 01:05:04 PM by Deeman »

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #43 on: June 25, 2021, 08:35:39 PM »
Charles II second coinage 1675-82

During 1674/5 the mint was thoroughly modernised, both as regards buildings and equipment, and a large amount of new machinery and implements were obtained from the Tower mint. On 16 Jan 1675, in a letter to the Privy Council, the King gave instructions that the reverse side of the silver coins to be changed, with the addition of a 40d piece. The king's head now faced left, the opposite way to which it faced on the English coins. This change of direction was intended to make Scottish coins more readily distinguishable from English ones, and this practice was continued until the end of William's reign. With this change, the 4-merk coin became designated a dollar with its fractions, differentiated by size and weight, apart from the sixteenth-dollar which had a different reverse design.

On 27 Feb 1677 the Privy Council, after commenting on the shortage of copper money in Scotland and complaining that the bulk of such money in circulation was of foreign origin, ordered a new issue of twopence and sixpence pieces. The 6d coin was called a bawbee, named after the 16th-century mint master Alexander Orrok of Sillebawby, who struck the first billon coin in the reign of James V. The bawbee has a crowned thistle on the reverse in place of the figure of Britannia on the copper halfpennies struck in England. Copper coins were now dated. The 2d coin was called a bodle, after Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, when the first twopenny pieces were issued in 1588-90.

In Aug 1682 the Scottish mint was closed on account of malversations by four of the mint officials, including the master, Sir John Falconer. During the investigations a large number of malpractices came to light and it was estimated that a sum extending to at least £700,000 Scots had been embezzled. The mint was not re-opened again until 1687.

Coins issued:
All silver coins have the letter ‘F’ below bust to the left.
Silver: Dollar (4 merk) (£2/13/4d) 1676, 79-82. Pellet-in-annulet stops both sides and reverse only 1676 as well as normal pellet stops for that year. Value raised to 56/-in 1681.



Silver: Half-dollar (£1/6/8d) 1675/6, 81. Pellet-in-annulet stops both sides 1675/6. Value raised to 28/- in 1681.
Silver: Quarter-dollar (13/4d) 1675/6, 77-82. Pellet-in-annulet stops both sides 1675. Variety in 1682 with Scottish arms in second quarter. Value raised to 14/- in 1681.
Silver: Eighth-dollar (6/8d) 1676-82. Variety in 1680 with French arms in first quarter, Irish in second, etc. Value raised to 7/- in 1681.
Silver: Sixteenth-dollar (40d) 1677-81. Value raised to 3/6d in 1681.
Copper: Bawbee (6d) 1677-79.
Copper: Bodle (2d) 1677-79.



Silver dollar dated 1676



This image has pellet-in-annulet stops on both sides (although not readily identifiable as such).
Obverse: ·CAROLVS·II· ·DEI·GRA· (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing left, ‘F’ below bust to the left.
Reverse: ·SCO / ANG·FR / ET·HIB / REX·16 / 76 (King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), split around crowned cruciform shields with Scottish lion in first position, interlinked Cs at centre, thistle in angles.



Silver dollar dated 1680



As 1676 dated piece. The zero in the date is a reversed ‘C’.



Silver half-dollar dated 1675



As 1676 dated dollar piece.



Silver quarter-dollar dated 1677



As 1676 dated dollar piece, but with pellet in centre of interlocking Cs.



Silver eighth-dollar dated 1682



As 1676 dated dollar piece.



Silver sixteenth dollar dated 1678



Obverse: CAROLVS·II· ·DEI·GRA· (Charles II, by the grace of God) split around a laureate and draped bust facing left, ‘F’ below bust to the left.
Reverse: ·SCO ANG·FRA·ET·HIB·REX·1678 (King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crown at centre of saltire cross, emblems in each angle - Scotland’s thistle in top angle followed by English rose, French lis and Irish harp.



Copper bawbee (6d) dated 1677



Obverse: pellet cross mintmark, CAR·II·D:G·SCO· ·ANG·FR·ET·HIB·R· (Charles II, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), split around a laureate and draped bust facing left, ‘F’ below bust to the left.
Reverse: ·NEMO·ME·IMPVNE·LACESSET·1677· (No one shall hurt me with impunity), crowned thistle.



Copper bodle (2d) dated 1677



Obverse: pellet cross mintmark, CAR·II·D:G·SCO·ANG·FRA·ET HIB·REX (Charles II, by the grace of God, king of Scotland, England, France and Ireland), crowned crossed sword and sceptre.
Reverse: ·NEMO·ME·IMPVNE·LACESSET·1677 (No one shall hurt me with impunity), thistle.



« Last Edit: June 26, 2021, 01:06:25 PM by Deeman »

Offline Deeman

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Re: Post mediaeval Scottish coinage 1513-1707
« Reply #44 on: June 25, 2021, 08:42:59 PM »
James VII (II of England) 1685-88

Because Charles II had been unable to produce a legitimate heir, his brother became James VII of Scots and James II of England and Ireland. During Charles’ reign the thought of Catholic James being next in line to the throne mattered greatly to a virulently anti-Catholic nation. Parliament responded by trying to pass the Exclusion Bill, which would have debarred James from the succession. Each time it came up for debate, Charles II dissolved Parliament, before finally ruling as an absolute monarch from 1681. Public support for Charles II grew (and the dislike of James eased) after the failed Rye House Plot of 1683, a Protestant plan to assassinate both of them on their way back to London from the races at Newmarket.

Charles II died, still without legitimate offspring, on 6 Feb 1685, to be succeeded by James VII/II. The succession was challenged by Charles II's eldest illegitimate son, the Protestant Duke of Monmouth in what became known as the Monmouth Rebellion. James defeated Monmouth at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 Jul 1685, and Monmouth was subsequently executed, along with many of his supporters. Meanwhile, in Scotland, the Earl of Argyll landed at Campbeltown with 300 Dutch troops on 20 May 1685 in a separate attempted uprising against James. This also swiftly failed.

James quickly confirmed the worst fears of many of the Protestants in his Kingdoms, reversing strong anti-Catholic discrimination and placing Catholics in senior positions in government, in the army and in the academic world. On 4 Apr 1687 James codified his views in the Declaration of Indulgence or the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience. The apparent aim was to establish freedom of religion in James' kingdoms, but it was perceived by mainstream Protestants as an assault on their dominance. It was an attempt by James to modify the Test Act of 1673 that excluded from public office (both military and civil) all those who refused to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, who refused to receive the communion according to the rites of the Church of England, or who refused to renounce belief in the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.

Matters came to a head in 1688. In April, the Archbishop of Canterbury and six other Bishops petitioned James, requesting he review his religious policies. He responded by arresting them and putting them on trial for seditious libel. James' credibility took a severe knock when they were subsequently acquitted. Then on 10 Jun, Mary of Modena gave birth to a son, and Protestants found themselves looking at the prospect of a Catholic dynasty.

On 30 Jun 1688 a group of Protestant nobles asked William, Prince of Orange, who had married James' elder daughter Mary when James was Duke of York, to come to England with an army to overthrow James. William’s marriage was a tactical move which he anticipated would allow him to acquire Charles’s kingdoms in the future and both influence and redirect the French-dominated policies of the English monarchy towards a more favourable Dutch position. William had issued a secret plea to Charles II, asking the king to prevent a Catholic from succeeding him. This did not go down well. Following James II’s accession, William was desperately looking for ways to undermine him and the plea to overthrow James provided the ideal opportunity.

When William of Orange landed in south west England on 5 Nov 1688, with a fleet that was both imposing and considerably larger than the English had encountered during the Spanish Armada, it was the start of the "Glorious Revolution". The negotiations, on what would eventually be the Glorious Revolution, had started in the summer of 1686 when William Penn (religious thinker belonging to the Quakers and founder of Pennsylvania) visited William of Orange. In early 1687, William responded by sending a special representative, Dijkveld, to England. He streamlined the English opposition to James’ Declaration of Indulgence through the Earls of Danby (erstwhile go-between for William’s marriage to Mary Stuart) and Nottingham.

It was a bloodless coup. James tried to escape to France, but was caught in Kent. However, William allowed him to flee the country on 23 Dec 1688, keen not to see him used as a martyr for the Catholic cause.

« Last Edit: June 26, 2021, 02:47:46 PM by Deeman »