Author Topic: Medieval Balkans  (Read 26908 times)

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Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #15 on: October 27, 2009, 06:18:25 AM »
The next coin is a billon Trachy from the KINGDOM OF THESSALONICA 1200-1224 AD. Thessalonica was a short lived crusader state that was a vassal of the Latin Empire. In 1210 AD, the Despotate of Epirus lead an attack against Thessalonica until the territory was conquered and annexed by Epirus in 1224 AD. The ruler for which this coin was issued under is yet unknown.

THESSALONICA (KINGDOM)~Billon Trachy 1200-1224 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 06:42:08 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #16 on: October 27, 2009, 06:21:22 AM »
This next specimen is a billon Denier from the DESPOTATE OF EPIRUS 1294-1313 AD. It was issued during the rule of Despot: Philip de Taranto. These were Frankish coins that were circulated in the region that is now part of northwestern Greece and Albania.

EPIRUS (DESPOTATE)~Billon Denier 1294-1313 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 06:44:39 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #17 on: October 27, 2009, 06:27:05 AM »
The Venetians also had a strong influence in Balkan region, especially on the Dalmatian coast and the Aegean islands. This first specimen is a gold Zecchino from CHIOS which was issued under Doge/Duke: Philip Maria Visconti 1415-1436 AD. The Zecchino had a similar pattern to the Venetian Ducat. The second specimen is a copper Fallaro from CATTARO/KOTOR 1569-1571. Cattaro was a walled city on the southern Adriatic coast, and is now known as 'Kotor' in Montenegro.

CHIOS~AV Zecchino 1415-1436 AD

CATTARO/KOTOR (MUNICIPAL)~AE Fallaro 1569-1571
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 06:47:14 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #18 on: October 29, 2009, 05:16:20 AM »
This next section deals with the BANATE OF SLAVONIA (also called the 'Banovina of Slavonia'). Slavonia was formed in the 13th century as a province of Hungary and lasted until 1476 AD, when it joined with the Banate of Croatia. Slavonia is now part of modern Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina. The first specimen is a silver Denar issued under Ban: Heinrich von Gussing, dating from 1269 to 1270 AD. The second is silver Groschen issued under Ban: Stjepan Babonic, dating from 1280 to 1282 AD (?) *.

SLAVONIA (BANATE)~AR Denar 1269-1270 AD

SLAVONIA (BANATE)~AR Groschen 1280-1282 AD (?)

*- Although there are no records of the Groschen listed, references lead to it being issued by ruler listed above. Changes will be made in the future if necessary.
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 07:23:15 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #19 on: October 29, 2009, 05:17:15 AM »
Here are two coins from the island of RHODES under the Order of the Knights of St. John. The first is a silver Gigliato issued under Grandmaster: Juan Fernandez de Heredia 1376-1396 AD. This was overstruck on a coin issued by the previous grandmaster Robert d'Anjou. The second is silver Gigliato issued under Grandmaster: Philabert de Naillac 1396-1421 AD. The Knights of St. John were assigned to protect Rhodes, during the crusades, from the Ottoman Empire which had threatened Southeastern Europe. It's operation in Rhodes ran from 1310-1523. Later they were stationed in Malta from 1530-1798.

RHODES~AR Gigliato 1376-1396 AD

RHODES~AR Gigliato 1396-1421 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 06:49:33 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #20 on: November 05, 2009, 06:55:51 AM »
This next specimen is a silver Grosso from the REPUBLIC OF RAGUSA (now Dubrovnik, Croatia) 1372-1383 AD. The city of Ragusa was established in 614 AD, and became a republic in 1358 after it gained independence from Venice. For the next hundred years Ragusa remained for the most part a independent entity with loose ties to the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1458, Ragusa was being threatened by the approaching military of the Ottoman Empire. To avoid a complete takeover, Ragusa signed a treaty with Ottoman Empire on which a diplomat would be sent to Constantinople (now Istanbul) each year on November 1,  to make the tribute. By 1481, Ragusa became a Turkish vassal, but maintained a good deal of autonomy. However, Portuguese exploration that opened new ocean trade routes, thus the ships no longer went through the Mediterranean Sea.  Also, the discovery of America, caused Mediterranean shipping to suffer. The two combining factors caused both Venice and Ragusa to go into decline. The republic came under a month long siege by the Russian fleet. The siege ended when Ragusa surrendered to France when Napoleon and his troops entered the city in 1806. The republic was officially abolished in 1808, and made part of the French Illyrian Provinces.

RAGUSA (REPUBLIC)~AR Grosso 1372-1383 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 07:04:03 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #21 on: November 14, 2009, 12:00:39 AM »
The coin in Reply #16 is striking. It is an imitation of a common coin of the Abbey of Saint Martin of Tours. It is hard to underestimate the popularity of St. Martin. Even today, names like Martin, Martins, Martinez or Martines are the most frequent in France, Spain and Portugal. In Wikipedia, there are two impressive disambiguation pages for Martin, one for names, one for the rest.

A clue for the saint's popularity is in the coat of arms of Utrecht, the arms of St. Martin's cathedral. These arms (mostly without the shield holders) can be found on most Utrecht coins as for centuries, it was also the mintmark of the Utrecht mint.



The red and white parts symbolize the saint's red cloak, which, while still a Roman soldier, he tore in two to share it with a beggar. As bishop Martin of Tours he therefore become symbolic of generosity of the church. Martin was the layman's best hope for physical comfort from the church. The abbey of Marmoutier was huge. The coins struck there, the denier Tournois, found imitators everywhere, including kings of France. However, on the originals, the legends are SCS MARTINVS (saint Martin) and TVRONVS CIVI (city of Tours.)

Peter
« Last Edit: February 28, 2017, 04:02:32 PM by eurocoin »
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #22 on: November 14, 2009, 04:12:50 AM »
The coin in Reply #16 is striking. It is an imitation of a common coin of the Abbey of Saint Martin of Tours. It is hard to underestimate the popularity of St. Martin. Even today, names like Martin, Martins, Martinez or Martines are the most frequent in France, Spain and Portugal. In Wikipedia, there are two impressive disambiguation pages for Martin, one for names, one for the rest.

A clue for the saint's popularity is in the coat of arms of Utrecht, the arms of St. Martin's cathedral. These arms (mostly without the shield holders) can be found on most Utrecht coins as for centuries, it was also the mintmark of the Utrecht mint



The red and white parts symbolize the saint's red cloak, which, while still a Roman soldier, he tore in two to share it with a beggar. As bishop Martin of Tours he therefore become symbolic of generosity of the church. Martin was the layman's best hope for physical comfort for the church. The abbey of Marmoutier was huge. The coins struck here, the denier Tournois, found imitators everywhere, including kings of France. However, on the originals, the legends are SCS MARTINVS (saint Martin) and TVRONVS CIVI (city of Tours.)

Peter

Love the municipal arms for Utrecht. I also like the image of that Frankish coin you listed. The fortress or castle image seemed pretty standard at the time for French coins and the territories under their rule. There is one coin that seems exceedingly rare, and that's the Duchy of Naxos. I've only seen these images in the book 'Coins of the Crusader States'. The pattern is almost identical to that of Athens and Epirus, except for the difference in the legend referring to the duke or despot that governed the area, and the territory name. I would love to get my hands on one of these, but I would guess it would drain my bank account, as they would probably be very expensive if found. Thanks for your info.

~Daniel.

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #23 on: November 26, 2009, 03:42:06 AM »
This next coin is a silver Dinar from the KINGDOM OF SERBIA. It was issued under the reign of King: Stefan Uros III~Decanski (1321-1331 AD). Decanski was the son of Stefan Uros II~Milutin and and had a very turbulent life. In 1314, after a quarrel with his father, Milutin had his son taken to Constantinople to be blinded. He wasn't blinded properly, but did have to wear a bandage around his eyes. He was permitted to return to Serbia, but had to fight many pretenders to the throne before being crowned in 1321. His neighbors Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire formed an alliance in which they planned to invade Serbia in 1330. However, Decanski came out victorious at the Battle of Velbuzhd where he defeated Bulgaria and killed the Bulgarian tsar Mikhail Asen III. This was his biggest during his short reign. Taking advantage of the situation, Decanski was able to push the border south into Macedonia. Decanski's fortunes took a turn for the worst when some of his courtiers became discontent with his policies. They then plotted to have Decanski dethroned in favor of his son Dusan. Decanski was imprisoned at the castle of Zvecan, where he was killed by strangulation in 1331. Following his death, Decanski was canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church.

SERBIA (1st KINGDOM)~AR Dinar 1321-1331 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 08:03:04 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #24 on: November 28, 2009, 07:16:37 PM »
On this one it becomes hard to tell wether the influence is Bulgarian or Venetian. I tend to go for Venice, though (see attached picture). However, in that case the two standing figures cannot be the doge and Saint Mark. I presume the doge was replaced by the king of Serbia, but which saint are we looking at?

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #25 on: November 28, 2009, 10:37:22 PM »
On this one it becomes hard to tell wether the influence is Bulgarian or Venetian. I tend to go for Venice, though (see attached picture). However, in that case the two standing figures cannot be the doge and Saint Mark. I presume the doge was replaced by the king of Serbia, but which saint are we looking at?

Peter

Hi Peter. I'm pretty sure this is Venice. Usually the way you can tell coins from Venice and Serbia is the legend between the ruler and the saint on the obverse. On Venetian coins, the word 'DVX' is marked between the figures meaning Doge or Duke. Serbian coins of the same style have the word 'REX' for King. Since Venice never had a king ruling the region during its time as a republic, this seems an easy way to differentiate the two.

SERBIA
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 08:04:02 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #26 on: November 28, 2009, 10:42:05 PM »
Sure. There's also the flag and the S.M. VEN... part of the legend on Ventian coins, but I couldn't read the name of the saint on the right of your Serbian coin (if there is a name of a saint there in the first place.)

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #27 on: January 24, 2010, 02:51:27 AM »
This next specimen is a silver 5-Lined Dinar from the SERBIAN EMPIRE dating from 1346-1355 AD. This was issued under the reign of the Tsar: Stefan Uros IV~Dusan. An earlier imperial issue that was the first coin to use religious reference applying to the respective ruler. Imitating Byzantine coins with similar references, this format would also be used by Serbian rulers who followed Dusan. The obverse pattern shows 5 lines of Cyrillic legend: 'СТЕ/ВФАNЬВ/ЬХАБАБ/ЛГОВРНИ/ЧРЬ=STEFAN IN CHRIST OUR LORD PIOUS TSAR'. The reverse shows Christ enthroned holding Book of Gospels with intials IC/XC and N/O in Roman legend.

SERBIAN EMPIRE~5 Lined Dinar 1346-1355 AD
« Last Edit: November 08, 2012, 07:26:04 AM by Zantetsuken »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #28 on: January 24, 2010, 10:27:07 AM »
Another great addition! As you mentioned it shows links with the Byzantines, complementing coins shown above that show links with the Franks' empire, Bulgarians and Venetians.

Brilliant, to have figured out the text. Some of the letters are so differently shaped. I do see another A on the fourth line, second from left...

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Zantetsuken

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Re: Medieval Balkans
« Reply #29 on: January 24, 2010, 02:37:04 PM »
Another great addition! As you mentioned it shows links with the Byzantines, complementing coins shown above that show links with the Franks' empire, Bulgarians and Venetians.

Brilliant, to have figured out the text. Some of the letters are so differently shaped. I do see another A on the fourth line, second from left...

Peter

Thanks 'Peter'. Actually this text was already translated on the information slip that came with the coin. From that I used my book 'Serbian Medieval Coins' by Miroslav Jovanovic to narrow down the legend. Sometime due to the weak or uneven strike, the characters can be hard to read so I use this to ID the characters in full. From there, I use a Russian or Serbian keyboard, depending, to input the Cyrillic legend, then transfer it to this page. I can read Russian and Serbian writing for the most part, but I don't know the grammar outside of a handful of words (if that). But collecting coins is an educational experience, and I have learned much from it. If I aquire any more specimens, I'll post more.

~Daniel