Author Topic: Kangra Rajas; Triloka Chandra I, Triloka Chandra II, but what about I 1/2 ?  (Read 197 times)

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Offline THCoins

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Triloka Chandra is one of the names of Kangra kings issueing coins in the Dravya Pariksha written by Dehli mint official Thakkar Pheru around 1318AD.
The Tye Jitals catalog gives one entry for a Horseman/text Jital in name of Triloka Chandra (Tye#68). However, other authors, including Jha & Garg in their monography "A catalogue of the coins of Katoch rulers of Kangra", make a distinction between a Triloka Chandra I and a Triloka Chandra II. This is mainly based on a broad division of the Triloka coins in two main styles. One of these styles seems to fit better with a later period in the Kangra dynasty, comparing with coins of other likely later kings.

Both types show one side with an abstracted horseman right. The other side a legend in late Sharada/Takri reading : "MaHaRaJa / Sri TreLoKa / ChanDra DeVa'.
The distinction between Triloka I and II seems to be quite straight-forward:

Triloka I:
- Outlined body of horseman. The upper part of the horseman's body has a distinct anterior side, which touches the back of the neck of the horse.
- Textside: “Ha”of Maharaja written in continuous line. Large bottom hook of “Tre”, m shape of bottom flag of “Lo” of TreLoKa.

Triloka II:
- Solid horseman body. The base of the upper body segment is only connected to the top of the lower segment.
- Textside: Two loose crescents in “Ha”. Different shape of “Tre”, “Lo” has a sine wave shape of the horizontal flag.

The two coins below show some typical specimen which illustrate the distinction.
Both types are fairly common, but the first a bit scarcer than the second.
« Last Edit: August 26, 2019, 06:06:11 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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In the startpost i made the splitting into Triloka Chandra I and II look fairly easy. However, there are some caveats to be dealt with.
- How good is the coin proof that the style of the Triloka Chandra II coins indeed stems from a later period separated in time from Triloka I ? In fact this is not that good. There are no reported larger hoards which contain just the first or the second Triloka in combination with some other rulers to allow a clear distinction in time.
- There is no conclusive literary data which allow to pinpoint two Trilokas in time.
- The distinction based on style makes an implicit assumption that there is a gradual evolution of one coin lineage over time. We do not know if this is true. One can not directly rule out that the distinction is just a style difference of coins produced at two different mints in the same time period.
- And lastly, when making this distinction based on coin style we may exaggerate any differences by selecting specimen from opposite sides of what could also be a continuous spectrum.

So what i tried to do over the last few months is look at very many different coin specimen to see if the simple dichotomy into Triloka I and II is tenable.
« Last Edit: August 25, 2019, 11:53:11 AM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Lets first focus on Triloka I:

The first coin below shows a first outlier. The text style of "TreLoKa" first well with Triloka I. However, the horseman is engraved a bit smaller, his bannerstick is slightly curved backwards. On the text side, the hook of the “Ha” of MaHaRaJa in the top line is opened to the right. In the common type this is to the left. This seems no random error, or some single inofficial specimen. Of the 109 Triloka I specimen in the Jha&Garg catalog, 17 display this right hooked Ha character.

The second coin also seems to fit in the Triloka I category stylistically. But the most striking difference is the continuously linked text characters.

now what about Triloka II ?

The third coin falsifies the simple "outlined VS filled horseman" dichotomy. The text style is Triloka II, but the horseman is clearly outlined, not solid.
Another detail is that there are two small horizontal lines above the "Tra"character. This makes that this is not read as "Tre", but as "Trai", so Trailoka Chandra.

I am not trying to give a final conclusion in this thread. But an interim conclusion may be: There may be a distinction between Triloka Chandra I and II, but we should not overlook "less typical" specimen which also need a place in any explanation model.

Anthony
« Last Edit: August 25, 2019, 12:18:12 PM by THCoins »