Author Topic: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.  (Read 1311 times)

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Offline asm

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Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« on: June 25, 2019, 10:29:56 AM »
As I had promised a few weeks back, here are the details of the Junagadh mint under the various Islamic dynasties - from the start of the mint under Gujarat Sultan - Mahmud Begda till it was ordered closed by the British late in the 1890's.

The mint functioned under various authorities, starting with the Gujarat Sultans and then the Ghori rulers of Junagadh - of which there is no mention in any catalogues or publications till recently when 2 Historians of Gujarat deciphered the coins of this short lived dynasty. Then came the Mughals who were followed by the Babi's. However, the mint, which is likely to have commenced operations soon after the annexation of Junagadh in to the Sultanate in 1472 AD, operated sporadically till the 1880's - a period of 400 odd years.   

I have tried to provide as much details, as briefly as possible from various sources that I have come across and would welcome suggestions and comments on any points that I may have missed out.

Amit

PS: This is a work in progress and I will keep adding information as I keep finding it.
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Offline asm

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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #1 on: June 25, 2019, 10:34:36 AM »
                                                                                           Early history
Junagadh is located in the Saurashtra peninsula of Gujarat. Uparkot, an impressive fort is located on a plateau in the middle of town. It is said that the fort was originally built by Chandragupta Maurya in 319 BC and remained in use until the 6th century AD when it was abandoned. It was rediscovered about 300 years later by the Chudasama ruler in 976 AD. The Chinese Traveller Hu-en-Tsang visited Junagadh in 640 AD.

As per various historical records, Junagadh was controlled by the following dynasties over time.

   Mauryan Empire till           185 BC
   Greeks                       73-70 BC
   Shaka (Scythians)            100-275 AD
   Western Kshatrapas     276-455 AD
    Guptas                  456-770 AD
    Chudasamas                875-1472 AD
   Sultans of Gujarat             1472-1572 AD
    Mughals                        1573-1730 AD
    Babi Nawabs               1730-1949 AD

Since we are concerned about the coinage of this area, we will restrict ourselves to the period around the time the coins were struck.
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Offline asm

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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #2 on: June 25, 2019, 10:36:12 AM »
Gujarat Sultanate
Mahmud Begada (Sultan Mahmud Shah I) annexed Junagadh in to his domains and changed its name to Mustafabad. During the period that Junagadh was under the Sultans of Gujarat, it was governed by a "thanadar" appointed directly from Ahmedabad. The first thanadar was Tatar Khan, an adopted son of the Sultan who was followed by Mirza Khalil, the eldest son of the Sultan (later Sultan Muzaffar Shah II). Late into the reign of Muzaffar II or around the time of accession of Mahmud Shah II, the seat of the local government was moved from Junagadh to Diu owing to its importance as a naval base and to check the intruding Portuguese. Malik Eiaz, the governor of Junagadh moved to Diu leaving Tatar khan Ghori in charge at Junagadh. After the disgrace and death of Malik Eiaz, Tatar Khan Ghori started acting independent at Junagadh and after the death of Sultan Bahadur Shah II, the Ghori family reined independently at Junagadh though still owing a nominal allegiance to the successive Sultans at Ahmadabad. This state of affairs continued till the first conquest of Gujarat by Akbar at which time Amin Khan Ghori had succeeded his father Tatar Khan at Junagadh.

The Coinage of Mustafabad mint
Junagadh, which was then called Mustafabad was an important mint of the Gujarat Sultans minting both Silver and Copper coins, with the mint name ‘Shahr-i-A'azam’ (the very great city - G&G) till the reign of Muzzaffar Shah II (later coins of this mint have not yet been seen) which may be attributed to the fact that it ceased to be the headquarters of the province which were at that time shifted to Diu. Since the coins of this period have been listed extensively by Goron & Goenka in the book “ The Coins of the Indian Sultanates”, I am not adding the images here.
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Offline asm

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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #3 on: June 25, 2019, 10:40:02 AM »
The independent Ghori rulers of Junagadh
Tatar Khan founded this dynasty soon after the death of Bahadur Shah II in 1537 AD. He died around 1562 AD and was succeeded by his son Amin Khan Ghori. It is during Amin Khan Ghori’s reign that Akbar conquered Gujarat. Since Amin Khan refused to accept Mughal suzerainty and remained independent Akbar, on his return to Agra in 1573 AD, gave orders that Sorath should be annexed into the empire. Confusion prevailed in Sorath due to the escape of Sultan Muzaffar III from Mughal captivity in 1583 AD. Amin Khan and his son Daulat Khan, the Jam of Navanagar and Loma Khuman of Kherdi, all supported Muzzaffar III in his fight against the Mughals. Amin Khan Ghori died in about 1589-90 AD and Sorath (as Junagadh was then called) was captured by the Mughals in 1591-92 AD and from then onwards, became the seat of the Imperial Faujdars of Sorath in subordination to the Mughal viceroy at Ahmedabad.
Thus this short lived Sultanate of Junagadh was soon brought to an end when Akbar conquered Sorath in 1573 AD.

The Coinage of the Ghori rulers of Junagadh
After the local governor at Junagadh, Tatar Khan, became semi-independent of the Sultanate, his successor and son, Amin Khan assumed a fair degree of independence and struck coins in the name of Muzzaffar Shah III but bearing his own name engraved as Shri AMI – for Amin Khan. It is around this time that various States around Sorath (Kutch and Navanagar) had started issuing coins. Whether Amin Khan minted coins with the blessings of Muzzaffar Shah III is yet not known. However it needs to be kept in mind that he was a very powerful chief and the only one in the area that opposed Akbar and did not accept Mughal over-lordship.
These coins, first read and deciphered by Prof. Dr. Kishorechandra Pathak, are all dated AH 969, the time of his accession and a year after Muzzaffar Shah III ascended the throne at Ahmedabad. These coins – Falus and ½ Falus as mentioned by Dr Pathak, weigh around 6.2 g g and 9.5 g. No mint name is seen on these coins as was the case for the other coins struck in the region – Kutch, Navanagar, Porbandar etc. However, I believe these are Falus weighing 80 Rati and 64 Rati – a standard that was used in the Mustafabad mint during the time of the Sultans. Besides the two coins in copper, a rare silver Muhmudi / Mahmudi is also known.

It is not clear if the mint at Sorath was then closed or continued to mint copper coins in the name of Akbar.
« Last Edit: July 12, 2019, 01:36:24 PM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #4 on: June 25, 2019, 10:41:47 AM »
Mughal rule
Under the Imperial Mughal rule, a ‘faujdar’ was appointed to look after the administration of the place. Faujdar Kutb ud din (1653-1666 AD) conquered Navanagar aroud 1664 AD and annexed it to the imperial domain. The last of the faujdars was Sher Khan Babi who later became independent and assumed the title of Nawab Bahadur Khan.
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #5 on: June 27, 2019, 09:45:21 AM »
The Coinage in the name of Akbar
It is not clear if the mint at Sorath (Junagadh) was then closed or continued to mint coins in the name of Akbar. Coins, bearing the name of Akbar have been found in the area and they are in appearance and calligraphy very similar to the issues of Mustafabad / Junagadh and are issued to the same weight standard but have the name of the Emperor Akbar clearly written.

G&G also mentions about coins of this mint which have a die of Mahmud Shah II and Muzzaffar Shah III attributed to this mint. In a recent article, Prof: Najaf Haider mentions about the minting of Mehmudis (Mahmudis as mentioned in the older texts) continuing in Saurashtra area well in to the reign of Shah Jahan. He mentions that Shah Jahan ordered a Mint to be set up at Junagadh, specifically for the purpose of converting the local Mehmudi's / Mahmudi's into Imperial Mughal Rupees.

So it is fairly clear and can be confirmed that the coins issued in the name of Akbar, found in the area surrounding Junagadh and weighing similar to the coins of Mustafabad / Junagadh would have been minted at Junagadh, just as the Mehmudis / Mahmudis were also minted at Baglana and Surat. However, it can not be confirmed whether these were Imperial Mughal issues or were issued by some local chiefs - more likely the latter.

PS: I will add the images asap
« Last Edit: July 05, 2019, 12:52:36 PM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #6 on: June 27, 2019, 09:56:40 AM »
The Coinage in the name of the Imperial Mughals

As mentioned in the foregoing, it is recorded that Emperor Shah Jahan ordered the setting up of a mint at Junagadh to convert the local Mehmudis / Mahmudis in to Imperial Rupees. It is seen that the first coins of this mint were minted in the year AH 1048 of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. A year before that (AH 1047 / RY 10), coins were briefly struck at Pattan Deo, located a very short distance from Junagadh. While the earlier name of the mint, under the Sultanate rule, was Mustafabad, the Mughal issues have the name of the mint as Junagadh. It is not yet certain when the name was changed from Mustafabad to Junadadh.

Since the aim of this mint was to convert the local Mehmudis / Mahmudis to Rupee standard coins, the mint worked sporadically till the time it was closed down in 1730 AD during the rule of Muhammad Shah at Dehli. Mughal Coins of Junagadh are found issued in the name of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb Alamgir, Shah Alam Bahadur, Jahandar Shah, Farrukhsiyar, Rafi ud Darjat and Shah Jahan II. The last minting seems to have been early in to the reign of Muhammad Shah at Dehli and coins dated RY 7 have come to light. It is striking to note that no coins of Murad Baksh are issued at Junagadh (the other 3 imperial mints did mint coins in the name of Murad Baksh) but the coins continued to be issued in the name of Shah Jahan till the third coronation of Aurangzeb – whose first coin seems to be dated 1071/ 3. This mint, operated as an Imperial Mughal mint for a brief period of about 100 years.

Besides the fact that fractions are extremely difficult to find, it appears that no Gold or copper coins have been minted here. The only exception is a copper issue in the name of Muhammad Shah -which, in absence of dates can not be confirmed to be Mughal issues or issues of the state of Junagadh (which seems to be highly likely).
« Last Edit: July 05, 2019, 12:55:40 PM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #7 on: June 28, 2019, 02:21:41 PM »
Coinage in the name of Shah Jahan.
As mentioned in the foregoing, the mint was reestablished at Junagadh on the orders of Shah Jahan and it started producing Rupees. Since the stated aim was to convert Mehmudis ro Rupees, it appears that fractions were not produced or were produced in very small numbers.

Here is a coin of Junagadh in the name of Shah Jahan - a Square area type rupee. (Not my coin but from ZENO)
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #8 on: June 28, 2019, 02:23:35 PM »
Coins in the name of Murad Baksh.

It appears that no coins were issued from Junagadh in the name of Murad Baksh when he declared himself the Mughal Successor.
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #9 on: June 28, 2019, 02:33:12 PM »
Coinage in the name of Aurangzeb Alamgir

Soon after the second coronation of Aurangzeb Alamgir, the mint started striking coins in his name. THe coins were of the same type as were struck for Shah Jahan. Though no records are available to prove this, it appears that the mint was moved for a short time from the city to the main fort. This is confirmed by a very short run issue, a few years in to Aurangzeb's reign where we come across coins with the mint name Junagadh Gadh - literary meaning the fort (Gadh) of Junagadh. It is also noticed that soon after this change (where there are a fairly high number of non standard coins (coins with missing dates, coins with two RY's etc) there is a stoppage in minting for a few years and the minting resumes after break of 2 or 3 years. Thereafter the minting continues for some length of time. In the year AH 1097 / RY 29, the design is changed to the standard design as were minted in the other mints.
« Last Edit: June 29, 2019, 12:17:48 PM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #10 on: June 29, 2019, 12:22:10 PM »
Coinage in the name of Shah Alam Bahadur Farrukhsiyar, Shah Jahan II and Muhammad Shah.

The mint continued being operated till the start of the reign of Muhammad Shah and coins were issued in the name of All successive rulers - namely: Shah Alam Bahadur, Farrukhsiyar and Shah Jahan II. The last coin of this mint that has yet come to light is the Rupee dated RY 7.
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #11 on: June 29, 2019, 12:39:36 PM »
The end of minting under Mughal Rule.

THe last rupee minted under Mughal authority in Junagadh seems most likely to be the rupee dated around RY 7. As mentioned in the foregoing, no copper coins seem to have been minted during this period when Junagadh was under Mughal control. However the odd man out is this pair of a Dam and 1/2 Dam issued in the name of Muhammad Shah with the mint name Junagadh.

This brings us to the end of the coinage minted during Mughal control over Junagadh. A long time - almost a 100 years later, the Nawabs restarted minting coins at Junagadh. More on that soon.
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #12 on: July 12, 2019, 01:19:04 PM »
The Nawabs of Junagadh:
Around the 1730's, the local chieftains had become powerful enough not to pay tribute to the Mughal overlords, who, themselves had become fairy weak and could not enforce their authority over the numerous chiefs who had started acting independent of their authority.
The first coinage of the Princely state of Junagadh appears to have been struck soon after, when the local ruler Mohammad Sher Khan Babi, who owed allegiance to the Mughal governor of Gujarat Subah as the Diwan of Junagadh , founded the state of Junagadh soon after the Marathas - Gaikwad invasion.
Sher khan Babi, was thus the founder of the Babi Dynasty of Junagadh. His descendants, the Babi Nawabs of Junagadh, conquered large tracts of territories in southern Saurashtra and ruled over the state for the next two centuries, first as tributaries of Marathas, and later under the suzerainty of the British. The Nawabs of Junagadh belonged to the Babi or Babai (Pashtun tribe) Pashtuns from Afghanistan. They were granted a 13 gun salute by the British authorities
The state, became a British protectorate in 1807. The East India Company took control of the state by 1818. At the time of Partition, though the Nawab of Junagadh decided to merge his state with Pakistan, the government of India in spite of strong protests of Pakistan, accepted the invitation of the Dewan to intervene and Junagadh soon became a part of the Indian state of Saurashtra. On 1 November 1956, Saurashtra became part of Bombay state. In 1960, Bombay state was split into the linguistic states of Maharashtra and Gujarat and Junagadh became a part of the Gujarat State.

Tee following is the list of Nawabs of Junagadh:
   1730 - 1758 : Mohammad Bahadur Khan or Mohammad Sher Khan Babi
   1758 - 1774 : Mohammad Mahabat Khan I
   1774 - 1811 : Mohammad Hamid Khan I
   1811 - 1840 : Mohammad Bahadur Khan II
   1840 - 1851 : Mohammad Hamid Khan II
   1851 - 1882 : Mohammad Mahabat Khan II
   1882 - 1892 : Mohammad Bahadur Khan III
   1892 - 1911 : Mohammad Rasul Khan
   1911 - 1948 : Mohammad Mahabat Khan III
« Last Edit: July 12, 2019, 01:47:14 PM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #13 on: July 12, 2019, 01:22:10 PM »
The Coinage of Sher Khan Babi aka Nawab Bahadur Khan I
It is reported that once Sher Khan Babi, the Diwan of Junagadh on behalf of the Mughal Subhedar of Ahmedabad, started becoming independent of the Mughal overlordship, he struck coins at Junagadh with his former title. Just as the Rulers of Porbandar used ‘Shri Rana’ and the Jam of Nawanagar used ‘Shri Jam’ on their coins, he struck coins in the name of Muzzaffar Shah III with ‘Shri Diwan’ in Nagari. He struck these coins aligned to the local weight standards rather than follow the Mughal standards of a rupee and Paisa. Thus Junagadh reverted to the Kori and Dokda standards after a gap of about one hundred years. These Diwan Shahi coins – the Dokda, Dhingla and the Kori seem to have continued through his reign and possibly in to the reign of his successor, Mahabat Khan I.

PS: I will upload the images of the copper coins as soon as possible.
« Last Edit: July 15, 2019, 03:46:56 AM by asm »
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Re: Junagadh Mint under Islamic Dynasties.
« Reply #14 on: July 12, 2019, 01:25:20 PM »
The Coinage of Nawab Mahabat Khan I
Mahabat Khan I then issued coins in his own name. These coins, also in the name of Muzzaffar Shah III have his name written as ‘मो ब त’ ‘Mobat’ instead of ‘Shri Diwan’ on the coins. Only the Dhingla is known and is very rare.
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