Author Topic: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic  (Read 3482 times)

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Offline <k>

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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #15 on: April 10, 2018, 01:29:08 AM »

Hitler, looking very feline, as he plays cat-and-mouse with President Hácha.



On the evening of 14 March 1939, Hitler summoned President Hácha to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, then deliberately kept him waiting for hours. Finally, at 1:30 a.m., on 15 March 1939, Hitler saw the President. He told Hácha that as they were speaking, the German army was about to invade Czechoslovakia. All of Czechoslovakia's defences were now under German control following the Munich Agreement in September of the previous year. The country was virtually surrounded by Germany on three fronts.

Hitler now gave the President two options: cooperate with Germany, in which case the "entry of German troops would take place in a tolerable manner" and "permit Czechoslovakia a generous life of her own, autonomy and a degree of national freedom" or face a scenario in which "resistance would be broken by force of arms, using all means." After Hermann Göring threatened to subject Prague to merciless aerial bombing, the 66-year-old Hácha suffered a heart attack and had to be revived by an injection. Hácha contacted his government at 4 a.m. and "signed Czechoslovakia away" to Germany.

At 5:00 a.m. on March 15, 1939, Hitler declared that the unrest in Czecho-Slovakia was a threat to German security. On the morning of 15 March, German troops entered Bohemia and Moravia, meeting no resistance. Carpatho-Ukraine immediately declared its independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, which lasted for only one day. With Hitler's agreement, Hungarian troops occupied and annexed the short-lived country the next day. On 16 March, Hitler entered Czechoslovakia and from Prague Castle proclaimed the new Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Hitler re-installed Tiso as President of Slovakia, telling the world that Slovakia was now independent but under the protection of Germany. In reality, Slovakia was now a mere puppet state, though still with more freedom than Bohemia and Moravia.
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Offline <k>

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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #16 on: April 10, 2018, 01:42:09 AM »
Below you see the map of how Czechoslovakia now looked. In 1938, following the Munich agreement, Poland had coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the city of Český Těšín, by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. Polish troops and authorities entered it on 2 October 1938, and the territory was annexed by Poland as Cieszyn Zachodni (West Cieszyn). After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the entire territory was annexed by Germany. During World War II it was a part of Nazi Germany. After the war, the 1920 borders were restored.

Meanwhile, in London, ex-president Edvard Beneš formed a Czechoslovak government-in-exile, which would help to organise the resistance during the Second World War. Before the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Hitler had said he was only interested in regaining his ethnic Germans. Now the world knew that this was a lie. Some rank and file German Nazis even left the Nazi party, so disgusted were they at this attack on another state. When Hitler began to agitate for the return of Danzig and his ethnic Germans in Poland, France and Britain were no longer deceived; they now had the measure of the man.
« Last Edit: April 10, 2018, 02:30:41 PM by <k> »
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Offline <k>

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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #17 on: April 10, 2018, 02:35:22 PM »
The official name of Slovakia was the Slovak State from 14 March to 21 July 1939 (until the adoption of the Constitution), and the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika) from 21 July 1939 to its end in April 1945. The country is often referred to historically as the First Slovak Republic to distinguish it from the current (Second) Slovak Republic, Slovakia, which is not considered its legal successor state.

Below you see the emblem and flag of the First Slovak Republic.
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Offline <k>

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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #18 on: April 10, 2018, 07:00:59 PM »
The koruna (Slovak: koruna slovenská) was the currency of the Slovak Republic from 1939 to 1945. The Slovak koruna replaced the Czechoslovak koruna at par. Its abbreviation was Kčs. Initially, the Slovak koruna was at par with the Bohemian and Moravian koruna, with 10 korunas equal to 1 Reichsmark.

The first low denomination coin to be minted in the new state was the nickel-brass 10 halierov, in November 1939. Its obverse showed the Slovak coat of arms.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #19 on: April 10, 2018, 07:02:30 PM »
The reverse of the coin showed Bratislava castle, by the river Danube. Bratislava was the capital of the new state.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #20 on: April 10, 2018, 07:03:57 PM »
A modern view of the scene.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #21 on: April 10, 2018, 07:11:11 PM »
In July 1939 a silver 5 korun coin was issued to commemorate Father Andrej Hlinka, a Slovak Catholic priest and politician. He had been the leader of the Slovak People's Party from 1913 until his death in 1938.

The obverse legend translates as: "FOR THE LIFE OF GOD. FOR A NATION OF FREEDOM".
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #22 on: April 10, 2018, 07:16:07 PM »

Andrej Hlinka in 1937.



Hlinka was an authoritarian Catholic conservative, who admired the regimes of Salazar in Portugal and Dollfuss in Austria. He criticized the persecution of Christians in Germany and regarded Hitler as a "cultural beast".
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #23 on: April 10, 2018, 07:25:25 PM »
A sliver 20 korun was issued on the 26th October 1939, to commemorate Jozef Tiso's inauguration as the first President of Slovakia.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #24 on: April 10, 2018, 07:48:06 PM »
In 1940 the first 20 halierov was minted, in nickel-brass. The coin was minted again in 1942, but later in that same year an aluminium version was minted, also dated 1942. No more coins of this denomination were minted after 1942.

The obverse of the coin surrounded the coat of arms with some linden leaves.

The reverse of the coin depicted Nitra castle. Nitra is a city in western Slovakia, situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the valley of the river Nitra.
« Last Edit: April 12, 2018, 11:25:06 PM by <k> »
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #25 on: April 10, 2018, 07:50:03 PM »
Nitra castle.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #26 on: April 10, 2018, 09:33:36 PM »
A copper-nickel 50 halierov was first issued in March 1941, though many had been minted in 1940 and were dated as such. The obverse showed a plain coat of arms, unadorned by any linden or olive leaves. The reverse featured a plough, to represent the country's agrarian economy. The style of the design did not fit well with the castle designs, and moreover the top half of this design was left blank, apart from the denomination, representing a plain sky, whilst the 10 and 20 halierov reverse designs filled most of the flan.

In 1943 the coin was minted in aluminium, to spare precious copper-nickel.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #27 on: April 10, 2018, 09:50:15 PM »
The 1 koruna coin was first issued in December 1940. It was only ever minted in copper-nickel. The obverse showed the coat of arms within an inner circle. The reverse showed the denomination within a tied spray of barley, pine cones, and leaves.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #28 on: April 10, 2018, 09:56:22 PM »
The 5 halierov coin was minted and issued in 1942 only. The coin was only 14 mm in diameter and made of zinc. This was the only zinc coin of war-time Slovakia, whereas many other European countries issued several coins in zinc, as an economy measure. Because of the coin's small size, the reverse design showed only an abbreviated form of the denomination.
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Re: The History and Coinage of the First Slovak Republic
« Reply #29 on: April 10, 2018, 10:35:01 PM »
In 1941 a silver 20 korun coin was issued, depicting Saints Cyril and Methodius. It was in Great Moravia that they began their mission of preaching the Gospel in the Slavonic language, therefore these saints were especially revered in Slovakia.
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