On 5 September 1944 Rost van Tonningen fled with a number of other Dutch Collaborators, fearing the rapidly advancing Allied armies. He turned up again a few days later, but was fired from his position as successor to the NSB leadership by Anton Mussert, after writing an article in which he praised the members of the Dutch NSB youth organisation (Nationale Jeugdstorm, National Youth Storm) who had joined the Hitlerjugend division.
In the summer of 1944, Rost van Tonningen was trained to be an officer in the first battalion of the Landstorm Nederland, a Dutch paramilitary defense organisation. In March 1945 he left for the frontlines, which ran through the middle of the Netherlands, in the Betuwe. On 8 May 1945 he was taken prisoner by Canadian troops, and was held in a prisoner camp in Elst. From there he was transferred to Utrecht and on 24 May 1945 he was moved to the prison in Scheveningen. Rost van Tonningen allegedly committed suicide there by jumping from a balcony in the prison on 6 June 1945. There have been persistent rumors, but no proof, that he did not jump by himself. He never stood trial for his actions.
Upon the surrender of Germany, Mussert was arrested at the NSB office in The Hague on 7 May 1945. He was convicted of high treason on 28 November after a two-day trial, and was sentenced to death on 12 December. He appealed to Queen Wilhelmina for clemency. She refused. On 7 May 1946, exactly one year after his arrest and four days before his 52nd birthday, Mussert was executed by a firing squad on the Waalsdorpervlakte, a site near The Hague, where hundreds of Dutch citizens had been killed by the Nazi regime.
Anne Frank died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, probably in February 1945, only a few weeks before liberation, and probably as a result of typhus. Behind the Nazi propaganda art, some of it shown here, which projected a kind of perverted romanticism mixed with glamour and camaraderie, lay disorder, disease, destruction, torture, inhuman medical experiments, and the mass murder of millions, including that of innocent children like Anne Frank.