Author Topic: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation  (Read 386 times)

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Offline <k>

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #15 on: April 09, 2017, 02:29:34 PM »
In 1943 the Netherlands issued a set of stamps based on old Germanic symbols. Its themes are in some ways similar to those of the occupation coin designs.

Offline <k>

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #16 on: April 09, 2017, 02:52:27 PM »
The Nazis rather ignored Anton Mussert, leader of the NSB, as an irrelevance. However, after many complaints from Mussert, they finally gave him the honorary title of Leader of the Netherlands People in December 1942. A political secretariat of state of the NSB was set up as a sort of shadow government. The real power remained with the Nazis, of course. Increasingly, the SS favoured Mussert's more extremist lieutenant, Rost van Tonningen.

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #17 on: April 09, 2017, 03:04:58 PM »
In July 1942, Anne Frank went into hiding in Amsterdam with her family, to escape the murderous attentions of the Nazis. Hitler and his monstrous regime murdered millions of Jewish people. Thanks to her diary, after the war the world learned of the personality of one Jewish girl in particular, out of all these millions. She was, it seems, already developing a talent for writing children's stories. Who knows what she might have become, if the Nazis had not wanted to kill her and millions of other children?

Read about her here: Anne Frank.

Read also the story of the woman who risked her life to try to save the Frank family: Miep Gies.

Offline <k>

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #18 on: April 09, 2017, 04:36:26 PM »
The Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II can be mainly characterized by its prominent non-violence, peaking at over 300,000 people in hiding in the autumn of 1944, tended to by some 60,000 to 200,000 illegal landlords and caretakers and tolerated knowingly by some one million people, including German occupiers and military.

Read more from Wikipedia: Dutch resistance.



As the Allied forces advanced towards Germany in 1944 and 1945, the Netherlands became the site of bitter fighting. The food supply was severely disrupted, and many Dutch civilians suffered near-starvation.

Read more from Wikipedia: Dutch famine of 194445.

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #19 on: April 09, 2017, 04:41:43 PM »
In 1944 the Dutch government-in-exile authorised a set of liberation stamps, which were printed in England. Four of the stamps showed military scenes, while the remaining values featured a portrait of Queen Wilhelmina in different colours.

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #20 on: April 09, 2017, 04:48:30 PM »
From Wikipedia:

The Netherlands was liberated largely by the First Canadian Army, which included in addition to Canadian forces the British I Corps, and the 1st Polish Armoured Division, as well as, at various times, American, Belgian, Dutch and Czechoslovak troops. Parts of the country, in particular the south-east, were liberated by the British Second Army, which included American and Polish airborne forces, and French airbornes. On 5 May 1945, the Canadian General Charles Foulkes and the German Commander-in-Chief Johannes Blaskowitz reached an agreement on the capitulation of German forces in the Netherlands in Hotel de Wereld in Wageningen. One day later, the capitulation document was signed in the auditorium of Wageningen University, located next door.

After being liberated, Dutch citizens began taking the law into their own hands, as had been done in other liberated countries, such as France. Collaborators and Dutch women who had had relationships with men of the German occupying force, called "Moffenmeiden" were abused and humiliated in public, usually by having their heads shaved and painted orange

By the end of the war, 205,901 Dutch men and women had died of war-related causes. The Netherlands had the highest per capita death rate of all Nazi-occupied countries in Western Europe (2.36%). Over half (107,000) were Holocaust victims, deported and murdered Jews. There were also many thousands of non-Dutch Jews in the total, who had fled to the Netherlands from other countries, seeking safety. Another 30,000 died in the Dutch East Indies, either while fighting the Japanese or in camps as Japanese POWs. Dutch civilians were also held in these camps.

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #21 on: April 09, 2017, 04:59:38 PM »
From Wikipedia:

On 5 September 1944 Rost van Tonningen fled with a number of other Dutch Collaborators, fearing the rapidly advancing Allied armies. He turned up again a few days later, but was fired from his position as successor to the NSB leadership by Anton Mussert, after writing an article in which he praised the members of the Dutch NSB youth organisation (Nationale Jeugdstorm, National Youth Storm) who had joined the Hitlerjugend division.

In the summer of 1944, Rost van Tonningen was trained to be an officer in the first battalion of the Landstorm Nederland, a Dutch paramilitary defense organisation. In March 1945 he left for the frontlines, which ran through the middle of the Netherlands, in the Betuwe. On 8 May 1945 he was taken prisoner by Canadian troops, and was held in a prisoner camp in Elst. From there he was transferred to Utrecht and on 24 May 1945 he was moved to the prison in Scheveningen. Rost van Tonningen allegedly committed suicide there by jumping from a balcony in the prison on 6 June 1945. There have been persistent rumors, but no proof, that he did not jump by himself. He never stood trial for his actions.

Upon the surrender of Germany, Mussert was arrested at the NSB office in The Hague on 7 May 1945. He was convicted of high treason on 28 November after a two-day trial, and was sentenced to death on 12 December. He appealed to Queen Wilhelmina for clemency. She refused. On 7 May 1946, exactly one year after his arrest and four days before his 52nd birthday, Mussert was executed by a firing squad on the Waalsdorpervlakte, a site near The Hague, where hundreds of Dutch citizens had been killed by the Nazi regime.




Anne Frank died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, probably in February 1945, only a few weeks before liberation, and probably as a result of typhus. Behind the Nazi propaganda art, some of it shown here, which projected a kind of perverted romanticism mixed with glamour and camaraderie, lay disorder, disease, destruction, torture, inhuman medical experiments, and the mass murder of millions, including that of innocent children like Anne Frank.

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #22 on: April 09, 2017, 05:00:10 PM »
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Offline <k>

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Re: The Netherlands Under Nazi Occupation
« Reply #23 on: April 11, 2017, 05:05:49 PM »
See also eurocoin's topic about the Dutch unrealised designs from this period:

The Netherlands: Unrealised war coins by Nico de Haas.