Author Topic: Denmark under Nazi occupation  (Read 2003 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #15 on: April 05, 2017, 12:21:33 PM »
In 1942 a new version of the 1 krone coin was issued. It was still in aluminium-bronze, but the obverse now carried a portrait of the King. The reverse design had also changed and showed crossed stalks of oats and wheat.

The 2 and 5 øre were minted in zinc from 1942, instead of aluminium, as in 1941, but their designs did not change.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #16 on: April 05, 2017, 12:28:36 PM »
From Wikipedia:

In October 1942, Adolf Hitler transmitted a long, flattering birthday telegram to King Christian. The King replied with a simple "Spreche Meinen besten Dank aus. Chr. Rex" ("Giving my best thanks. King Christian") sending the Führer into a state of rage at this deliberate slight, and seriously damaging Danish relations with Germany. Hitler immediately recalled his ambassador and expelled the Danish ambassador from Germany. The plenipotentiary, Rente-Fink was replaced by Werner Best and orders to crack down in Denmark were issued. Hitler also demanded that Erik Scavenius become prime minister, and all remaining Danish troops were ordered out of Jutland.

As the war dragged on, the Danish population became increasingly hostile to the Germans. Soldiers stationed in Denmark had found most of the population cold and distant from the beginning of the occupation, but their willingness to cooperate had made the relationship workable. The government had attempted to discourage sabotage and violent resistance to the occupation, but by the autumn of 1942 the numbers of violent acts of resistance were increasing steadily to the point that Germany declared Denmark "enemy territory" for the first time. After the battles of Stalingrad and El-Alamein the incidents of resistance, violent and symbolic, increased rapidly.

In March 1943 the Germans allowed a general election to be held. The voter turnout was 89.5%, the highest in any Danish parliamentary election, and 94% cast their ballots for one of the democratic parties behind the cooperation policy while 2.2% voted for the anti-cooperation Dansk Samling. Only 2.1% voted for the Danish Nazi party, almost corresponding to the 1.8% the party had received in the 1939 elections. The election, discontent, and a growing feeling of optimism that Germany would be defeated led to widespread strikes and civil disturbances in the summer of 1943. The Danish government refused to deal with the situation in a way that would satisfy the Germans, who presented an ultimatum to the government, including the following demands, on 28 August 1943: A ban on people assembling in public, outlawing strikes, the introduction of a curfew, censorship should be conducted with German assistance, special (German military) courts should be introduced, and the death penalty should be introduced in cases of sabotage. In addition, the city of Odense was ordered to pay a fine of 1 million kroner for the death of a German soldier killed in that city and hostages were to be held as security.

The Danish government refused, so on 29 August 1943 the Germans officially dissolved the Danish government and instituted martial law. The Danish cabinet handed in its resignation, although since King Christian never officially accepted it, the government remained functioning de jure until the end of the war. In reality—largely due to the initiative of the permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs Nils Svenningsen—all day-to-day business had been handed over to the Permanent Secretaries, each effectively running his own ministry. The Germans administered the rest of the country, and the Danish Parliament did not convene for the remainder of the occupation. As the ministry of foreign affairs was responsible for all negotiations with the Germans, Nils Svenningsen had a leading position in the government.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #17 on: April 05, 2017, 03:09:31 PM »
The Danish Nazis, the DNSAP, had expected to win 19 seats in the relatively free elections of 1943. They got their usual three. Up to then, the Nazis had been subsidising them and supporting them, in the hope that they could attract more Danes to the Nazi cause. After their continuing failure, they became irrelevant and were dropped by the Nazis. Low morale followed, and many DNSAP members resigned.

From Wikipedia:

After the Nazis dissolved the Danish government, Denmark was exposed to the full extent of Nazi terror. In October the Germans decided to remove all Jews from Denmark, but thanks to an information leak from German diplomat Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz and swift action by Danish civilians, the vast majority of the Danish Jews were transported to safety in neutral Sweden by means of fishing boats and motorboats. The entire evacuation lasted two months and one man helped ferry more than 1,400 Jews to safety. Sabotage, unencumbered by government opposition, grew greatly in frequency and severity, though it was rarely of very serious concern to the Germans. Nonetheless, the Danish resistance movement had some successes, such as on D-Day when the train network in Denmark was disrupted for days, delaying the arrival of German reinforcements in Normandy. An underground government was established, and the illegal press flourished. Allied governments, which had been skeptical about the country's commitment to fight Germany, began recognizing Denmark as a full ally.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #18 on: April 05, 2017, 03:21:45 PM »
Even at this late stage, the Nazis still had their collaborators. Some of these were volunteers in the Schalburg corps, which was named after its Danish founder, who had been killed in action in Russia in 1942.

Some pro-Nazi Danish groups released a charity label in September 1943, in order to raise funds for a memorial for Schalburg.



See also: Wikipedia - Schalburg Corps.
« Last Edit: April 05, 2017, 03:46:11 PM by <k> »
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #19 on: April 05, 2017, 03:28:36 PM »
A propaganda poster of 1944, urging Danes to join the Danish Waffen-SS.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #20 on: April 05, 2017, 03:29:31 PM »
The Schalburg Corps, also known as the Danish SS Legion, issued a set of field post stamps in 1944. The only such set from Denmark, it showed scenes of Danish towns. They are nothing like as dramatic as the designs I have shown in other topics.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #21 on: April 05, 2017, 03:35:27 PM »
Most of Denmark was liberated from German rule in May 1945 by British forces commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery; the easternmost island of Bornholm was liberated by Soviet forces, who remained there for almost a year.

Below: citizens of Copenhagen celebrating the liberation.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

Offline <k>

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 22 873
Re: Denmark under Nazi occupation
« Reply #22 on: April 05, 2017, 03:36:04 PM »
Please post any comments in this topic:

Comments on "Denmark under Nazi occupation".
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.