Author Topic: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital  (Read 522 times)

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Offline THCoins

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Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« on: October 02, 2016, 03:13:24 PM »
Kurraman was an important region in the Indian-Afghan bordelands at the beginning of the 13th century.
I showed some jitals minted in Kurraman under the rule of the Khwarezmshahi Ala al din Muhammad and his son Jalal al din Mangubarni before. The Khwarezmshahi were routed by the Mongols. After 1224 AD the Kurraman region came under the control of the Quarlughids, Saif al din Hassan and his son Nasir. The ruler of the latter ended some time before 1266AD.
In the Tye Jitals catalog there are also a number of anonymous and unattributed Jitals from Kurraman (Tye#356-360). Some of these resemble the Quarlughid issues, but do not bear the name of the issuer.

The coin below is another likely post-Qarlugid jital from Kurraman.
The reverse unmistakeably reads "Zarb Kurraman". Above the nun of Kurraman are some other elements. This may be just decoration.
I tried to make sense of the obverse for a long time. This is not a common text known for the Qarlughids. Provisionally i read it as "Abu something (Kebek ?)/ in wa zd  / Kurraman again ?

Looking at the middle line again yesterday yielded another hypothesis. It seemed nonsensical at first. But reading through some literature it may not be that unlikely. The text in the middle line could fit with the end of the name "Firuz".
Now some post-Qarlughid ruler named Firuz seems a long shot. But actually there is one interesting candidate. Therefore we have to move our attention to Delhi. From 1266 to 1887AD, Delhi was ruled by Sultan Ghiyath al din Balban. During the reign of Balban a certain Firuz Khalaji was employed as warden of the border region, including Kurraman.
If this coin indeed names this Firuz that would be a major discovery. For this army commander would later take over the throne of Delhi in 1290AD as Jalal al din Firuz and become the founder of the Khalji dynasty.
This hypothesis was falsified already, see later post.

Please do forward alternative readings !

AE 15 mm 3,21 grm, closest match Tye#360 (reverse)
« Last Edit: August 07, 2018, 02:55:49 PM by THCoins »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #1 on: October 03, 2016, 10:44:37 AM »
I like the Firuz option, though I cannot add force to your hypothesis. The only word I can find and read on this coin is zarb :) I just wonder about the "abu". Since your Firuz was an upstart and upcoming rebel, he should not be seeking legitimacy by hereditary connections, but rather contrast with the legit ruler, e.g. claiming to be more pious or victorious. On the other hand, if he were just an underling doing a job, he would stress his loyalty. In both cases, how would "abu" fit in?

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #2 on: October 03, 2016, 02:21:23 PM »
Actually, i am not really satisfied with Abu because of the spelling. However, it is not strange or unexpected.
You should not take "abu" to literally. "Abu l'fath" was a frequently used title meaning "father of victory".

Anthony

Offline THCoins

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #3 on: August 07, 2018, 11:49:40 AM »
An old thread. I did not get much further in getting a conclusive reading on the text on this coin. So i just put it away but kept my eyes open.

Now a second specimen surfaced in the coming Steve Album auction. It is not die identical, but clearly the same type.

The entire text is still given as unread, but still some nice clues. My hypothesis of "Firuz" in the second line is falsified. However, a reading of the first line is proposed as "be-tawfiq", which translates as succesfull. This is not a common legend part and does not really provide a clue on the rest of the text though.
Progress is slow, but steady !

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #4 on: August 07, 2018, 12:43:50 PM »
With Steve's coin the entire legend is now visible but parts are seemingly still unread, with your permission I will put your photo on Fb and see if we can get any opinions on what the lower part of the legend reads
Vic

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #5 on: August 07, 2018, 12:58:33 PM »
See my argument above. I think "the successful" is exactly the sort of attribute an ambitious underling would use. It's ambiguous enough to be explained away if it raises eyebrows, yet it lays a claim.

The claim is known as the "mandate from heaven" in Chinese culture. Loosely, a ruling dynasty has a mandate from heaven to rule. As long as it has that, it can do whatever it wants, resistance is useless, everyone will be assimilated. You know when a ruler has the mandate from heaven, because he is successful. Therefore, if he is not successful, he lost the mandate from heaven.

A practical example. Sukarno achieved Indonesian independence and unification with New Guinea/Irian Jaya. This showed he had the mandate from heaven. He was highly corrupt and thoroughly venal. It didn't matter. He started a confrontation policy with Malaysia and lost badly. Malaysia prospered, the Indonesian economy tanked and Indonesians went to Malaysia to seek jobs as cleaners and drivers. Sukarno had lost the mandate of heaven. Suharto could take over.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #6 on: August 07, 2018, 01:23:32 PM »
Sure Vic, youre welcome to expose this one on FB.
Don't know Peter. Likely this coin was struck in a period when the "old" authority already had lost power, while the threatening presence of the new Mongol rulers was felt, but had not yet taken over day to day live. In other instances we know of coins which just make "neutral" references to the distant caliph of Baghdad in those circumstances. Possibly to not offend any possible new ruler.

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #7 on: August 07, 2018, 02:10:44 PM »
As usual Shailendra Bhandare comes up with the answer  ;D  it reads 'ba-Taufiq-i Parwardigar' بتوفیق پروردگار = "in/ by the grace of the Omnipotent"
Vic

Offline THCoins

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #8 on: August 07, 2018, 02:38:49 PM »
Great Vic, please thank him from me !
I had tried al sort of letter combinations of the last word, some very close to the final result. But because the last character curled up on my specimen i kept that a nun. "Parwardigar" was also not a word i had in my Persian vocabulary. So very nice to have this solved !
And Peter was right after all with his mandate from heaven  :)

Anthony
« Last Edit: August 07, 2018, 09:14:31 PM by THCoins »

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #9 on: August 07, 2018, 02:48:51 PM »
Great Vic, please thank him from me !
I had tried al sort of letter combinations of the last word, some very close to the final result. But because the last character curled up on my specimen i kept that a nun. "Parwardigar" was also not a word i had in my Persian vacabulary. So very nice to have this solved !

Anthony

Shailen has an amazing talent for identifying coins from fragments of legends, read about him  here
Vic

Offline THCoins

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Re: Trying to make sense of an unpublished Kurraman Jital
« Reply #10 on: August 08, 2018, 05:14:33 PM »
Looking into the etymology of "Parwardigar" i found this is not just an archaic Persian term.
It is also a 1970's song from Pete Townshend, best known from his activities with the band "The Who".  hmm..  ::)