Author Topic: WIP: The Byzantine Coinage of Nicephorus I (802-811)  (Read 1788 times)

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WIP: The Byzantine Coinage of Nicephorus I (802-811)
« on: June 15, 2016, 05:33:41 PM »
Nicephorus I (802-811)



Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I was Byzantine Emperor from 802 to 811 AD, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.

A patrician from Seleucia Sidera, Nikephoros was appointed finance minister (logothetēs tou genikou) by the Empress Irene. With the help of the patricians and eunuchs he contrived to dethrone and exile Irene, and to be chosen as Emperor in her stead on October 31, 802. He crowned his son Staurakios co-emperor in 803.

His rule was endangered by Bardanes Tourkos, one of his ablest generals, who revolted and received support from other commanders, notably the later emperors Leo V the Armenian and Michael II the Amorian in 803.

But Nikephoros gained over the latter two, and by inducing the rebel army to disperse achieved the submission of Bardanes, who was blinded and relegated to a monastery. A conspiracy headed by the patrician Arsaber had a similar issue.

Nikephoros embarked on a general reorganization of the Empire, creating new themes in the Balkans (where he initiated the re-Hellenization by resettling Greeks from Anatolia) and strengthening the frontiers. Needing large sums to increase his military forces, he set himself with great energy to increase the Empire's revenue. By his rigorous tax imposts he alienated the favour of his subjects, and especially of the clergy, whom he otherwise sought to control firmly. Although he appointed an iconodule, Nikephoros as patriarch, Emperor Nikephoros was portrayed as a villain by ecclesiastical historians like Theophanes the Confessor.

In 803 Nikephoros concluded a treaty, called the "Pax Nicephori", with Charlemagne, but refused to recognize the latter's imperial dignity. Relations deteriorated and led to a war over Venice in 806–810. In the process Nikephoros had quelled a Venetian rebellion in 807, but suffered extensive losses to the Franks. The conflict was resolved only after Nikephoros' death, and Venice, Istria, the Dalmatian coast and South Italy were assigned to the East, while Rome, Ravenna and the Pentapolis were included in the Western realm.

By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd, Nikephoros committed himself to a war against the Arabs. Compelled by Bardanes' disloyalty to take the field himself, he sustained a severe defeat at the Battle of Krasos in Phrygia (805). In 806 a Muslim army of 135,000 men invaded the Empire. Unable to counter the Muslim numbers, Nikephoros agreed to make peace on condition of paying 50,000 nomismata immediately and a yearly tribute of 30,000 nomismata. With a succession struggle enveloping the caliphate on the death of Hārūn al-Rashīd in 809, Nikephoros was free to deal with Krum, Khan of Bulgaria, who was harassing his northern frontiers and had just conquered Serdica (Sofia).

In 811 Nikephoros invaded Bulgaria, defeated Krum twice, and sacked the Bulgarian capital Pliska; however, during Nikephoros' retreat, the Byzantine army was ambushed and destroyed in the mountain passes on July 26 by Krum. Nikephoros was killed in the battle, the second Eastern Emperor to suffer this fate since Valens in the Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378). Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup of Nikephoros' skull.



Adapted from Wikipedia


Metal: AV
Denomination: Solidus
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Facing bust, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys , holding cross potent and akakia
Rev: Facing bust, wearing crown and loros , holding globus cruciger and cross-tipped sceptre
References: Sear-1615; DOC-1a
Provenance: Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 84, Lot 1356


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Solidus
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned and bearded facing bust of Michael, wearing loros and holding cross potent in right hand
Rev: Crowned and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand
References: Sear-1620; DOC-7
Provenance: Heritage Auctions, Inc. Auction 3035, Lot 29545


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Semissis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Bust of Michael facing, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger and akakia
Rev: Bust of Michael, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross potent on globus and akakia
References: Sear-1621; DOC-5
Provenance: Stack's The Golden Horn Collection, Lot 3194


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Tremissis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned, draped and bearded bust of Michael I facing, holding cross on globe
Rev: Crowned, draped and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, holding cross potent on base
References: DOC-2
Provenance: H. Goodacre, Notes on Some Rare Byzantine Coins, The Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 11, No. 43 (1931), pp. 155, Pl. XI, 8


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Tremissis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned, draped and bearded bust of Michael I facing, holding cross on globe
Rev: Crowned, draped and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, holding cross potent on base
References: Sear-1623; DOC-6
Provenance: Leu Numismatik AG Auction 86, Lot 1121


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Metal: AR
Denomination: Miliaresion
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing busts of Michael, wearing chlamys, and Theophilus, wearing loros
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1616; DOC-3
Provenance: Gemini LLC Auction III, Lot 530


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing bust of Michael, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and scepter
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1617; DOC-7, under Michael II
Provenance: Savoca Numismatik GmbH Auction 7, Lot 634


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing busts of Michael, wearing chlamys, and Theophilus, wearing loros
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1618; DOC-8, under Michael II
Provenance: CNG Mail Bid Sale #58, Lot 1461


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned bearded bust of Michael facing, wearing loros and holding cross potent
Rev: Crowned beardless bust of Michael facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger
References: Sear-1624; DOC-9; Anastasi-477
Provenance: CNG Electronic Auction 354, Lot 677


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Quant.Geekhttp://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,32386.msg204549.html#msg204549



Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned bust of Michael facing, with short beard, wearing loros, and holding cross potent
Rev: Crowned bust of Theophylactus facing, wearing chlamys, holding cross on globe
References: Sear-1625; DOC-10
Provenance: CNG Electronic Auction 246, Lot 511


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References

Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume I, Dumbarton Oaks, 1966
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume II, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1968
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume II, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1968
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume III, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1973
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume III, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1973
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume IV, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume IV, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume V, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Grierson, Philip, Byzantine Coins, Methuen & Co Ltd, 1982
Grierson, Philip, Byzantine Coinage, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1999
Lianta, Eleni, Late Byzantine Coins 1204-1453 in the Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford, Spink & Sons Ltd., 2009
Sear, David R., Byzantine Coins and their Values, Seaby, 1974
Sommer, Andreas U., Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453, Gietl Verlag, 2010
Sommer, Andreas U., Katalog der Byzantinischen Münzen, Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2003
Whitting, P. D., Byzantine Coins, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973
« Last Edit: June 16, 2016, 06:07:07 PM by Quant.Geek »
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