Author Topic: WIP: The Byzantine Coins of Leontius (695–698)  (Read 1387 times)

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WIP: The Byzantine Coins of Leontius (695–698)
« on: June 15, 2016, 05:03:17 AM »
Leontius (695–698)




Leontios was born in Isauria. A professional soldier from an early age, he rose swiftly through the ranks and was appointed strategos (military governor) of the Anatolic theme during the reign of Emperor Constantine IV.

In 686 Leontios was chosen by Justinian II to lead the Byzantine army against the Arabs in Georgia and Armenia. Ruthless even by the standards of the day, Leontios carried the war further into Iranian Azerbaijan and Caucasian Albania. His successes eventually forced the negotiation of a treaty between Byzantium and the Arabic Caliph Abd al-Malik with substantial Arabic concessions and tributes to the Byzantine Emperor.

Leontios was less successful when war against the Arabs was renewed in 692. Leading a substantial Byzantine army, he was defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis when a large Slavic contingent deserted and left his remaining forces exposed. Furious at the loss of the army, the Emperor Justinian imprisoned Leontius for two years.

The Emperor freed Leontios in 695 and appointed him strategos of the Helladic theme. Instead he organized a revolt against the emperor, led largely by his former prison comrades. With the help of the Blue charioteers faction, the Patriarch Kallinikos, and his own military prowess, Leontios soon deposed Justinian and seized the throne himself. Justinian's nose and tongue were slit and he was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea.

During his unpopular reign, Leontios refrained from most military operations, instead attempting to consolidate the empire. This inactivity and defensive posture led to Abd al-Malik dispatching an expedition to take Carthage which fell in 697. Leontios had sent a fleet to retake the city but it failed at the Battle of Carthage (698).

Rather than return to report their failure, the Byzantine army rebelled, overthrowing their admiral and naming a Germanic sailor named Apsimaros as their leader.  Apsimaros hastily changed his name to Tiberios III and the fleet returned to Constantinople where, with the support of the Green faction, they overthrew Leontios in 698.

In what had by now become a tradition for deposed emperors, Leontios had his nose and tongue slit and was imprisoned in the monastery of Psamathion in Constantinople. When the previous Emperor Justinian returned to the throne in 705, both Tiberios and Leontios were paraded through the streets while the citizenry pelted them with ordure. They were then led to the Hippodrome where they were sentenced to death and executed.


Adapted from Wikipedia


Metal: AV
Denomination: Solidus
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Facing bust, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys , holding cross potent and akakia
Rev: Facing bust, wearing crown and loros , holding globus cruciger and cross-tipped sceptre
References: Sear-1615; DOC-1a
Provenance: Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 84, Lot 1356


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Solidus
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned and bearded facing bust of Michael, wearing loros and holding cross potent in right hand
Rev: Crowned and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand
References: Sear-1620; DOC-7
Provenance: Heritage Auctions, Inc. Auction 3035, Lot 29545


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Semissis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Bust of Michael facing, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger and akakia
Rev: Bust of Michael, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross potent on globus and akakia
References: Sear-1621; DOC-5
Provenance: Stack's The Golden Horn Collection, Lot 3194


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Tremissis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned, draped and bearded bust of Michael I facing, holding cross on globe
Rev: Crowned, draped and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, holding cross potent on base
References: DOC-2
Provenance: H. Goodacre, Notes on Some Rare Byzantine Coins, The Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 11, No. 43 (1931), pp. 155, Pl. XI, 8


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Metal: AV
Denomination: Tremissis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned, draped and bearded bust of Michael I facing, holding cross on globe
Rev: Crowned, draped and beardless bust of Theophylactus facing, holding cross potent on base
References: Sear-1623; DOC-6
Provenance: Leu Numismatik AG Auction 86, Lot 1121


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Metal: AR
Denomination: Miliaresion
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing busts of Michael, wearing chlamys, and Theophilus, wearing loros
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1616; DOC-3
Provenance: Gemini LLC Auction III, Lot 530


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing bust of Michael, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and scepter
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1617; DOC-7, under Michael II
Provenance: Savoca Numismatik GmbH Auction 7, Lot 634[/url]


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Constantinople
Obv: Crowned and facing busts of Michael, wearing chlamys, and Theophilus, wearing loros
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; above, cross; beneath, A
References: Sear-1618; DOC-8, under Michael II
Provenance: CNG Mail Bid Sale #58, Lot 1461


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Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned bearded bust of Michael facing, wearing loros and holding cross potent
Rev: Crowned beardless bust of Michael facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger
References: Sear-1624; DOC-9; Anastasi-477
Provenance: CNG Electronic Auction 354, Lot 677


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Quant.Geekhttp://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,32386.msg204549.html#msg204549



Metal: AE
Denomination: Follis
Mint: Syracuse
Obv: Crowned bust of Michael facing, with short beard, wearing loros, and holding cross potent
Rev: Crowned bust of Theophylactus facing, wearing chlamys, holding cross on globe
References: Sear-1625; DOC-10
Provenance: CNG Electronic Auction 246, Lot 511


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References

Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume I, Dumbarton Oaks, 1966
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume II, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1968
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume II, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1968
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume III, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1973
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume III, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1973
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume IV, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume IV, Part 2, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Bellinger, Alfred R., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection - Volume V, Part 1, Dumbarton Oaks, 1999
Grierson, Philip, Byzantine Coins, Methuen & Co Ltd, 1982
Grierson, Philip, Byzantine Coinage, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1999
Lianta, Eleni, Late Byzantine Coins 1204-1453 in the Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford, Spink & Sons Ltd., 2009
Sear, David R., Byzantine Coins and their Values, Seaby, 1974
Sommer, Andreas U., Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453, Gietl Verlag, 2010
Sommer, Andreas U., Katalog der Byzantinischen Münzen, Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2003
Whitting, P. D., Byzantine Coins, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973
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