Author Topic: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir  (Read 14107 times)

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Offline Saikat

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Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« on: April 09, 2016, 04:44:12 PM »
There had been quite a few posts on pre-islamic rulers of Kashmir. In this thread, I would like to put my collections. I will also attempt to add information as I found in the following sources
"Kashmir Hindu Kings:The Ancient Coinage Of Kashmir. With Chronological And Historical Notes, From The Commencement Of The Christian Era To The ConquestOf The Country By The Moguls.By Lieut. A. Cunningham"
"Rajtarangini by Kalhan".

Sankaravarman (c883-902 AD) :
Sankara Verma was the second of the Utpala dynasty. He succeeded his father Avanti Verma in A.D. 883.  He was a warlike prince and conquered the kingdom of Trigerta (Kotoch or Kangra), Gurjara (Gujrat). He then gave up the noble ambition of a soldier's life for the sordid excitement of avarice, and began hoarding treasure, which he accumulated by every species of extortion. Afterwards, in an expedition beyond the Indus, he was shot in the neck by a mountaineer, and died in A.D. 901.

Obverse: Goddess Lakshmi seated facing, with Nagari legend Sanka(ra) at right
Reverse: King standing sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend Va(rma) at right
« Last Edit: June 29, 2016, 08:11:43 AM by THCoins »
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #1 on: April 09, 2016, 04:46:15 PM »
Gopala Varman (902-904 AD)
He was the son of Sankara Varman. On death of his father he assumed the kingdom with his mother Sugandha Rani as regent. However, after 2 years he was killed by the minister Prabhakardeva who was supposed to have an affair with queen Sugandha.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #2 on: April 09, 2016, 04:48:17 PM »
Sugandha Rani (904-906 AD)
After death of Shankara Verman, his infant son Gopala Verma was made king, under the regency of his mother Sugandha. However apprently he was made away after. When another brother of Gopala died in  10 days, Sugandha took the throne. She was queen for two years and then abdicated in favour of  Partha Verma. She rebeled after ten years but lost and put to death.

Obverse: Goddess Lakshmi seated facing, with Nagari legend Suga(ndha) at right
Reverse: King standing sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend Devya at right
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #3 on: April 09, 2016, 04:51:44 PM »
Partha Varman (907-923 AD)
Partha Varman made Sugandha Rani abdicate in favor of him when he was 10 years! However after 10 years, Sugandha rebelled against him, lost and put to death. The father of Partha, Pangu was also in the power struggle and acted like a regent.Later ministers disposed of Partha and via Nirjita Vermma, his father, a cripple, put Chakra Varman in power.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #4 on: April 09, 2016, 04:54:56 PM »
Chakravarman, 923-933: 935: 936-937 AD.
Partha Vermma being dethroned in A.D. 920, was succeeded by his father, Nirjita Vermma, a cripple, who was put to death at the end of a year, and the throne given to his infant son, Chakra Vermma. This prince, having reigned ten years, was deposed in favour of his brother, Sura Vermma, who after a nominal reign of one year, was made away with. Partha then regained the throne, but was soon after displaced by Chakra, who was, however, shortly afterwards obliged to abdicate, from his inability to satisfy the rapacity of the soldiery. Then Sankara Verdhana, who had been the minister of Nirjita, sent his brother to buy the crown from the mercenary soldiers, His brother, Sambhu Verdhana, however, purchased the kingdom for himself, on which war ensued between the two brothers ; but the near approach of Chakra Vermma obliged them to unite their forces against the common enemy. Chakra was victorious, and entered Kashmir in triumph. Afterwards, having fallen in love with two daughters of a man of impure caste, he raised their relatives to the highest offices in the state, to the exclusion of the nobles, who gaining admission to his palace one night, put him to death unarmed, in the apartment of his favorite mistress.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #5 on: April 09, 2016, 04:57:52 PM »
Kshema Gupta (950-958 AD)
Parva Gupta was succeeded by his son Kshema Gupta in A.D. 950. He was a prince of low habits, and lost a portion of his dominions by foreign invasion. He married Didda, the daughter of Sinha Raja of Lahor, and died after a reign of eight years and a half. His coin was a joint issue with his wife queen Didda.

Obv.  Di Kshema.
Rev. Gupta Deva
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #6 on: April 09, 2016, 05:00:04 PM »
Abhimanyugupta (958 – 972 AD)
He was the infant son of King Kshema Gupta. His father's death made him the king at a very early age with his mother Didda as the regent. He was king for fourteen years under Didda but then was killed by Didda. He was not the only king killed by Didda and might not be the first one also!
Obverse: Goddess Lakshmi seated facing, with Nagari legend “A” at right “Bhima(nyu)” at left.
Reverse: King standing sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend “Gupta” at right
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #7 on: April 09, 2016, 05:04:03 PM »
NandiGupta (972-973 AD)
Nandi Gupta was a grandson of Queen Didda. This infant was put in throne after untimely demise of the son of Didda, Abhimanyu. At the end of twelve months, when Didda had deceived the people by her sorrow, and bribed the priests by building religious edifices, she put her grandson, Nandi Gupta, to death. Nandi was in throne for the period 972-973 AD.
Obverse. Nandi Gu
Reverse pta.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #8 on: April 09, 2016, 05:05:59 PM »
Tribhubana Gupta (973-974 AD)
Tribubana Gupta became king when a son of Abhimanyu, Nandi Gupta was killed by Didda. He was able to rule only for a year and died in a similar reason, i.e by Didda.

Obverse: Goddess Lakshmi seated facing, with Nagari legend “Tri” at right “Bhubana” at left.
Reverse: King standing sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend Gupta at right
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #9 on: April 09, 2016, 05:08:04 PM »
Bhima Gupta (974-979 AD)
The third son of Abhimanyu, took to the throne under Didda, after Tribhubana was killed. He was independent minded. But    Didda arranged for Bhimagupta to be tortured to death and assumed unfettered control for herself, with Tunga, a herdsman, as her prime minister.

Obverse: Goddess Lakshmi seated facing, with Nagari legend “Bhi” at right “ma” at left.
Reverse: King standing sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend Gupta at right
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #10 on: April 09, 2016, 05:10:43 PM »
Didda Rani (979-1003 AD)
Didda was ruler of Kashmir from 958 AD to 1003 AD, first as a Regent for her son and various grandsons, and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right from 979 AD. Kalhana says: “The Lame Queen whom no one had thought capable of stepping over a cow’s footprint got over the host of her enemies just as Hanuman got over the ocean.” Didda ruled for the next 22 years in absolute power until she died in 1003 at the age of 79, quashing rebellions periodically by using her standard combination of bribes, appeasement and ferocious reprisal.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #11 on: April 09, 2016, 05:13:30 PM »
Sangrama Deva (1003-1028 AD)
Didda Rani left the kingdom to her nephew Sangrama, the son of her brother Udaya Raja of Lahar. He was an indolent and careless ruler, and highly offended his nobles, by giving his daughter in marriage to a Brahman. The only event worthy of record during his long reign of nearly twenty-five years, is the invasion of a neighbouring state subject to Sri Trilochan Pal, by the Turks under Hamir.  Sangrama sent a force to the aid of his brother Raja; but his troops were defeated, and the Kashmirian general fled from the field of battle : for which act, at the instigation of his brother, Vigraha Raja of Lahor, he put the cowardly general to death.
Kalhana Pandit concludes the reign of Sangrama Deva, by stating, that though he amassed great wealth (another proof that Mahmud had not plundered Kashmir), yet he erected no edifices either for private use, or for public convenience.

Obverse. Sangrama Ra-.
Reverse. ja Deva.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #12 on: April 09, 2016, 05:16:36 PM »
Ananta Deva (1028-1063 AD)
Sangrama was succeeded by his eldest son, Hari Raja, who died after a reign of only twenty-two days ; but even in this short time he is said to have collected good ministers about himself. His infant brother, Ananta, then ascended the throne, and was attacked by his uncle Vigraha Raja of Lahor, who was defeated and killed. Ananta afterwards invaded Champa (the present hill state of Chamba on the Ravi), and having slain Raja Sal, he put another prince upon the throne about A.D. 1070.
At the intercession of his queen, Surajmati, he associated his son, Kalasa, in the government ; and this act embittered the remaining years of his reign. Kalasa having attempted to carry off the wife of one of his nobles, Ananta sent for him, abused him, and even struck him. After this, Kalasa openly rebelled; and his father retired with all his treasures, amongst which one packet of jewels alone is said to have been worth seventy lakhs of rupees
The Queen Surajmati frequently made peace between the father and son, which was as often broken by interested persons. The king being at length hard pushed, was ordered by his son to leave the temple in which he had taken refuge.  The Queen Surajmati advised him to comply. Ananta, became furious, overcome with rage, despair, and the wickedness of his wife, slew himself with his own sword, after a long reign of fifty-two years, four months, and seven days.
Obverse . Auanta Ra-
Reverse. -ja Deva.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #13 on: April 09, 2016, 05:19:12 PM »
Kalasa Deva  (1081-1089AD)
After Ananta's death, the Rani gave a donation to the troops, and declared Harsha (the son of Kalasa), Raja. Surajmati burned herself with the body of her husband.
Ananta's treasures having fallen to Kalasa, Harsha wished to conciliate him ; and though they once met and became reconciled, yet their friendship was soon broken, and differences continued between them until Harsha was imprisoned. The Raja afterwards fell sick, and wished to leave the throne to Harsha; but the nobles who had formerly opposed his son interfered, and the sick Raja willed that the kingdom should be given between his sons, Utkarsha and Harsha.
The coin was called Paddka during this reign.
Obverse. Kalasa Ra
Reverse. -ja Deva.
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Offline Saikat

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Re: Hindu Rulers of Kashmir
« Reply #14 on: April 09, 2016, 05:22:06 PM »
Harsha Deva (1089 -1101 AD)
After Kalasa, The nobles placed Utkarsha on the throne, but Harsha, having been released from prison by his half-brother, Vijaya Malla, prevailed against Utkarsha, who opened a vein in his arm, and died after reigning only twenty-two days.
Harsha was a prince of some learning ; and to him is attributed the drama called Ratnavali. In the early part of his reign, gold and silver are said to have been very plentiful ; but the extravagant pleasures of the prince at last compelled him to strip the temples of their gold and silver ornaments, and even to carry off the figures of the gods themselves. Afterwards, his generals, Uchchala and Sussala, two brothers, descendants of Sahi Raja of Lahor, and fourth cousins of Harsha, being suspected, rebelled. At first they were unsuccessful ; but Harsha, having put their father Malla to death, they redoubled their exertions, and the Raja, being defeated, hid himself in a Fakir's hut, from whence, after two days of starvation, he was dragged out and killed.
During this reign the gold coin was called Utkosh.
Obverse.Harsha Raja.
Reverse. Deva.
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