Author Topic: National heroes of Mexico  (Read 9234 times)

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Offline <k>

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National heroes of Mexico
« on: November 24, 2015, 06:13:29 PM »
From Britannica.com:

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811) was a Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary leader, who is called the father of Mexican independence.

Hidalgo was the second child born to Cristóbal Hidalgo and his wife. He studied at a Jesuit secondary school, received a bachelor’s degree in theology and philosophy in 1773 from San Nicolás College (now Michoacán University of San Nicolás de Hidalgo) in Valladolid (now Morelia), and was ordained a priest in 1778. He had an uneventful early career, but in 1803 Hidalgo assumed his recently deceased elder brother’s duties as parish priest in Dolores (now Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato state). His interest in the economic advancement of his parishioners—for example, through the introduction of newer methods of agriculture—and his political convictions regarding the oppression of the people by the Spanish authorities caused the latter to regard him with suspicion.

In 1808 Spain was invaded by French troops, and Napoleon I forced the abdication of King Ferdinand VII in favour of the French emperor’s brother Joseph Bonaparte. Though Spanish officials in Mexico were loath to oppose the new king, many Mexicans formed secret societies—some supporting Ferdinand, others advocating independence from Spain. Hidalgo belonged to a pro-independence group in San Miguel (now San Miguel de Allende), near Dolores. When the plot was betrayed to the Spanish, several members were arrested. Warned to flee, Hidalgo decided instead to act promptly. On September 16, 1810, he rang the church bell in Dolores to call his parishioners to an announcement of revolution against the Spanish. His speech was not only an encouragement to revolt but a cry for racial equality and the redistribution of land. It became known as the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”).

What he began in San Miguel as a movement for independence became a social and economic war of the masses against the upper classes. Joined by thousands of Indians and mestizos, Hidalgo marched forth from Dolores under the banner of Our Lady of Guadalupe. With his followers he captured the city of Guanajuato and other major cities west of Mexico City. Soon Hidalgo was at the gates of the capital, but he hesitated, and the opportunity was lost. His followers melted away. Royalists as well as other elements in Mexico were frightened by the prospect of social upheaval and supported the suppression of the rebellion. After his defeat at Calderón Bridge, outside Guadalajara, on January 17, 1811, Hidalgo fled north, hoping to escape into the United States. He was caught, expelled from the priesthood, and executed by firing squad as a rebel.

Though his accomplishments were not lasting ones, Hidalgo’s name became the symbol of the independence movement for most Mexicans. September 16, the anniversary of the Grito de Dolores, is now celebrated as Mexico’s Independence Day.

Offline <k>

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #1 on: November 24, 2015, 06:15:52 PM »
Mexico, 5 pesos, 1953.  Bicentenary of Hidalgo's birth.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #2 on: November 24, 2015, 06:16:50 PM »
Mexico, 5 pesos, 1953.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #3 on: November 24, 2015, 06:18:07 PM »
Mexico, 5 pesos, 1955.  Gold.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #4 on: November 24, 2015, 06:18:56 PM »
Mexico, 5 pesos, 1956.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #5 on: November 24, 2015, 06:20:08 PM »
Mexico, 10 pesos, 1978.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #6 on: November 24, 2015, 06:21:14 PM »
Mexico, 10 pesos, 1985.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #7 on: November 24, 2015, 06:21:41 PM »
Mexico, 20 new pesos, 1993.  Miguel Hidalgo.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #8 on: November 24, 2015, 06:25:15 PM »
From Britannica.com:

José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón (1765-1815) was a revolutionary priest who assumed leadership of the Mexican independence movement after Miguel Hidalgo’s 1810 rebellion and subsequent execution.

Born in poverty, Morelos worked as a muleteer and cowhand until at the age of 25 he began study for the priesthood at the Colegio de San Nicolás in Valladolid. He held several obscure curacies serving mostly Indians and mestizos. Early in 1811 he joined Miguel Hidalgo’s insurrection and, after Hidalgo’s death (July 31), took command of the movement in southern Mexico. Between 1812 and 1815 he controlled most of Mexico southwest of Mexico City, holding at one time or another Acapulco, Oaxaca, Tehuacán, and Cuautla (Santiago Cuautla). Lacking manpower to consolidate control over all the region after his victories, he turned increasingly to guerrilla tactics.

Morelos called the Congress of Chilpancingo in 1813 to form a government and draft a constitution. In November the congress declared Mexico’s independence, and in October 1814, at Apatzingán, it promulgated an egalitarian constitution. The congress was safe, however, only so long as it moved from place to place under the protection of Morelos’ nomadic army. Finally, royalist forces caught up with the insurgents, but Morelos fought a rearguard action allowing most of the revolutionary government to escape. He was captured, however, and, after being defrocked, was shot as a traitor.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #9 on: November 24, 2015, 06:26:25 PM »
Mexico, 1 peso, 1948.  José María Morelos.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #10 on: November 24, 2015, 06:26:48 PM »
Mexico, 1 peso, 1950.  José María Morelos.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #11 on: November 24, 2015, 06:27:14 PM »
Mexico, 1 peso, 1967.  José María Morelos.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #12 on: November 24, 2015, 06:27:47 PM »
Mexico, 1 peso, 1975.  José María Morelos.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #13 on: November 24, 2015, 06:28:19 PM »
Mexico, 1 peso, 1986.  José María Morelos.

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Re: National heroes of Mexico
« Reply #14 on: November 24, 2015, 06:29:14 PM »
Mexico, 100 pesos, 1979.  José María Morelos.