Author Topic: Just added two Bull and horseman Jitals: Iltutmish & Sharaf Beg, Nandana mint  (Read 4115 times)

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Offline drnsreedhar

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Fully agreed. Thanks to WoC.  :applause:
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline THCoins

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Instead of opening a new thread i decided to pile on this old thread.
Previously in this thread the Jitals issued under the name of "Shalipha Baga" were discussed. It became clear that there is a second, likely related, type in a different style, with a legend reading "Sri Shaliphati Baga".

Below is a picture of a new third type, another unpublished variant of the “Shalipha Baga” type. Even more than the previous, more resembling the Dehli style than the Nandana style of coinage. The text around the bull reads “Sri ShaLiPhaTi BaGa..” But after the “Baga” there clearly is another character which I have not reliably determined yet.

The fact that i have now assembled three different subtypes of the "Sri Shalipha Baga" coinage increases my doubt that this type should be attributed to Mangubarni's general "Sharif Beg" when he held the Saltrange region for a short period.

Offline THCoins

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Tye’s Jitals includes one entry of a coin in Nandana style which names a “Sri Shalipha Baga” in Nagari above the bull.
Current attribution is as follows:
When Khwarezmshah Mangubarni travelled West in 1224AD he left two of his generals in charge of the region. The area West of the Indus (with Kurraman and Peshawar) was controlled by governor Wafa Malik. He would later extend his territory and claim independence as Saif-al-din al-Hasan Qarlugh. The governor of the area East of the Indus, including Nandana, is known from his scarce coinage as "Sharaf Beg" or "Khalif Beg". Recent literature suggests that this Sharaf Beg could have been Özbeg Bei bin Muhammad Jahan Pahlawan. This was a ruler from Azerbaijan, with Tabriz as capital (now in Iran). This area was overrun by both the forces of Mangubarni and the Mongol army. In the process, Özbeg became a Khwarezmshah vassal and was forced to leave Tabriz. Around 1229AD he lost control of Nandana and followed Mangubarni west.

This thread brings forward a problem with this explanation. Tye’s Jitals just knew one “Shalipha Baga” type in the Nandana style. It seemed logical that this ruler continued minting there in the same style as his predecessor Mangubarni. This thread now shows three different “Shalipha(ti) Baga” types in different styles. This is less wel explained by the rule of “Özbeg Bey” in a limited time period and region.
Another fact to notice is that there are different types of coins, from roughly the same region in name of  "Sri Shaliphati" (Tye#352), see the coin below. These are usually linked to the rule of the Qarlughids with a legend in a later style of the Sharada script, and naming Ghazna in Arab as mint.

Alternatively, The “Shalipha Baga” might refer to a different person. One possibility is that the Caliph of Baghdad was meant. This is supported by the specimen that seems to read “Sri ShaLiPhaTi BaGaDha”, where “Bagadha” may refer to Baghdad. Etymologicaly the name Baghdad probably is derived from Old Iranian “Baga Data”, meaning “God-given”.

But “Shalipha Baga” may also be a generic title referring to a function, like "Samanta Deva". “Samanta” means subordinate ruler, “Deva” means Lord. After the recognition by caliph al-Mustansir, Iltutmish had also acquired the title “Khalipha-yi amir al-Mu’minin”, “deputy of the Commander of the Faithfull”. “Baga” in Old Iranian means “the one who shares” or “Lord”. "Beg" is the Turkic title for "Lord". So “Shalipha Baga” could also be interpreted as a direct Arab translation of  “Samanta Deva” as "the lord vice-regent".

Offline drnsreedhar

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You have a very strong point there with meanings of "samanta deva" and "shalifa baga" coinciding. I would suggest "khalifa" for "shalifa" because if "kha" in devanagari is written with the middle line separately drawn inside, it will look like "sha". In this image http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=42653.0;attach=82516;image , one can read it more as "kha" than "sha". So the reading has everything to be "khalifa baga". I am posting three overlays where it is like "kha". And in Sarada script, Devanagari "kha" must have had a little cursive style. Thanks
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline THCoins

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Thanks for bringing this up ! I avoided the kha/sha question a bit because i had not yet decided what i thought most likely. Problem is that the script of the period in this region had elements of both nagari and sharada and was rapidly evolving. I have seen script charts which did not allow a certain distinction. I value your opinion that the kha in this case is probably the more likely one !

Offline Figleaf

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  :like::applause: :bow:
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.