Author Topic: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366  (Read 3771 times)

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Offline mitresh

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Chauhans of Ranthambhor, Jaitra Simha, 1275 AD, Silver Dramma, 4.3g, Deyell 366

« Last Edit: March 16, 2015, 08:17:48 PM by THCoins »
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Offline Figleaf

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #1 on: August 04, 2014, 09:12:48 AM »
When I read Chauhans, I think of bull and horseman jitals. What's the story on this cutie, Mitresh?

Peter
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Offline mitresh

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #2 on: August 04, 2014, 11:20:14 AM »
source: Numismall

Obv: Lion standing left within a double dotted border

Rev: Within a circle of dots, three-line Devanagari legend: Jai / ta si de / va, sun and moon flanking the legend Deyell 366; cf. Mitchiner 696-700.

This type has been incorrectly attributed by Mitchiner to the Pallava king Narasimha (see MNI 696). These coins are quite rare. According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or 'fire sprung' clans, deriving their origin from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs. Agnikula origin was perpetuated by later manuscripts of Raso from the 16th century onwards. Col. James Tod was of the view that Chauhans were the most valiant of the Agnikulas. According to a number of scholars Chauhans were originally Gurjaras and Chauhan was prominent clan of the Gujjars (or Gurjars).

The Chauhans of Ranthambhore (source:  History and Culture of the Indian People by R.C. Mazumdar), adapted
 
They represent a collateral branch of the Chauhans of Ajmer, and came into their own after the death of Prithviraj Chauhan (III)after the Second Battle of Tarain, 1193 AD, in which Prithviraj was killed/captured by Sultan Mohd Ghori leading to the estbalishment of the Delhi Sultanate in North India.

The dynasty’s founder, Govindaraja, was banished from Prithviraj III’s court at Ajmer and settled at Ranthambhore. His descendents were:

1) Balahara, son of Govindaraja
2) Prahlada, son of Balahara
3) Viranarayan, son of Prahlada
4) Vagbhata, son of Balahara
5) Jaitrashsimha, son of Vagbhata
6) Hammira [Hammirdeva], son of Jaithrashsimha.
 
Of the dynasty, Hammirdeva was the most famous.

When the Muslims overrun Ajmer after Prithviraj’s death at the Second Battle of Tarain, Govindaraja shelters Prithviraj’s younger brother Hariraja.

???? On Govindaraja’s death, his son Balhana takes over and rules Ranthambhore as a vassal of the Sultanate at Delhi.

1215 Balhana throws off the Sultanate’s yoke around this time and rules independently.

????  Prahlada, son of Balhana rules at Ranthambhore.

1226 Viranarayana, son of Prahlada, is ruling at Ranthambhore when Sultan Iltutmish invites him to Delhi. The Sultan has designs on the fort: he has Prahlada killed and seizes the fort.

Vaghata, a son of Balhana and uncle of Viranarayana now takes claim to Ranthambhore as its hereditary ruler.

1236 On the death of Iltutmish, Ranthambhore is invested and Raziya Sultan, Iltutmish’s heir, sends her general Qutabuddin Hasan Ghori to its rescue. The general manages to get the garrison out, but cannot hold the fort. He destroys as much as he can as he pulls back to Delhi.

1248 Balban makes his first unsuccessful attack against Ranthambhore.

1253 Balban unsuccessfully attacks Ranthambhore a second time.

1259 Jaitrasimha, son of Vagbhata,  is the Chauhan king of Ranthambhore when he is defeated in this year by Sultan Nasiruddin.

1283 Hamirdeva [also called Hammir] succeeds Jaitrasingh at Ranthambhore in 1283 A.D. He rules over two districts in Rajasthan, but expands his kingdom by raids into Malwa and Gujarat. He recovers Ranthambhore and also defeats the ruler of Chittor.

1290 Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji besieges Ranthambhore, but when he recognizes how much blood would have to be shed for the fort, this overly kind-hearted king lifts the siege in the early spring of 1291.

1298  Hamirdeva, the Rajput king of Ranthambhore, stops paying tribute to Delhi and gives refuge to Muhammad Shah, a rebel against Alauddin Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi. Allauddin's generals Ulugh Khan & Nusrat Khan sends an envoy to the fort demanding the death of Muhammed Shah, 10,000 gold coins, 300 horses, 4 elephants and the hand of Hammir’s daughter Devaldevi. Hamirdeva declines saying he cannot harm anyone who has sought shelter with him. Nusrat Khan is killed and Ulugh Khan flees back to Delhi.

1301 Allaudin Khilji attacks Ranthambore both orders the fort to be besieged from all sides. Aside from the need to capture the rebel Muhammed Shah, Allaudin also has strategic objectives in mind: the fort is one of the strongest in India, and a gateway to the west, south and east.

When he sees no progress at the siege, Allauddin Khilji himself marches to Ranthambhore. In spite of all the strategies adopted by him the fort withstands. However soon the fort starts feeling the pinch of the siege. Famine in the fort is acute. Hamirdeva sends his minister Ranmal as an envoy to Alauddin to negotiate terms.

At this stage treachery raises its heads in the form of Hamirdeva’s generals – Ratipal and Ranmal. Alauddin Khilji entices Ratipal by promising him the Kingdom of Ranthambhore if he helps him in capturing the fort. Facing certain defeat, Hamirdeva prepares for a fight to death. Thousand of ladies in the fort performed “Jauhar” by jumping into fire and the men rush out of the fort to fight unto death. The Delhi Sultan finally occupies Ranthambhore in July.

For helping him to gain Ranthambhore, Alauddin executes the treasonous Rajputs on the sound principle that a traitor once can be traitor twice.

Khilji makes one of his generals in charge of the area and returns to Delhi. A Chauhan feudatory of Alauudin Khilji rules Ranthambhore.

1326 or thereabouts: Rana Hammir of Mewar [1314-1378] begins expanding his kingdom, taking advantage of the instability that has fallen on the Khilji empire after Alauddin’s death in 1316. He titles himself Maharana of Mewar.

He captures the fort, sending the Chauhan feudatory fleeing for help to Muhammad Bin Tuglaq, who is now the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate.

1340 Around this time, Rana Hammir regains the kingdom of Mewar, implying that somewhere after 1326 he lost it. Presumably the loss and regaining of his kingdom involves Ranthambhore.

1450? Rana Kumba [1433-1468, also called Kumbakarna] captures the fort in the mid 15th century and later hands it to his son.  After his son’s death, the Hada Rajputs of Bundi take over Ranthambhore once again.

1496 or thereabouts: Ranthambhore has again fallen at some point earlier to the Delhi Sultanate. Sikander Lodhi’s governor at Ranthambhore, around this time, is Daulat Khan.

Tuglaq attacks Ranthambhore but is defeated and captured by Maharana Hammir. Tuglaq gains his release by paying an enormous ransom, which includes ceding Ranthambhore to its new occupier.

1528 The fort passes to the child Prince Vikramjeet on the death of his father, the legendary Maharana Sangha of Mewar. The Maharana had promised the fort to the son of his junior wife Karmavati. She has two sons by Ratna Singh, Vikramjeet and Uday Singh. As they have yet to reach the age of majority, her brother Surya Mal of the Hada clan becomes guardian.

But when Ratna Singh, Maharana Sangha’s son and heir [ruled 1528-31] tries to assert his authority over his half-brothers and step mother, Karmavati pledges her loyalty to Babur and her stepson is stymied.

In 1531, Vikramjeet assumes the throne of Mewar on the death of his half-brother Ratna Singh.

1532 Around this time, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat captures Ranthambhore as part of his expansion north into Rajasthan. He can expand because in the early years of Mughul rule in India, after the fall of the Lodhis, most of India is in disarray. Bahadur Shah goes on to invest and sack Chittor in 1535.

1535 Humanyun captures Ranthambhore as part of his counter-offensive against Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. The offensive also sees the great fort of Chittor back under a Delhi king, and Humanyun continues into Gujarat, reclaiming this territory for Delhi.

1558 Akbar invests Ranthambhore, but has to raise the siege because of trouble with Bairam Khan.

1569 February 8. Akbar returns to the siege, pitching his tent nearby, no intention of leaving till he has possession. The defender is Rai Surjan, the Hada clan chief of Bundi. He holds the fort as a vassal of Chittor. Rai Surjan is much influenced by Akbar’s recent and ruthless sack of Chittor, during which the Mughul emperor ordered all civilian males to be executed.

So on March 21 he surrenders the fort keys to the Emperor, and Mihtar Khan becomes Akbar’s commander at fabled Ranthambhore.

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Offline Figleaf

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #3 on: August 04, 2014, 01:44:11 PM »
Ah, another branch of the same family. That strongest fort of India was sure captured lots of times ;)

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline mitresh

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #4 on: August 04, 2014, 02:08:30 PM »
attached frontal and side view of Ranthambore fort.
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Offline Rajagopal

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #5 on: August 04, 2014, 04:55:01 PM »
I think i also have a similar coin

Offline THCoins

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #6 on: August 04, 2014, 07:44:38 PM »
Cute coins !
Rajagopals coin is a welcome addition as it shows some more of the legend. But, as the second coin is a bit overcleaned for my taste, i very much prefer the color of Mitresh' coin !


Offline Manzikert

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #8 on: March 13, 2015, 10:14:51 AM »
This one I'm pretty confident of as I got it perhaps 10 years ago from EWC.

By the way, Deyell says 'only known from two hoards ... [total c.150 coins], both from the Kota region ...' though I would assume there are many more around in India even without the possible fakes.

Alan

Offline kats17

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #9 on: March 13, 2015, 12:14:19 PM »
Thank you Manzikert

             I guess no body can be sure.. unless we do some radio carbon dating etc?

Even the chauhans will be impressed with the fakes!

Should I return my coin to Marudhar Arts?

Offline THCoins

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #10 on: March 13, 2015, 08:39:05 PM »
For comparison one of mine. Can't guarantee it is genuine, but also no clear indications that it is fake.
One thing is sure, these coins have not been rare in the past few years, even if they were before. So it seems likely new finds were made. I have not seen large series of die identical fakes yet.

Offline rgs1978

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #11 on: September 27, 2016, 08:34:09 PM »
Hi
Very recently won this coin from an auction house. Awaiting delevery... Can you please comment upon genuineness? Image - courtesy of the auction house...

Offline THCoins

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #12 on: September 27, 2016, 09:33:48 PM »
Looks fine in my eyes. Although one neverr can be sure from a photo i see no indication that this could be a fake one.

Anthony

Offline rgs1978

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #13 on: September 27, 2016, 09:44:57 PM »
Thanks Sir..

Offline rgs1978

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Re: Chauhans of Ranthambhor: Jaitra Simha, Silver Dramma, Deyell 366
« Reply #14 on: December 04, 2018, 04:38:15 PM »
Chauhans of Ranthambhor, Jaitra Simha, 1275 AD, Silver Dramma, 4.3g, Deyell 366
Picture missing