Author Topic: Afghanistan, Jalal al-Din Mangubarni, Ghazna mint (?), Jital, Tye 313.  (Read 2989 times)

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Offline Arminius

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Hello,

my guess: from the Islamic part of the Indian subcontinent:



Falus? (ĝ 13-14 mm / 2,79 g), copper, axes (as pictured) irregular alignment ↑← (ca. 280°),
Obv.: ... , three lines Persian script.
Rev.: ... , two lines Persian script in a linear square, dotted border.

 ???

Thanks

 :)
« Last Edit: April 30, 2016, 08:33:28 PM by THCoins »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Islamic bronze, text in a square
« Reply #1 on: October 17, 2013, 06:26:48 PM »
Checked the Hispano-musulman coins, but found no good candidates. Sorry.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Manzikert

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Re: Islamic bronze, text in a square
« Reply #2 on: October 17, 2013, 11:17:39 PM »
Khwarezmshahs, Jalal ud-Din Mangubarni (1220-1224), jital (Ghazna?), Tye 313

Alan

Offline Arminius

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Re: Afghanistan, Jalal al-Din Mangubarni, Ghazna mint (?), Jital, Tye 313.
« Reply #3 on: October 17, 2013, 11:59:55 PM »
Thanks Alan!

So the better description plus a little explanation of history and locations should be:

Khwarizmshahs (or Khwarezmshahs), Anushteginid, Jalal al-Din Mangubarni (or Mingburnu) (reign AH 617-628 / 1220-1231 AD.), Ghazna mint (?), struck ca. 1220-1224 AD.,
Jital (ĝ 13-14 mm / 2,79 g), copper, axes (as pictured) irregular alignment ↑← (ca. 280°),
Obv.: ... , three lines Persian script.
Rev.: ... , two lines Persian script in a linear square, dotted border.
Tye 313 ; Album 1746 ; http://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=129332 ; http://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=49376 .

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال ‌الدین خوارزمشاه; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire. Following the defeat of his father, Ala ad-Din Muhammad II by Genghis Khan in 1220, Jalal ad-Din Mengübirti came to power but he rejected the title shah that his father had assumed and called himself simply sultan. Jalal ad-Din retreated with the remaining Khwarazm forces, while pursued by a Mongol army and at the battle of Parwan, north of Kabul, defeated the Mongols.
Due to the Mongol invasion, the sacking of Samarkand and being deserted by his Afghan allies, Jalal ad-Din was forced to flee to India. At the Indus River, however, the Mongols caught up with him and killed his forces along with thousands of refugees at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi but Iltumish denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs.
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu spent three years in exile in India. Mingburnu entered into an alliance with the Khokhars and captured Lahore and much of the Punjab. He requested an alliance with Iltutmish against the Mongols . The Sultan of Delhi refused, not wishing to get into a conflict with Genghis Khan and marched towards Lahore at the head of a large army. Mingburnu retreated from Lahore and moved towards Uchch inflicting a heavy defeat on its ruler Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and plundered Sindh and northern Gujarat before returning to Persia in 1224.
He gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power however, and he spent the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuk Turks of Rum. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz mountains and fled to the Caucasus, to capture Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up their capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi, destroying all the churches and massacring the city's Christian population.
Jalal ad-Din had a brief victory over the Seljuks and captured the town Akhlat from Ayyubids. However, he was later defeated by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230, from where he escaped to Diyarbakir while the Mongols captured Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 in Diyarbakir by a Kurdish assassin hired by the Seljuks or possibly by Kurdish highwaymen.
 
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.
The dynasty ruled Greater Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231 AD, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Kara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed the governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.

Ghazni (Pashto/Persian: غزنی - Ġaznī; historically known as غزنین / Ġaznīn and غزنه / Ġazna) is a city in Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people. It is located in the central-east part of the country. Situated on a plateau at 7,280 feet (2,219 m) above sea level, the city or town serves as the capital of Ghazni Province. It is linked by a highway with Kandahar to the southwest, Kabul to the northeast, Gardez and Khost to the east. The foundation stone of the Ghazni International Airport was laid in April 2012 which will be operational in 2013.
Just like other cities of Afghanistan, Ghazni is very old and has witnessed many military invasions. In pre-Islamic period, the area was inhabited by various tribes who practiced different religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Arab Muslims introduced Islam to Ghazni in the 7th century, they were followed by the 9th century Islamic conquest of the Saffarids from Zarang in the west. Sabuktigin made Ghazni the capital of the Ghazanvid Empire in the 10th century. The city was destroyed by one of the Ghurid rulers but was later rebuilt. It fell to a number of regional powers, including the Timurids and the Delhi Sultanate, until it became part of the Hotaki dynasty followed by the Durrani Empire or modern Afghanistan.
During the First Anglo-Afghan War in the 19th century, Ghazni was partially destroyed by the British-Indian forces. The city is currently being rebuilt by the Government of Afghanistan in order to revive the Ghaznavid and Timurid era when it served as a major center of Islamic civilisation. The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) have established bases and check-points to deal with the Taliban insurgency.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Afghanistan, Jalal al-Din Mangubarni, Ghazna mint (?), Jital, Tye 313.
« Reply #4 on: October 18, 2013, 10:23:37 AM »
Nice background story with this little coin !