World of Coins

Modern Asian coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens => Central Asia and the Caucasus => Topic started by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:04:19 PM

Title: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:04:19 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=103417;image)

Statue of Timur (Tamerlane) in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan.



From Wikipedia:

The Republic of Uzbekistan is a country in Central Asia. It has a population of 33,571,000 and an area of 448,978 km2 (173,351 sq miles). As a sovereign state, Uzbekistan is a secular, unitary constitutional republic. It comprises 12 provinces (vilayats) and one autonomous republic, Karakalpakstan. The capital and largest city of Uzbekistan is Tashkent.

What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan. The first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians. The area was incorporated into the Iranian Achaemenid Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Yuezhi dominated Kushan Empire, which left many traces, from cave paintings and fortresses to coinage. The Kushan were originally vassals of the Sassanid Empire. The Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century led to a slow Islamisation of what was then called Soghdiana. Eventually, the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, was converted to Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road. The local Khwarazmian dynasty, and Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples. The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand.

The territories of the Timurid dynasty were conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand and Emirate of Bukhara. Conquests by Emperor Babur towards the East led the foundation of India's proto-industrialised Mughal Empire. It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.

Uzbekistan's official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in a modified Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as an inter-ethnic communication language and as a language of governance. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%) and others (6.5%). Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity and 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN and the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, by 2008 non-governmental human rights organisations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".

Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above. He stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour, and exit visas, and to introduce a tax reform and create four new free economic zones and he has amnestied some political prisoners. Relations with the neighbouring countries of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan drastically improved. However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, and restrictions on the movement of 'freed' prisoners.

The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017 the country's currency became fully convertible at market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.

 
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:06:01 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=103414;image)

Map of Uzbekistan.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26742.0;attach=78211;image)

Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:09:17 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=103416;image)



From Wikipedia:

The state emblem of Uzbekistan was formally adopted on July 2, 1992.

The coat of arms displays the natural wealth of the country. On the left there is a cotton plant, which has been immensely important to the country's industry and agriculture since the Soviet era as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the main producers and supplies of cotton in the entirety of the USSR, thus it is often called the white gold symbolizing its sheer significance. To the right is a wreath of wheat ears, symbolizing the country's wealth and prosperity. Together, both cotton and wheat plants are intertwined with the ribbon of the state flag, which portrays the peace and consolation of different peoples and ethnic groups living within the republic.

It is surmounted by the blue star of Rub El Hizb (۞) with white star and crescent inside, a symbol of Islam, which a majority of Uzbeks profess.

In the center, a right-facing Huma (or Khumo) is displayed with outstretched wings. This legendary bird symbolizes peace, happiness and striving for freedom. Enclosed by the Huma's wings is a depiction of the rising sun over mountains, overlooking green pastures. Two rivers, the Amu Darya and Sir Darya, flow from the mountains and crepuscular rays emanate from the rising sun at the rear of the emblem.

The Khumo is perched on a banner at the base of the cotton and wheat borders which bears the national colors and the name of the country in Latin script (Oʻzbekiston).
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:13:33 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=103415;image)



From Wikipedia:

The flag of Uzbekistan was adopted in 1991 to replace the flag of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic.

The azure color on the flag is a symbol of blue sky and clear water. Azure is revered in the East. Azure is also the color of the Turkic peoples. The majority of the population of Uzbekistan are Turkic peoples who speak Turkic languages. White is a symbol of peace, purity, and kindness. White also means the ancient religion of Zoroastrianism, which was dominant in the territory of this country before the arrival of Islam. Green is a symbol of the diverse and rich nature of the country. Green is also one of the colors of the Holy religion Islam, which is practiced by the majority of the population of Uzbekistan. The red stripes are vital forces pulsating in every living creature, a symbol of life, courage, as well as a symbol of national and religious minorities of Uzbekistan. The Crescent corresponds to the centuries-old tradition of the people of Uzbekistan and is also one of the main symbols of Islam. The Crescent moon and stars are also considered a symbol of a cloudless calm sky and peace.

The flag of Uzbekistan has 12 stars. The number 12 means 12 zodiac signs, 12 months of the year, and is also considered a symbol of perfection. In Islam, the number 12 is also important, as in 12 years according to Islam, boys become adults. 12 also means the 12 imams. 12 stars on the flag are arranged in such a way that they form the inscription Allah in Arabic script.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 02:19:04 PM
From Wikipedia:

Like other republics of the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan continued using the Soviet/Russian ruble after independence. On 26 July 1993, a new series of Russian ruble was issued and the old Soviet/Russian ruble ceased to be legal tender in Russia. Some successor states had their national currencies before the change, while some chose to continue using the pre-1993 Soviet/Russian ruble, and some chose to use both the pre-1993 and the new Russian ruble. The book "Tables of modern monetary history: Asia" implies that both old and new rubles were used in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan replaced the ruble with soʻm at par in on November 15, 1993. No subdivisions of this som were issued and only banknotes were produced. On 1 July 1994 a second som was introduced at a rate of 1 new soʻm = 1000 old soʻm. This soʻm is subdivided into 100 tiyin. The first national coinage of Uzbekistan was issued in 1994.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 08:41:26 PM
Of the coins issued in 1994, the 1, 3 and 5 tiyin coins were made of brass-plated steel.

The 1 tiyin coin weighed 1.75 grams and had a diameter of 16.9 mm.

The obverse design featured the national emblem, as did all the coins in the series.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 08:43:11 PM
The reverse design of the 1 tiyin coin featured the denomination and a wreath of cotton bolls.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:28:16 PM
A large image of the obverse of the 3 tiyin coin of 1994.

It weighed 2.7 grams and had a diameter of 19.9 mm.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:37:29 PM
The reverse of the 3 tiyin coin.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:38:04 PM
The reverse of the 5 tiyin coin.

The coin weighed 3.4 grams and had a diameter of 21.4 mm.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:46:45 PM
The 10, 20 and 50 tiyin coins of 1994 were made of nickel-plated steel.

Below you see the obverse of the 10 tiyin coin.

All these coins had the same obverse design.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:52:25 PM
The reverse of the 10 tiyin coin.

The coin weighed 2.85 grams and had a diameter of 18.7 mm.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 10:57:57 PM
The reverse of the 20 tiyin coin.

The coin weighed 4 grams and had a diameter of 22 mm.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 11:06:08 PM
The reverse of the 50 tiyin coin.

This was the highest denomination of the 1994 coin series.

The coin weighed 4.8 grams and had a diameter of 23.9 mm.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 17, 2020, 11:39:25 PM
Here you see the coins of 1994 alongside one another.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 12:11:06 AM
In 1997 Uzbekistan issued three new high denominations.


The 1 som coin weighed 2.72 grams and had a diameter of 19.8 mm.

The 5 som coin weighed 4 grams and had a diameter of 22.2 mm.

The 10 som coin weighed 4.7 grams and had a diameter of 24 mm.


The 1 and 10 som coins were issued from 1997 through to the year 2000.

The 5 som coin was issued from 1997 trough to 1999.


The coins were all made of nickel-plated steel.

The obverse and revese designs followed the format of the previous Uzbek coins.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 12:34:49 AM
In the year 2000 Uzbekistan issued a new 1 som coin with a different design on the reverse.

The 1 som coin weighed 2.83 grams and had a diameter of 18.8 mm.


The coin was made of nickel-clad steel, as before.

The reverse design showed the denomination and a map of Uzbekistan.


Similar 5 and 10 som coins were issued in 2001.

The 5 som coin was made of brass-plated steel.

It weighed 3.35 grams and had a diameter of 21.2 mm.


The 10 som coin was made of nickel-plated steel.

It weighed 2.75 grams and had a diameter of 20 mm.


The text on the coins was now no longer in Cyrillic script but in the Latin alphabet.

The obverse legend translated as 'Central Bank of Uzbekistan'.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 01:55:20 AM
In 2018 Uzbekistan issued a new coin series. The four coins were all made of nickel-plated steel.


The 50 som coin weighed 2 grams and had a diameter of 18 mm.

The 100 som coin weighed 2.5 grams and had a diameter of 20 mm.

The 200 som coin weighed 3.3 grams and had a diameter of 22 mm.

The 500 som coin weighed 3.9 grams and had a diameter of 24 mm.


Below you see the common obverse of the coins.

It shows the national emblem.

The legend translates as 'Central Bank of Uzbekistan'.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 01:59:39 AM
The reverse designs of the 2018 coins.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:00:46 AM
The 100 som coin depicts the Monument to the Independence of Uzbekistan (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monument_to_the_Independence_of_Uzbekistan).
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:05:15 AM
The 200 som coin depicts a decoration on the archway of the Sher-Dor Madrasah building in Samarkand.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:06:16 AM
A similar design appeared on the 200 som banknote of 1997.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:07:22 AM
The 500 som coin depicts the Tashkent Congress Centre.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:08:31 AM
A similar design appeared on the 50 000 som banknote of 2017.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 02:12:24 AM
That brings my topic up to date, I believe.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: Figleaf on October 18, 2020, 11:55:36 AM
For coins, yes, but since you don't hesitate to bring in banknotes and stamps, see here (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/wiki/Uzbek_bus_tokens) for Uzbek bus tokens. The 1994 token (TKB01) is inscribed in Russian, the others in Uzbek, reflecting a policy to bring Uzbek up to the national language on the same level as Russian. You can see the same change on the post 2000 coins. Yet, Toshkent underground tokens (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/wiki/Toshkent) are still in Russian.

Peter
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2020, 06:16:24 PM
Back to coins, and the 1994 series from Uzbekistan. I was looking at them on numista:

Uzbekistan standard circulation coins of 1994 (https://en.numista.com/catalogue/index.php?mode=simplifie&p=1&l=ouzbekistan&r=1994&e=ouzbekistan&d=&ru=&i=&ca=3&no=&se=&v=&m=&a=&t=&dg=&w=&u=&f=&g=&tb=y&tc=y&tn=y&tp=y&tt=y&cat=y&ct=coin).

For almost every coin in that series, numista show interesting variations if you click on the individual entries. You must scroll right to the bottom of the page in order to see them, though.


See, for instance, the 1 Tiyin coin of 1994 (https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces1471.html):

(https://en.numista.com/catalogue/images/585ae45805896.jpg)

Image copyright of numista.


There is more, if you click on the images of the other coins in the series.
Title: Re: Uzbekistan: post-Soviet coinage
Post by: <k> on October 20, 2020, 07:08:59 AM
See also:

1] Azerbaijan: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,34869.0.html).

2] Georgia: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,25536.0.html).

3] Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,49598.0.html)

4] Kyrgyzstan: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,49596.0.html).

5] Tajikistan: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,49578.0.html).

6] Turkmenistan: post-Soviet coinage (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,34863.0.html).