World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Sub-Saharan Africa => East Africa => Topic started by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 11:56:21 AM

Title: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 11:56:21 AM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88926;image)

Map of East Africa



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88927;image)#

Map of Rwanda



From Wikipedia:

The Republic of Rwanda is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. It has a population of around 11 million.

The Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to Germany as part of German East Africa, marking the beginning of the colonial era. The Germans did not significantly alter the social structure of the country, but exerted influence by supporting the king and the existing hierarchy and delegating power to local chiefs. Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi in 1916, during World War I, beginning a period of more direct colonial rule. Belgium ruled both Rwanda and Burundi as a League of Nations mandate called Ruanda-Urundi.

Belgium continued to rule Ruanda-Urundi (of which Rwanda formed the northern part) as a UN Trust Territory after the Second World War, with a mandate to oversee eventual independence. Tensions escalated between the Tutsi, who favoured early independence, and the Hutu emancipation movement, culminating in the 1959 Rwandan Revolution: Hutu activists began killing Tutsi and destroying their houses, forcing more than 100,000 people to seek refuge in neighbouring countries. In 1961, the suddenly pro-Hutu Belgians held a referendum in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy. Rwanda was separated from Burundi and gained independence on 1 July 1962.

 
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:00:11 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88928;image)

The first coat of arms of independent Rwanda.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:01:18 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88929;image)

The first flag of independent Rwanda.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:03:03 PM
From Wikipedia:

The franc became the currency of Rwanda in 1916, when Belgium occupied the previously German colony and the Belgian Congo franc replaced the German East African rupie. Rwanda used the currency of Belgian Congo until 1960, when the Rwanda and Burundi franc was introduced.

Rwanda began issuing its own francs in 1964. In 1964, coins were introduced for 1, 5 and 10 francs, with the 1 and 10 francs in cupronickel and the 5 francs in bronze.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:06:21 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88933;image)

From Wikipedia:

Grégoire Kayibanda (1924 – 1976) was the first elected and second President of the Republic of Rwanda. He led Rwanda's struggle for independence from Belgium, and replaced the Tutsi monarchy with a republican form of government. He asserted Hutu majority power. Kayibanda served as President of Rwanda from 1962 until July 5, 1973, when he was overthrown by his defense minister Major General Juvénal Habyarimana in a military coup. The new government held Kayibanda and his wife in a secret location, where they were reportedly starved to death.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:08:41 PM
The copper-nickel 1 franc coin, issued in 1964 and 1965. The obverse features a portrait of the president, while the reverse shows the coat of arms.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:09:52 PM
Surprisingly, the 5 francs coin of 1964 and 1965 was minted in bronze.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:11:36 PM
The 10 francs coin of this set, issued in 1964 only, was minted in copper-nickel.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:14:03 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=80418;image)



The next coin to be issued was the 1 franc coin of 1969.

Christopher Ironside (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,8789.0.html) of the Royal Mint (UK) designed the new portrait of the president.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:16:05 PM
An aluminium half franc coin was minted in 1970 only. From now on, the president's portrait no longer appeared on the coinage.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 12:20:41 PM
A FAO-themed 2 francs coin was issued in 1970. The motto translates as "LET'S INCREASE PRODUCTION".

The reverse design, showing a boy pouring coffee beans into a basket, was again the work of Christopher Ironside.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:18:20 PM
From 1974 to 1985, Rwanda issued an aluminium 1 franc coin. The coat of arms appeared on the obverse.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:20:09 PM
The reverse of the 1 franc coin depicted an African finger millet plant: Eleusine coracana. The designer was English artist Leslie Durbin (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,39309.0.html).
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:25:16 PM
From 1974 to 1987, a bronze 5 francs coin was issued. Leslie Durbin again created the reverse design, which featured a coffee plant.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:37:21 PM
In 1974 a copper-nickel 10 francs coin was issued. The reverse design depicted yet another coffee plant, which was again the work of Leslie Durbin.

This coin was not issued again until 1985 only, when it was reduced in size.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:50:10 PM
A brass 20 francs coin was issued, in 1977 only. Both sides were designed by Frenchman Raymond Joly. Notice the very different font that he chose to use. The reverse design depicted a bunch of bananas on a tree.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:52:09 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23409.0;attach=81052;image)

A brass 50 francs coin was issued, also in 1977 only. Again, both sides were designed by Frenchman Raymond Joly.

The reverse designs features a tea plant.

The image above shows the "essai" version of the coin. The standard coin simply omits the word "ESSAI".
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:55:57 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88932;image)

Flag of Rwanda.



Rwanda adopted a new flag on October 25, 2001.

From Wikipedia:

The flag has four colours: blue, green, and two forms of yellow (standard yellow for the middle band and what the Pantone system calls "sun yellow" for the sun). The blue band represents happiness and peace, the yellow band symbolizes economic development, and the green band symbolizes the hope of prosperity. The sun represents enlightenment.

The new flag represents national unity, respect for work, heroism, and confidence in the future. It was adopted to avoid connotations to the 1994 genocide (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwandan_genocide).
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 02:59:00 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=88930;image)

The national seal of Rwanda.



From Wikipedia:

The seal of Rwanda is the national symbol and used by the government. It was restyled in 2001 to match the color scheme of the new national flag. The text reads "Republic of Rwanda - Unity, Work, Patriotism" in Kinyarwanda. The central tribal devices, a stem of sorghum, a branch of a coffee tree and a traditional basket are surmounted on a cog wheel with the sun with its rays above, while two typical Rwandan shields protects them, one on the right and one on the left. They are encircled by a square knot.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:29:12 PM
In 2004 a new design series was issued, although the coins were dated 2003.  The common obverse showed the country's new national seal.

The aluminium 1 franc coin featured a rice plant on the reverse.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:30:01 PM
The 5 francs coin featured a coffee plant.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:31:17 PM
The 10 francs coin featured a banana tree.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:33:01 PM
The 20 francs coin was made of nickel-plated steel and featured a tea plant.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:34:39 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11038.0;attach=88583;image)

The 50 francs coin was made of nickel-plated steel and featured an ear of maize.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:37:43 PM
A 100 francs coin was issued in 2007. It was bimetallic and had a copper centre within a copper-nickel ring.

The reverse showed the denomination as 100 FRW (Rwandan francs).
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:41:27 PM
Here we see a traditional basket, of the type shown in the national seal.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:44:12 PM
Here are some baskets on a 100 francs collector coin of 2010.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:45:15 PM
Looking back at the older coins, we see that there are two versions of the original coat of arms.

The first version showed a fatter bird. This was used on the coins of the 1960s.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 23, 2019, 04:46:39 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=45189.0;attach=88956;image)

The second version showed a thinner bird. This was used on the coins of the 1970s.
 
 
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: Pabitra on March 24, 2019, 06:24:43 AM
In 2009, the name of the central Bank was changed to "Banki Nkuru Y'u Rwanda".
All coins were issued with new legend on the obverse.
1 Franc was not issued.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 24, 2019, 10:00:53 AM
What is the difference in meaning of the two names?
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: Pabitra on March 25, 2019, 05:13:34 AM
Change of name from Portuguese to local Bantu language, I think.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 25, 2019, 10:02:03 AM
The first legend, used in 2003, reads: BANK NASIYONALI Y'U RWANDA.

In 2009, it was changed to: BANKI NKURU Y'U RWANDA.

So both slogans are in the national language - not in French, which was the colonial language.

I suppose the wording and grammar and subsequent change will remain a mystery to us.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: Pabitra on March 25, 2019, 12:50:43 PM
Oops, my blackout moment

Perhaps changed from Swahili to Kinyarwanda.
Again a language change is in offing.

See

Languages of Rwanda - Wikipedia (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Rwanda)

And

https://allafrica.com/stories/201702090060.html
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 25, 2019, 12:55:37 PM
Benki ya kitaifa ya Rwanda - this is Swahili.

Too many mistakes, I'm afraid - you need to go on holiday to Rwanda and research the matter.  >:(
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: Pabitra on March 26, 2019, 09:02:41 AM
Sure
Will go
Surely you will join me
Which months suit you?
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 26, 2019, 09:48:31 AM
Of course not, I'm supervising. I only travel to the astral plane, because it's free. I'm giving you until the end of the month to learn fluent Kinyarwanda.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: africancoins on March 26, 2019, 10:41:33 PM
I was looking at this post about Rwanda’s coins, particularly the large image in replies 27+28 – I noticed a design related error…

There is a sort of code for the texture/shading of heraldic designs when they are done without colouring e.g. when they are engraved. There is a different shading designated for representing each of the heraldic colours.

Section 2 here shows some details…

Tincture - Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tincture_)(heraldry)

Rwanda’s circulation coins of 1960s, 1970s and 1980s as shown in this topic include the Seal of Rwanda as used from 1962 to 2001.

That seal as used by Rwanda from 1962-2001 is shown here…

Seal of Rwanda - Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seal_of_Rwanda)

…as would have been imagined the flags in the seal are the same as another. Each flag in the emblem is shown as having three vertical bands, from the hoist red-yellow-green.

Looking at the two flags in the state emblem on the 1970s coin (in reply 28), these have different shading for their third bands. The third band from the hoist on the flag to the right has the shading as required for PURPLE instead of the shading as required for green. This can also be seen on other later circulation types (but not in the type shown in reply 27).

Looking briefly at collector coins… The 1965 Gold types seems to show a red-white-yellow! The two early 1990s silver types each show red-yellow-green for both flags in the emblem (correct).

Or is there a rule in heraldry that makes both version of the engraved state emblem correct?

Thanks Mr Paul Baker
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: <k> on March 26, 2019, 10:56:23 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=45189.0;attach=88971;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=45189.0;attach=88956;image)



Well spotted! I am no expert on heraldry, but you do seem to have keen eyesight.

Look at the bottom right on each design above.
Title: Re: Coinage of Rwanda
Post by: eurocoin on March 26, 2019, 11:03:26 PM
Very interesting discovery! :applause: