World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Pacific Islands => Topic started by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:31:57 PM

Title: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:31:57 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4370.0;attach=72583;image)

Australasia and the Pacific Islands



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=86098;image)

Map of Fiji



From Wikipedia:

Fiji is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760. The capital, Suva (on Viti Levu), serves as Fiji's principal cruise port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres like Nadi (with tourism being the major industry) or Lautoka (sugar cane industry).

Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century, and, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it gained independence as the Dominion of Fiji. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific due to an abundance of forest, mineral, and fish resources. Today, the main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry and sugar exports.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:36:02 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=86100;image)

Fiji's coat of arms



From Wikipedia:

The coat of arms of Fiji consists of a shield divided quarterly by Cross of St. George and charged with a gold lion at the top, supported by two Fijian warriors, one on each side, and topped with a canoe as the crest. Adopted in 1908 by a Royal Warrant, it has been the coat of arms of Fiji since that year, having been retained after independence in 1970.

The Cross of St. George—which divides the shield quarterly—and the golden lion at the top represent the United Kingdom, the former colonial power that ruled over Fiji. The cacao pod held in the lion's paw, along with the sugarcane, coconut palm and bananas occupying three of the four quadrants, represent the country's natural resources, since these are key agricultural crops in Fiji. The bottom left quadrant contains a dove that symbolizes peace – this was utilized on the country's flag during the reign of King Cakobau, whose government was the last before the commencement of British rule.

The crest at the top depicts a takia—a traditional Fijian canoe—while the supporters grasping the shield on both sides are Fijian warriors.According to legend, they are twins; the older brother is clutching a spear, while the younger one holds a war club. At the bottom is the country's motto: Fear God and honour the King (Fijian: Rerevaka na kalou ka doka na Tui).
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:39:39 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=86099;image)

Fiji's flag



From Wikipedia:

The national flag of Fiji was adopted on 10 October 1970. The state arms have been slightly modified but the flag has remained the same as during Fiji's colonial period. It is a defaced sky-blue "Blue Ensign" (the actual Blue Ensign version of the flag is the Government ensign). It has remained unchanged since Fiji was declared a republic in 1987, despite calls from some politicians for changes. A plan to change the flag, announced by Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama in 2013, was abandoned in August 2016.

The flag's bright blue background symbolizes the Pacific Ocean. The Union Jack reflects the country's links with the United Kingdom. The shield is derived from the country's coat of arms, which was granted by Royal Warrant in 1908. It is a white shield with a red cross and a red chief (upper third of a shield). The images depicted on the shield represent agricultural activities on the islands, and the historical associations with the United Kingdom. At the top of the shield, a British lion holds a cocoa pod between its paws. The upper left is sugar cane, upper right is a coconut palm, the lower left a dove of peace, and the lower right a bunch of bananas.

The flag is very similar to the colonial ensign used prior to independence, the main differences being the latter used a darker shade of blue and displayed the entire Fijian coat of arms as opposed to just the shield. While some reformists have called for the removal of the Union Flag, seeing it a British colonial emblem, others support its retention for the sake of historical continuity. The flags of five other independent countries (see Flags of Australia, Cook Islands, New Zealand, Niue, and Tuvalu articles) retain the Union Flag in their national flags. But of these, only Fiji is a republic. The Union flag also remains on the state flag of Hawaii, a state of the USA since 1959.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:44:44 PM
Prior to 1969, Fiji used the Fijian pound, but it adopted a decimal system in 1969.

From Wikipedia:

The Fijian dollar (currency sign: FJ$, $; currency code: FJD) has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was also the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents.



The first decimal coins were issued in 1969. The common obverse bore Arnold Machin's portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, who was head of state at that time. The reverse of the 1 cent coin showed a tanoa, a traditional Fijian drinking bowl.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:47:39 PM
A tanoa.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:48:28 PM
The reverse of the 2 cents coin featured a traditional Fijian fan.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:49:06 PM
A traditional Fijian fan.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:50:52 PM
The 5 cents coin featured a lali drum, as traditionally used by Fijian warriors, on the reverse.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:51:28 PM
A Fijian warrior beating the lali drum.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:52:57 PM
The reverse of the 10 cents featured an ula tavatava. This was a traditional warrior's throwing club.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:53:40 PM
An ula tavatava, a traditional warrior's throwing club.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:56:30 PM
The 20 cents featured a tabua on its reverse. This was a ceremonial whale’s tooth on a chain.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 02, 2018, 11:56:59 PM
From Wikipedia:

A tabua is a polished tooth of a sperm whale that is an important cultural item in Fijian society. They were traditionally given as gifts for atonement or esteem (called sevusevu), and were important in negotiations between rival chiefs.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 12:03:37 AM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26954.0;attach=44492;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26954.0;attach=44493;image)



The first Fijian decimal coins were produced by the Royal Mint, UK. The reverse designs of the coins were the work of Fijian artist Kenneth Payne. They were modelled by Royal Mint artist Geoffrey Colley (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,9492.0.html).

A 50 cents coin was not produced until 1975. It was a 12-sided coin made of copper-nickel. Its reverse design of a Fijian outrigger boat was also the work of Kenneth Payne. This coin was produced at the Royal Australian Mint.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 12:18:39 AM
From Wikipedia:

Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, precipitated by a growing perception that the government was dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw both the Fijian monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive president and the name of the country changed from Dominion of Fiji to Republic of Fiji and then in 1997 to Republic of the Fiji Islands. The two coups and the accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indo-Fijian emigration; the resulting population loss resulted in economic difficulties and ensured that Melanesians became the majority.

Despite this, Fiji continued to use the Queen's portraits on its coins for many years. It adopted Raphael Maklouf's portrait of the Queen in 1986. In 1995 Fiji issued its first circulation dollar coin. It was made of aluminium-bronze, with a polygonal inner rim. By now the Royal Canadian Mint was also minting coins for Fiji, and it provided the reverse design, which depicts a saqamoli, a native ceramic water bottle.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 12:24:24 AM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26954.0;attach=44494;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26954.0;attach=44495;image)

The new 50 cents coin of 2009.



From Wikipedia:

In 2009 the demonetization of the 1 and 2 cent coins was made official and a new coin set of 5, 10, 20, and 50 cent coins with reduced size was introduced. The old coins based on the Australian size standard were withdrawn from circulation. The reformed coins were introduced to save on production costs. The new 50 cent piece is also round with reeded edges rather than twelve sided.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 12:26:43 AM
Here is a photo, from 1974, of a typical Fijian outrigger boat.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 04:52:18 PM
From Wikipedia:

In 2013 Fiji released a whole family of new coins, with fauna themes, and without the Queen's portrait. This new series saw the introduction of a $2 coin, replacing the corresponding note just as the $1 coin had done before. This coin faced controversy due to being too easily mistaken as a $1, as it was only slightly larger of the same color. It was replaced by a larger and thicker Spanish flower shaped $2 coin in 2014. The metallic content of both the $1 and $2 was also changed in 2014 for better durability and resistance to wear after widespread complaints of the coins corroding and "turning black".
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 04:56:25 PM
Fiji became a republic in 1987, and it was suspended from the Commonwealth in 2009, so there had been no reason to retain the Queen’s effigy on its coins for so many years. Fiji originally announced that the set would be released in June 2012, and the coins were indeed dated 2012. However, their release was postponed until 2013. The new 10 cents coin is the only standard circulation coin to portray a bat, though Poland did issue a one-year-only 2 zloty coin depicting a bat in 2013.

The designs of Fijian cultural artefacts from the reverses of the old series were retained on the new series, but the Fijian name of the artefact was now also given as part of the legend. The tanoa, from the reverse of the now defunct one cent coin was resurrected (in slightly amended form) for the two dollar coin, a new denomination. Fiji now joined a select band of countries using a different design for each obverse and reverse of their circulation coins. The new obverse designs were the work of the Royal Canadian Mint.

See also: Circulation sets where each obverse and reverse design is different (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,10487.0.html).
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: quaziright on November 03, 2018, 05:26:58 PM
I must say junking the queens portrait for this fauna series was indeed a no brainer - politically, practically and aesthetically
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 06:08:33 PM
They did choose some nice designs. The bat is my favourite. Also it is very unusual to find a set with a different design on each obverse and reverse.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: Alan71 on November 03, 2018, 07:36:09 PM
Interesting.  I had no idea they retained the Queen on the coinage after they became a republic, or that they did it for so long.  I’m surprised they were even allowed to do that.  Fine to keep older coins with her portrait in circulation (Hong Kong does so) but not to still issue post-1987 dated coins when she wasn’t the head of state.  If you’re going to become a republic (by coup or otherwise) surely the one of the first things to do is change the obverse of the coinage?
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: quaziright on November 03, 2018, 07:43:13 PM
Interesting.  I had no idea they retained the Queen on the coinage after they became a republic, or that they did it for so long.  I’m surprised they were even allowed to do that.  Fine to keep older coins with her portrait in circulation (Hong Kong does so) but not to still issue post-1987 dated coins when she wasn’t the head of state.  If you’re going to become a republic (by coup or otherwise) surely the one of the first things to do is change the obverse of the coinage?

I thought Gâmbia would have been a similar case, but apparently not. In any case, since Fiji already had the die for the queen, what could the UK have really done? Sanction them? And the mints that produce the coins?
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 03, 2018, 08:01:01 PM
The issue of the Queen is still controversial in Fiji. Some of the old die-hards are still monarchists, and many of the chiefs still regard the Queen as the Paramount Chief. Fiji has had plenty of time to change its flag too, and get rid of the old British and imperial symbols, but apparently that is a controversial issue too. I imagine that time runs that much more slowly in Fiji anyway, so these are probably not burning issues.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: Pabitra on November 04, 2018, 04:49:14 AM
Interesting.  I had no idea they retained the Queen on the coinage after they became a republic, or that they did it for so long.  I’m surprised they were even allowed to do that.  Fine to keep older coins with her portrait in circulation (Hong Kong does so) but not to still issue post-1987 dated coins when she wasn’t the head of state.  If you’re going to become a republic (by coup or otherwise) surely the one of the first things to do is change the obverse of the coinage?

Mauritius and Barbados are also the nations who took their own time to replace Queen's effigy from their coinage. Perhaps newly independent nations have more pressing problems than thinking about coins.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2018, 10:35:28 AM
Mauritius and Barbados are also the nations who took their own time to replace Queen's effigy from their coinage. Perhaps newly independent nations have more pressing problems than thinking about coins.

Barbados? It never used the Queen's effigy. You must be thinking of some other country.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: Pabitra on November 04, 2018, 11:04:19 AM
Barbados became independent in 1965.
Prior to that they were using coins of British Carribean Territories ( Eastern Group).
They withdrew from the group and did not join the group East Carribean States.
They continued using BCT( EG) coins with effigy of QE II.
The new coins of Barbados were issued in 1973 without the effigy.
QE II is still the Head of State.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2018, 03:05:51 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=43992.0;attach=86101;image)

Interesting that the original lower denomination coins (1c to 20c) were dentillated around the rim of the reverse side, while the obverse side was not. The lower denomination coins of the 2012 set are dentillated on both sides.
Title: Re: The decimal coinage of Fiji
Post by: <k> on October 18, 2019, 11:12:53 AM
See also:

1] Fiji: Old collector coins (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,41969.0.html).

2] Fiji: unrealised decimal designs (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,35785.0.html).

3] Predecimal coinage of Fiji (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,46984.0.html).

4] The Worldwide Usage of the Effigy of Queen Elizabeth II (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,10156.0.html).