World of Coins

Modern European coins except the euro => Scandinavia => Topic started by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 04:28:07 PM

Title: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 04:28:07 PM
After the Nazis invaded Norway, they produced an occupation coinage for the country. The 1, 2 and 5 øre were zinc, while the 10, 25 and 50 øre coins were made of iron. Both obverse and reverse were of a standard design - allowing for the various denominational numerals on the reverse, of course.

Does anybody know the meaning of the symbols to the left and right of the lion shield on the obverse?
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 04:29:48 PM
In 1942, the Norwegian government-in-exile, which was based in London, issued three coins in nickel-brass. Their pre-war counterparts were made of copper-nickel. Does anybody know the story behind them?

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

 
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 04:31:47 PM
Of the government-in-exile designs, only the obverse of the 25 øre was slightly different from the pre-war version.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 04:35:39 PM
There were quite a few governments-in-exile based in London, during the war. The Dutch, Norwegian and Polish governments-in-exile even produced a few nice stamps. Did any other governments-in-exile issue coins, apart from Norway? I believe the Free French issued some coins for parts of the French Empire.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 05:15:26 PM
Out of interest, here is the set of stamps issued by the Norwegian government-in-exile.  I like the slogan, "Vi vil vinne" - "We will win" !
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 04, 2016, 07:13:24 PM
Did any other governments-in-exile issue coins, apart from Norway?

It's a slightly borderline case, but the Danish government-in-exile authorised the Royal Mint to issue pre-war-grade standard Danish currency for use in the Faroes, which were occupied by the British. The Faroese coins differ from the pre-war Danish issues in not having mintmaster's initials or the Copenhagen heart mintmark.

(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11531.0;attach=16783;image)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 07:24:21 PM
There's a clear if small difference, then, but the case is clear and not borderline.

How about the 1942 zinc coins of Iceland? Who authorised those? I know the Nazis treated the Danes with kid gloves until 1943.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 04, 2016, 07:27:32 PM
There's a clear if small difference, then, but the case is clear and not borderline.

How about the 1942 zinc coins of Iceland? Who authorised those? I know the Nazis treated the Danes with kid gloves until 1943.

I said borderline, because I wasn't entirely certain the Faroe issues weren't entirely the work of the British occupiers. Unlike the Norwegian government which evacuated en masse, the Danish king and government chose to stick it out and therefore there wasn't a "government in exile" as such.

Iceland was a self-governing part of the kingdom of Denmark, although until 1944 it shared its king with Denmark. I therefore suspect that all Icelandic coins were authorised by the Althing, so the issue of governments in exile doesn't arise. The WW2-era ones were minted at the RM if I remember right, though.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 07:29:38 PM
Good points. I went off-topic from "governments-in-exile" to wartime exigency issues.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 04, 2016, 07:55:59 PM
The question now remains, how were the Norwegian coins of the government-in-exile actually used?

World War II - Occupation and emergency coinages of Europe (http://en.numista.com/numisdoc/world-war-ii-occupation-and-emergency-coinages-of-europe-124.html).

Exile coinage

In 1942, the government of Norway, currently in Britain due to the German invasion, struck exile coinage, as a symbol of resistance. These were denominated 10, 25 and 50 ore, and were struck in nickel-brass. Many millions were made, but they were rarely used, and most found in circulation by Nazis were destroyed. About 10,000 of each denomination remain today.

Getting the coins into Norway must have been rather difficult.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Thulium on November 04, 2016, 08:38:19 PM
I also read that Norwegians wore coins bearing Haakon 7's monogram as symbols of resistance and support of the exiled government. I also wonder how many prewar coins the occupying Germans destroyed?  It would sure be an interesting story of how these 1942 coins got into Norway...if any collectors know that.  :)

The question now remains, how were the Norwegian coins of the government-in-exile actually used?

World War II - Occupation and emergency coinages of Europe (http://en.numista.com/numisdoc/world-war-ii-occupation-and-emergency-coinages-of-europe-124.html).

Exile coinage

In 1942, the government of Norway, currently in Britain due to the German invasion, struck exile coinage, as a symbol of resistance. These were denominated 10, 25 and 50 ore, and were struck in nickel-brass. Many millions were made, but they were rarely used, and most found in circulation by Nazis were destroyed. About 10,000 of each denomination remain today.

Getting the coins into Norway must have been rather difficult.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 04, 2016, 11:34:48 PM
Going back to <k>'s original post, I was also intrigued by the question of what the patterns are on the obverse either side of the shield. They appear to be a cross superimposed on two axes or hammers. I'm not aware that this symbol has any particular significance. The symbol used by Nasjonal Samling (Norway's equivalent of the Nazi party) as an equivalent to the swastika was solkorset, the sun cross (basically a circle with a cross in it). It's not a mintmark either, as the wartime issues carry the crossed hammers mark (underneath the date in this case) of Kongsberg mint.

For want of any other explanation, I tend towards the conclusion that they are just random Norse-inspired decorations, much like the triangular ones on the other side. They could even by a statement of subversion by the mint against Quisling and the Nazis - they are not entirely dissimilar to the H7 monogram used on pre-war and government-in-exile issues. As Thulium points out, pre-war Håkon VII coins enjoyed a status as subversive objects in Norway that analogous pre-war issues in, say, Denmark, Belgium and France didn't as far as I know.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Thulium on November 05, 2016, 04:15:47 AM
Going back to <k>'s original post, I was also intrigued by the question of what the patterns are on the obverse either side of the shield. They appear to be a cross superimposed on two axes or hammers. I'm not aware that this symbol has any particular significance. The symbol used by Nasjonal Samling (Norway's equivalent of the Nazi party) as an equivalent to the swastika was solkorset, the sun cross (basically a circle with a cross in it). It's not a mintmark either, as the wartime issues carry the crossed hammers mark (underneath the date in this case) of Kongsberg mint.

Here is the solkorset with two swords, from an occupation recruitment poster--a resemblance perhaps? So perhaps it's a cross, but with axes, and the circle was omitted. I have not found an exact match in other occupation materials.

(https://c2.staticflickr.com/6/5328/30152583554_6bd9d324c9_c.jpg)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 05, 2016, 10:32:25 AM
Solkorset with two swords is specifically the emblem of Hirden (Nasjonal samlings answer to the Nazi SA). More info on how NS used the symbol is here on Norwegian Wikipedia (https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solkorset#Nasjonal_Samling).

Going back to the symbols on the coin: While the cross is similar to the cross in solkorset, without the circle it isn't a solkors. The circle is an essential part of the symbol. I'm therefore not convinced that it has any overt references to Quisling's government other than possibly vague implications of tradition, militarism and mythology that often infuse far-right imagery from that era.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 11:20:38 AM
Excellent research, both. Below I've saved an image of that symbol, for easier comparison. The Nazis and their kind were into atavism, of course, and looked back to their supposed forebears. In doing so they either imagined some symbols, much as the novelist Walter Scott created an image of Scotland, or else perverted harmless ones.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 11:23:55 AM
Here is a "charity" stamp, issued during the war to benefit the "Norwegian Legion" of the Waffen-SS. You can vaguely see the symbol on the armband. Also, some official stamps showing the symbol of the Nasjonal Samling.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 11:30:34 AM
Relatively few Norwegians were pro-Nazi, compared to other occupied countries. The majority of them despised the collaborationist leader, Quisling. It helped that he was totally without any political acumen.

From Wikipedia:

In the course of the summer of 1942, Quisling lost any ability he might have had to sway public opinion by attempting to force children into the Nasjonal Samlings Ungdomsfylking youth organisation, which was modelled on the Hitler Youth. This move prompted a mass resignation of teachers from their professional body and churchmen from their posts, along with large-scale civil unrest. His attempted indictment of bishop Eivind Berggrav proved similarly controversial, even amongst his German allies. Quisling now toughened his stance, telling Norwegians that they would have the new regime forced upon them "whether they like it or not". On 1 May, the German High Command noted that "organised resistance to Quisling has started" and Norway's peace talks with Germany stalled as a result. On 11 August, Hitler postponed any further peace negotiations until the war ended. Quisling was admonished and learned that Norway would not get the independence he so greatly yearned for. As an added insult, for the first time he was forbidden to write letters directly to Hitler.

See: Vidkun Quisling (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidkun_Quisling).
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 11:45:39 AM
Going back to <k>'s original post, I was also intrigued by the question of what the patterns are on the obverse either side of the shield. They appear to be a cross superimposed on two axes or hammers. I'm not aware that this symbol has any particular significance. The symbol used by Nasjonal Samling (Norway's equivalent of the Nazi party) as an equivalent to the swastika was solkorset, the sun cross (basically a circle with a cross in it). It's not a mintmark either, as the wartime issues carry the crossed hammers mark (underneath the date in this case) of Kongsberg mint.

For want of any other explanation, I tend towards the conclusion that they are just random Norse-inspired decorations, much like the triangular ones on the other side. They could even by a statement of subversion by the mint against Quisling and the Nazis - they are not entirely dissimilar to the H7 monogram used on pre-war and government-in-exile issues. As Thulium points out, pre-war Håkon VII coins enjoyed a status as subversive objects in Norway that analogous pre-war issues in, say, Denmark, Belgium and France didn't as far as I know.

I think you're right. Let's compare the symbols on the coin with the Hirden symbol:


(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=37114.0;attach=66144;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=37114.0;attach=66117;image)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 05, 2016, 11:56:17 AM
Relatively few Norwegians were pro-Nazi, compared to other occupied countries. The majority of them despised the collaborationist leader, Quisling. It helped that he was totally without any political acumen.

There were many people in positions of power in the territories overrun by the Nazis who chose to collaborate with them to varying degrees, whether on the purely practical level as in Denmark or on a more ideological level as in France or Norway. But no other collaborator has been so definitively blacklisted by posterity as Quisling - he was as you say despised at the time by people who in other respects tolerated the German occupation and he certainly did not have the public trust that Pétain enjoyed (at least at first). And only Quisling's name has become a word in its own right denoting this kind of despicable puppet leader - not only in Norwegian but in other languages too. (It helps that the phonetics of his name, especially when pronounced with a v as in Norwegian rather than the English qu- sound, evoke something unpleasant and grasping, yet small and despicable. There isn't such a forceful "phonetic determinism" around the names Hitler, Mussolini or Franco, for example, though the similarities of Pétain's name with the French word for "to fart" come close.)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 12:20:03 PM
And only Quisling's name has become a word in its own right denoting this kind of despicable puppet leader - not only in Norwegian but in other languages too. (It helps that the phonetics of his name, especially when pronounced with a v as in Norwegian rather than the English qu- sound, evoke something unpleasant and grasping, yet small and despicable. There isn't such a forceful "phonetic determinism" around the names Hitler, Mussolini or Franco, for example, though the similarities of Pétain's name with the French word for "to fart" come close.)

That's a very subjective argument. Words come with associations. In English, a "Quisling" could sound merely like a little fellow who writes quizzes.  :D  But because you know who he was, the word acquires unpleasant overtones, and I have myself used it as an insult. For some Brits, "Thatcher" is all but a swear word and can produce apoplexy in her detractors. Some sounds do have negative connotations, though: many pejorative English words begin with "sl": slimy, slovenly, slut, to slight somebody. "Slim" would be an exception. But I'm well off-topic now.  :)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 05, 2016, 12:51:19 PM
That's a very subjective argument. Words come with associations. In English, a "Quisling" could sound merely like a little fellow who writes quizzes.  :D  But because you know who he was, the word acquires unpleasant overtones, and I have myself used it as an insult. For some Brits, "Thatcher" is all but a swear word and can produce apoplexy in her detractors. Some sounds do have negative connotations, though: many pejorative English words begin with "sl": slimy, slovenly, slut, to slight somebody. "Slim" would be an exception. But I'm well off-topic now.  :)

Subjective it may be, but it seems that the editor of The Times (19.4.1940) agreed with me:

Quote
To writers, the word Quisling is a gift from the gods. If they had been ordered to invent a new word for traitor... they could hardly have hit upon a more brilliant combination of letters. Aurally it contrives to suggest something at once slippery and tortuous.

This was written before the full extent of the crimes committed by any of the Nazi-like organisations of the WW2 era had become clear.

As you point out, letter combinations do provoke psychological reactions independent of other factors. I mentioned various other totalitarian leaders from that era - their names all conjure up imagery of what they stood for and did, but, with the possible exception of Hitler, their names have not endured as words used in a wider sense, outside the specifics of WW2 and/or extremist right-wing politics.

(On "slim": its German cognate, schlimm, means "bad". A similar change of meaning is apparent in "svelt", which is a positive attribute in English but is cognate with Swedish svälta, "to starve".)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 12:58:08 PM
Subjective it may be, but it seems that the editor of The Times (19.4.1940) agreed with me:

You're not old enough for him to have agreed with you.   ;)  His piece was propaganda, and very good propaganda, aimed at patriotic Brits. They would have despised the Nazis and their supporters well enough by then, though their worst atrocities, and public knowledge of them, were still years ahead, as you imply.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 05, 2016, 01:18:53 PM
You're not old enough for him to have agreed with you.   ;) 

Haha, touché  :)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 06:03:32 PM
So, now we know what the symbols on the coin are NOT. I looked in Gerhard Schön's world coin catalogue (German language), but it doesn't include a description of them. Nor does Numismaster. I suppose the answer may be hiding in some specialist Norwegian catalogue, but since we appear to be without a forum member in Norway, we may never find out. Though if we leave these questions posted, it's often the case that somebody comes along months or years later and posts the answer. Even if we still don't know the answer, I certainly did enjoy the ride.  :)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Thulium on November 05, 2016, 06:31:47 PM
Solkorset with two swords is specifically the emblem of Hirden (Nasjonal samlings answer to the Nazi SA). More info on how NS used the symbol is here on Norwegian Wikipedia (https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solkorset#Nasjonal_Samling).

Going back to the symbols on the coin: While the cross is similar to the cross in solkorset, without the circle it isn't a solkors. The circle is an essential part of the symbol. I'm therefore not convinced that it has any overt references to Quisling's government other than possibly vague implications of tradition, militarism and mythology that often infuse far-right imagery from that era.

Thanks for clarification on the symbol from that poster. Your argument regarding the solkorset makes total sense. And I would agree--if these symbols meant anything specific, we would see them used elsewhere during the occupation. My knowledge on this subject is very limited--if I find anything else, I'll post here.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: eurocoin on November 05, 2016, 08:10:50 PM
The only thing that resembles this is the emblem of the Church of Norway (a budded cross laid over two St. Olaf's axes)..
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 05, 2016, 08:16:12 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=37114.0;attach=66117;image)

You're right!

The son of a Church of Norway pastor, Quisling blended Christian fundamentals, scientific developments and philosophy into a new theory he called Universism.

Vidkun Quisling (http://www.liquisearch.com/vidkun_quisling).
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Thulium on November 05, 2016, 08:47:01 PM
The only thing that resembles this is the emblem of the Church of Norway (a budded cross laid over two St. Olaf's axes)..
I'm a little surprised I didn't make the connection--it must be the shield. Well, I'm now convinced that would be recognized as such on these occupation coins.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 06, 2016, 09:48:33 AM
Well done - that is conclusive, I think.

Somewhat ironic, given the Norwegian church's opposition to Quisling.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 12:59:18 PM
Given that Quisling considered himself a Christian (though he was a particularly warped one, from any perspective), it may well have been his decision. Or he may at least have influenced the decision.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 07:14:19 PM
I joined a Norwegian collectors' forum to ask some questions about these issues, using Google Translate.

Apparently St Olav's mark (or "award" ?), which we see on the occupation coins, is a national symbol, even though it is Christian in origin. So, just as atheists in Britain also sing "God save the Queen" or celebrate St George's day, the symbol is not reserved for Christians alone.

The Olav symbol can also be seen on other Norwegian coins, including the 1 krone of 1908 to 1917 and 1925 to 1951. Apparently it was the decision of the staff at the Mint to place it on the occupation coins, and it had nothing to do with Quisling.

The coins issued by the government-in-exile were never put into circulation, and from 1946 they were sold to collectors.

http://www.samlerforum.no/viewtopic.php?f=46&t=14649

Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Thulium on November 06, 2016, 07:30:52 PM
Apparently St Olav's mark (or "award" ?), which we see on the occupation coins, is a national symbol, even though it is Christian in origin. So, just as atheists in Britain also sing "God save the Queen" or celebrate St George's day, the symbol is not reserved for Christians alone.

The Olav symbol can also be seen on other Norwegian coins, including the 1 krone of 1908 to 1917 and 1925 to 1951. Apparently it was the decision of the staff at the Mint to place it on the occupation coins, and it had nothing to do with Quisling.

The coins issued by the government-in-exile were never put into circulation, and from 1946 they were sold to collectors.

http://www.samlerforum.no/viewtopic.php?f=46&t=14649
Well done asking samlerforum--I see that now in my own collection. I missed that--I haven't been paying attention.  :P
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: FosseWay on November 06, 2016, 07:45:12 PM
One of the responses to <k>'s question on Samlerforum gave this Wiki link to Olavskorset (https://no.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olavsmerket).

Interestingly, given the information <k> already translated that it was Myntverket's workers who decided this design and not Quisling or the Germans, we may be back at the hypothesis about subversive imagery. Towards the end of that article is a link to Krigskorset (https://no.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krigskorset), an award for valour founded in 1941 by the king's government in exile, not Quisling's government. Not only was the symbol already associated with the Church of Norway, which was openly hostile to the NS regime, but it seems also that it had been explicitly adopted by the regime's direct opponents in London. And, of course, there is the apparent resemblance to the H7 monogram which is reinforced by how it is used on the coin.

Google Translate hasn't done a bad job btw. Sometimes you get complete gobbledygook.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 08:31:17 PM
Interestingly, given the information <k> already translated that it was Myntverket's workers who decided this design and not Quisling or the Germans, we may be back at the hypothesis about subversive imagery. Towards the end of that article is a link to Krigskorset (https://no.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krigskorset), an award for valour founded in 1941 by the king's government in exile, not Quisling's government. Not only was the symbol already associated with the Church of Norway, which was openly hostile to the NS regime, but it seems also that it had been explicitly adopted by the regime's direct opponents in London.

That may or may not have been coincidence. Also, was the coin design decided in 1940, before the coins of 1941 were minted? Since the symbol was around on those old coins, it may have already been in the general consciousness. So, maybe the subversive idea is not correct, but I could be wrong.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on November 06, 2016, 09:09:36 PM
In 1942, the Norwegian government-in-exile, which was based in London, issued three coins in nickel-brass. Their pre-war counterparts were made of copper-nickel. Does anybody know the story behind them?

Images of courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

Just to fill inn jornkris answer on Samlerforum:The 1942- London coins where struck as a cash- supply for an allied expeditionforce, in case the war in Norway would have been ended with a military invasion from the west. As we know, this did not happen , so most coins where sold back to the Royal Mint after the war. About 6000 sets where taken to Norway . Until 1970 the coins where available at 1 krone per set ( 85 øre for the coins at face value plus 15 øre for the bag they came in ). Then the sale was stopped. It is believed that the remaining sets are still in the bank vaults.

The alloy used for the 1942- London øre is identical to that of the English base metall 3d. The alloy was perhaps chosen as it would have made the coins Clary distinguishable from the bronze 1,2, and 5 øre. Silver was truly never an option due to wartime rationing and to the fact that silvercons had ceased i Norway in 1920.

A fascinating piece of warhistory, but the price is heavily over the top.


Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 09:15:23 PM
Thanks for the info, Mycoins.

About 6000 sets where taken to Norway .

That was only after the war, then.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on November 06, 2016, 09:29:03 PM
That may or may not have been coincidence. Also, was the coin design decided in 1940, before the coins of 1941 were minted? Since the symbol was around on those old coins, it may have already been in the general consciousness. So, maybe the subversive idea is not correct, but I could be wrong.
I do not know the date when the decision for the striking of the iron- and zinc- coins was made, I am afraid,but according to Norwegian numismatist Bjørn Rønning it became clear to the Norwegian administration that the prewar coinage could not be continued as the metall allowences for civil use where to sparse. When in 1941 the German high command in Norway demanded the prewartime coins to be withdrawn ,the production of the replacementcoins started. Funny, the Germans gave detailed instructions in regard to the alloy of the zinc- coins, but they did not mention the ironcoins at all. Perhaps the Mint at Kongsberg just did what they had been doing in WWI without needing instructions.

The germans also gave instructions for the design of the replacement coins. Anyroyal symbol was banned , but instead symbols reflecting Norwegian history and commerce where allowes,hence the use of the cross of St. Olav and the image of a viking ship for a proposed 1- krone coin.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 09:31:16 PM
Thanks.  :)  Are you Norwegian yourself?

Are there any images of these proposed coin designs?
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on November 06, 2016, 09:36:53 PM
Thanks for the info, Mycoins.

That was only after the war, then.

Sorry,I have to correct the figures:

Struck in 1942
10 Øre 6.000.000, 25 Øre 2.400.000, 50 Øre 2.600.000

Delivered to Norway in 1946
10 Øre 20.000, 25 Øre 30.000, 50 Øre 15.000
The coins remaining at the Royal Mint where melted down in 1953 and used for the minting of English 3d

Remelted in Norway in 1947:
10 Øre 10.003 , 25 Øre 9794, 50 Øre 4796

Meaning there are still approximately 10.000 sets left.

All figures according to Rønning and jornkris coinbook.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on November 06, 2016, 09:38:49 PM
Thanks.  :)  Are you Norwegian yourself?

Are there any images of these proposed coin designs?

Yes , I am and yes, there are. Iwill post a scan of the 1- krone.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 06, 2016, 10:04:21 PM
Thank you, Mycoins. This is proving to be very interesting. One of my special interests is unadopted designs. I wonder if there any other such designs from Scandinavia? There are unadopted wartime designs / sketches from Vichy France, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Ustashe Croatia and the National Legionary State of Romania. Going off-topic here, how about Belgium, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Bohemia and Moravia, Poland, Serbia, etc. ?

Not only that, but jornkris, who replied to me on the Norwegian forum, is a numismatic writer.  8)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on November 07, 2016, 09:26:40 PM
A sketch of the proposed 1 - krone- replacement-coin. Ragnvald Støren was the mint- official who designed the coins.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on November 08, 2016, 09:38:37 AM
Wonderful, thank you, Mycoins. I never knew about this proposed design. You can post images of up to 128KB here, so if you ever have the time to do the same scan but twice as big, so we can see a bit more detail.  ;)   But yes, that is marvellous.  That's made my day. A lot of propaganda posters at the time showed the Norwegians looking back to their warlike forebears, the Vikings, so this design would not have upset the Nazis.

That's the good thing about an international forum like this: you are liable to find out about all sorts of things that you never knew about before.  :)

Below you see the kind of "atavism" regarding Vikings in the propaganda.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Mycoins on December 30, 2016, 11:31:07 AM
I finally got around to scan the image of the 1 krone. I hope the quality is better.

Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on December 30, 2016, 02:07:39 PM
I finally got around to scan the image of the 1 krone. I hope the quality is better.

Yes, the quality is better, but it's very small. I guess it's a problem with scanning folded pages. But thank you, because we can see exactly what was portrayed. It's not a hugely detailed sketch anyway, so we can see all the details that are there. I'm very pleased that it is on this topic, so that the world can see that such a proposal existed.   8)
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on April 23, 2017, 12:55:55 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=37114.0;attach=66118;image)

Government-in-exile coins.



According to the Royal Mint documents at Kew, the original pre-war Norwegian 10, 25 and 50 øre coins were made of copper-nickel. Since nickel was in short supply because of the war, the Norwegian government-in-exile compromised and agreed to have the coins made of brass. Additionally, the Norwegians wanted the usual Norwegian mint mark to be omitted since, the coins were being minted in London. They also wanted the date, 1942, to be larger and displayed more prominently.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38765.0;attach=70178;image)(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38765.0;attach=70179;image)

10 øre, pre-war design.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38765.0;attach=70183;image)

25 øre, pre-war design.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38765.0;attach=70184;image)

50 øre, pre-war design.



Above, you see the pre-war designs, to make comparison easier.

 
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on April 23, 2017, 01:04:54 PM
The Norwegian government-in-exile ordered the coins from the Royal Mint in June 1942, and they were delivered in late October 1942 to Waterlow and Sons, London. The war-time address of the Norwegian Ministry of Finance (government-in-exile) was Kingston House, Princes Gate, London SW7.

The coins were intended for use in Norway after the liberation. They were shipped to Norway in 1945. However, the coins were not needed, so they were kept in storage in Norway. In 1953 the Norwegians asked the Royal Mint if they could return the coins to be melted down. The coins were shipped from Oslo, on board the merchant ship "The Truro", on 9th June 1953. There were 22 tons of coins contained in 667 cases. The Royal Mint paid the Norwegians £190 per ton, which amounted to a total payment of £4158. Evidently, the Norwegians kept a few of the coins, as some of them were sold as special sets after the war.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on April 25, 2018, 04:34:32 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38765.0;attach=70184;image)

Looking at the three interlocking rings at either side of the coin above (top left), I am wondering if they have any significance. They seem to appear on quite a few Norwegian coins.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: Figleaf on April 25, 2018, 05:30:34 PM
It's a valknut (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valknut).

Peter
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on April 25, 2018, 05:50:43 PM
Thanks, Figgers. So it's one of those old pagan things, like runes.
Title: Re: Norway, World War 2, government-in-exile coinage
Post by: <k> on April 25, 2018, 05:51:11 PM
See also: Norway under Nazi occupation (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,38765.0.html).