World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Sub-Saharan Africa => East Africa => Topic started by: <k> on December 16, 2014, 06:17:17 PM

Title: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on December 16, 2014, 06:17:17 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89757;image)

Location of Malawi in Africa.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89758;image)

Map of Malawi.



From Wikipedia:

The Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country in south-east Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 (45,560 sq mi) in area, with an estimated population of 18,091,575 as at July 2016. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area. Its capital is Lilongwe, which is also Malawi's largest city.

The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries later in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi, then known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi. Two years later it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi currently has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president.

Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries. The economy is heavily based in agriculture, with a largely rural population. The Malawian government depends heavily on outside aid to meet development needs. There is a diverse population of native peoples, Asians and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs.

 
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:34:11 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89760;image)



The arms were adopted on June 30, 1964. They show: in the upper part, the waves of Lake Malawi; in the middle, the lion of England;  and in the base a sun, symbolising the rise of a new nation.

The supporters are a lion and leopard, the two largest predators in the country. The arms are placed on the Mulanje mountain range, the highest in the country. The crest shows again symbols of Lake Malawi (fish eagle, waves) and a sun. The motto is "Unity and Freedom".
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:36:24 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89759;image)



From Wikipedia:

The first flag of independent Malawi was adopted on 6 July 1964. The rising sun represents the dawn of hope and freedom for the continent of Africa. The 31 rays of the sun represent the fact that Malawi was the 31st African nation at the time of its independence. The black represents the indigenous people of the continent, the red symbolizes the blood of their struggle, and the green represents nature.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:43:18 PM
From Wikipedia:

From 1932, Malawi (named Nyasaland at that time) used the Southern Rhodesian pound. In 1955 a new currency was introduced, the Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound. This was replaced by the Malawian pound in 1964, following Malawi's independence. The pound was subdivided into 20 shillings, and each shilling was subdivided into 12 pence.

In 1964 coins were issued in copper-nickel. Their denominations were six pence, a shilling, a florin (two shillings) and a half crown (2½ shillings). All bore the portrait of Hastings Banda.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:50:17 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89761;image)



The common obverse of the coinage featured a portrait of President Banda. It was designed by Paul Vincze (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,8763.0.html) for the Royal Mint (UK), who was also responsible for all the reverse designs, and his initials "PV" can be seen on all the coins.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:53:01 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23809.0;attach=73391;image)



The reverse design on the six pence coin featured a cockerel. This bird also appeared on the emblem of President Banda's ruling Malawi Congress Party.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:55:29 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12529.0;attach=72056;image)



The reverse design of the shilling depicted corn cobs.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 10:57:28 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=3877.0;attach=72214;image)



The reverse design of the florin depicted an elephant mother and child. This was the first circulation coin to depict an animal mother and child (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,15630.0.html) since the so called Irish barnyard set of 1928.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 11:14:35 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12545.0;attach=73972;image)



Paul Vincze's original model for the florin portrayed the head of a fierce and snarling leopard. It was a superb design but was never ultimately used.

See: Malawi: pre-decimal variations (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12545.0.html).
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 11:19:29 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89762;image)



Malawi was the only black-ruled African country to issue a half crown after independence. It featured the national coat of arms.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 11:20:29 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89695;image)



In 1966 Malawi issued a crown (equivalent to 5 shillings) to commemorate becoming a republic.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 11:21:24 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89765;image)



Malawi issued a penny in 1967. Curiously, the denomination appeared on both sides. The coin completed the country's predecimal circulation series.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 30, 2019, 11:22:26 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89937;image)



Neighbouring Zambia had issued a penny in 1966. The two coins look rather similar, probably because they were both made at the Royal Mint, UK, and both were 27mm in diameter.

 
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:12:19 PM
Malawi went decimal in 1971 and issued new coinage, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 tambala. The kwacha replaced the Malawian pound at a rate of two kwacha to one pound.

The name kwacha derives from the Nyanja and Bemba word for "dawn", while tambala translates as "cockerel" in Nyanja. The tambala was so named because a cockerel appeared on the first one tambala coin. The cockerel was the symbol of President Banda's political party.

Malawi's pre-decimal coinage had been designed by Paul Vincze (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,8763.0.html) for the Royal Mint. Some of his designs were carried forward to the new coinage, and he added two new designs: a paradise whydah appeared on the 2 tambala, whilst the 5 tambala featured a purple heron.



See also: The pound: predecimal to decimal design continuity (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40487.0.html).

 
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:14:40 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89782;image)



Paul Vincze's portrait of President Banda was retained as the common obverse of the new coinage. It now appeared for the first time on a bronze coin, because the 1 and 2 tambala coins were made of bronze.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:17:35 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23809.0;attach=89783;image)



The cockerel design, as it appeared on the reverse of the 1 tambala coin. It had previously graced the reverse of the predecimal copper-nickel six pence coin.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:22:28 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23641.0;attach=74398;image)



The reverse of the 2 tambala coin featured the paradise whydah bird (Vidua paradisaea).
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:24:33 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89785;image)



The long-tailed paradise whydah bird (male).
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:33:41 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23763.0;attach=89788;image)



The reverse of the 5 tambala coin featured the purple heron (Ardea purpurea).
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:34:20 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89786;image)



The purple heron.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:41:05 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89789;image)



The reverse of the 10 tambala coin featured the maize design that had previously appeared on the shilling.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:42:45 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=3877.0;attach=74399;image)



The reverse of the 20 tambala coin featured the elephant and calf design that had previously graced the florin.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:53:55 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89790;image)



There was no 50 tambala coin at this point. A 1 kwacha collector coin was issued in 1971, which did not circulate. It was 38.74 mm in diameter. The obverse showed the portrait of President Banda as usual, but the reverse design featured the national coat of arms. The edge inscription read: "Decimal Currency introduced February 15th, 1971".
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 12:58:44 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89791;image)



From 1975 onward a diacritic was added to the "w" in "Malawi" on the obverse legend.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 01:15:36 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89792;image)



In 1986 Malawi issued its first 50 tambala coin circulation coin. This version, portraying President Banda, with the coat of arms on the reverse, was last issued in 1994.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 01:17:19 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23809.0;attach=89794;image)



Malawi issued its first circulation kwacha coin in 1992. This version was not issued after 1992. It was made of brass and, like the 1 tambala coin, it depicted a cockerel. A portrait of President Banda appeared on the obverse as usual.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 04:19:48 PM
President Banda ran in Malawi's first truly democratic presidential election in 1994. He was roundly defeated by Bakili Muluzi.

This event led to several changes to the coinage in 1995.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 04:23:35 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89803;image)



The cockerel was the symbol of President Banda's political party. It was therefore removed from the reverse of the 1 tambala coin and replaced with a strikingly attractive design of two tilapia fish. The design was the work of the Royal Canadian Mint, but the mint refuses to reveal the name of the design.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 04:30:11 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89804;image)



Another change, in 1995, was that the portrait of President Banda was now removed from the obverse of the coins. The national coat of arms now appeared on the obverse of the 1, 2 and 5 tambala coins.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 04:38:57 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89807;image)



Also in 1995, 1, 2, 5 and 10 tambala coins were issued that showed the portrait of the new president, Bakili Muluzi. The portrait was the work of Royal Mint (UK) artist Robert Elderton.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 05:02:04 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89811;image)



In 1996, the 20 tambala coin also carried the portrait of the new president. Additionally, a 50 tambala coin was issued with his portrait. It was a new type, heptagonal in shape and produced by the Royal Mint (UK). It was made of brass-plated steel and showed the cat of arms on the reverse.

No coins showing the coat of arms on the obverse were released in 1996 or the few years afterwards. All now showed the portrait of the president.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 05:02:25 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89809;image)



Yet another change occurred in 1996. The previous brass 1 kwacha coin featured a cockerel on the reverse. That political symbol was now replaced by a superb design of a fish eagle, which was again the work of Robert Elderton.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 05:14:58 PM
Our forum member africancoins has more information about the coins of 1995 and 1996 on his web pages, here (http://africa.worldofcoins.eu/af-mwi.htm) and here (http://africa.worldofcoins.eu/af-mwi2.htm). He also mentions the fact that some designs show the initials of the designer, Paul Vincze, while others do not. Additionally, he discusses the different metal types used.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 05:23:28 PM
In 2003 the 1, 2 and 5 tambala coins once more appeared with the coat of arms obverse. The 20 and  50 tambala coins and the 1 kwacha coin for that year still retained the presidential portrait, however.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 05:29:08 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89814;image)



In 2004, of all the coins only the 50 tambala was issued with the presidential portrait. Surprisingly, a new 50 tambala type was also issued, that showed the coat of arms on the obverse but an attractive new design of a zebra and foal on the reverse. The new coin was produced at the Royal Mint (UK), but the surviving records do not show who designed the reverse.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:12:11 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89815;image)



Because of increasing inflation, Malawi issued two superb new bimetallic circulation coins in 2006: 5 kwacha and 10 kwacha. The reverse design of the 5 kwacha coin shows fishermen hauling in fish in their nets.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:13:46 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89816;image)



The reverse design of the 10 kwacha coin features a tea plantation worker.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:14:50 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=34401.0;attach=72137;image)



Above is one of a series of silver 5 kwacha coins produced for collectors by the Royal Mint. The whole series was designed by Michael Hibbit (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,8757.0.html). Notice how similar the design above looks to that of the 5 kwacha coin of 2006. And in fact, Mr Hibbit did indeed design the 5 and 10 kwacha of 2006.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:23:22 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89819;image)



Malawi issued three new circulation coins in 2012. They were new versions of the 1, 5 and 10 kwacha coins. Thse coins were small and light and made of stainless-steel-plated iron. Their designs had already been seen on older coins.

The Royal mint produced the 2012 coins, which is not surprising, since one of them is a heptagon.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:28:42 PM
So that brings the story up to date.
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on March 31, 2019, 07:32:48 PM
When Malawi went decimal, the corn cob on the shilling and the elephants on the florin were transferred to the 10 tambala and 20 tambala respectively. This made sense, because a shilling was equal to 10 tambala in value, therefore a florin was equivalent to 20 tambala.

Curiously, the cockerel on the six pence was not transferred to its decimal equivalent, the 5 tambala, which was occupied by a  purple heron instead. However, the cockerel ended up on the lowly bronze 1 tambala. Logic would have suggested that the new 1 tambala denomination was given to the new design of the heron, while the cockerel remained on the 5 tambala, but this was not the case.



The transfer of designs from predecimal sterling coinages to decimal coinages is an interesting story in itself. To read more about it, see:

The pound: predecimal to decimal design continuity (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40487.0.html)
Title: Re: Coinage of Malawi
Post by: <k> on April 10, 2019, 08:14:46 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23763.0;attach=72126;image)

When I was posting this topic, I thought I had also seen this bird, the purple heron (above), on a South African coin design.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=23752.0;attach=76843;image)

In fact, the bird on the South African 5 cents was a blue crane.

See: Second Coinage of the Republic of South Africa (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,39963.0.html).