World of Coins

Modern coins, pseudo coins and trade tokens of other continents => Pacific Islands => Topic started by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:06:55 PM

Title: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:06:55 PM
Several of the countries and territories of Australasia and Oceania use the Southern Cross on their flags or coats of arms. Others still use some other kind of star. In this topic I will look at those coins that have reflected this use.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:09:25 PM
(http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/flags/nation/australia.gif)

Flag of Australia.



The star that appears on nearly all the pre-decimal coins of Australia looks at first like mere ornamentation, but it has a special significance.

From Wikipedia:

The Commonwealth Star (also known as the Federation Star, the Seven Point Star, or the Star of Federation) is a seven-pointed star symbolising the Federation of Australia which came into force on 1 January 1901.

Six points of the Star represent the six original states of the Commonwealth of Australia, while the seventh point represents the territories and any future states. The original Star had only six points; however, the proclamation in 1905 of the Territory of Papua led to the addition of the seventh point in 1908 to represent it and future territories.



Australia, 1 shilling, 1935.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:10:36 PM
Australia, 1 shilling, 1938.

Here we see the Commonwealth Star again. In this case, most people think it is just a meaningless part of the design.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:12:12 PM
Here you see the Southern Cross constellation on the reverse of the Australian two dollar coin.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:14:42 PM
New Zealand also uses the Southern Cross, but it prefers traditional five-pointed stars.

New Zealand, crown, 1953.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:15:09 PM
New Zealand, crown, 1949.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:16:33 PM
New Zealand, 1 dollar, 1973.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:19:13 PM
Niue, 5 dollars, 1989.

Niue is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Notice the similarity of its coat of arms to that of New Zealand.

Talking of stars, I think MacArthur must have been a five star general.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:22:58 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12667.0;attach=36694;image)

Western Samoa, 1 sene, 1967.  The Southern Cross again.

Interesting that New Zealand and its associated territories prefer four stars, whereas Australia and others use five.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:24:19 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13575.0;attach=36692;image)

Western Samoa, 1 dollar.

Below is the Samoa flag.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:26:20 PM
Papua New Guinea, 10 kina, 1975.  The Southern Cross, and the Bird of Paradise.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:27:02 PM
The flag of Papua New Guinea.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:29:29 PM
Tonga, 1 koula, 1962.  Gold bullion coin.

The three stars symbolise the main island groups of Tonga, which are Tongatapu, Vavaʻu and Haʻapai. The text on the scroll at the bottom reads Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga ko hoku Tofiʻa in the Tongan language: 'God and Tonga are my inheritance'.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:34:10 PM
The Federated States of Micronesia, 1 dollar, 2004.  This is a collector coin only.

Micronesia is a self-governing state, in free association with the USA. It uses the US dollar.

The four stars on the coin represent the states in the federation: Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Yap.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:38:02 PM
Marshall Islands, 5 dollars, 1993.  Collector coin.

The Marshall Islands are self-governing, in free association with the USA, and they use the US dollar.



Description: The outstanding feature of the Seal is the stylized Angel of Peace centered with outstretched wings.

Around the Angel, from the top and moving clockwise:
24 point star representing the 21 municipalities of the Republic. The four longer rays represent the 4 sub-centers of Majuro (the capital), Jaluit, Wotje, and Kwajalein Atolls.

On either side of the star are the rays which are on the flag. Each ray is of two colors, one, orange representing bravery, and the other, white representing peace. The two-colored rays also represent the two chains of atolls, the Ratak (Sunrise) and the Ralik (Sunset).

Next is a stylized fishing net, fish being the main staple of the diet of the Marshallese people.

Next, a stylized sailing canoe, outrigger type, sails on the ocean (covering the bottom 1/3 of the seal).

Under the stick chart is the word "SEAL."

An island with stylized palm trees (coconut) is next. All of the Marshall Islands are low lying atolls.

Above the right wing of the Angel is a "pounder", made out of a giant clam shell, and treasured by every family that owns one. This pounder is used to pound pandanus leaves, which are used for making mats, sails, and, traditionally, clothing.

Around the outer edges are the words "Republic of the Marshall Islands" and at the bottom, "Jepilpilin ke ejukaan."

The rim of the seal is a link chain representing that the islands are all linked together, half of the chain representing the Ralik group and the other half the Ratak.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:44:46 PM
Nauru, 1 dollar, 1993 and 2009.  Collector coins.  Nauru uses the Australian dollar.

The flag of Nauru features a star indicating the location of country, just south of the Equator.

The shield of the coat of arms is divided and separated in the middle. In the upper section the alchemical symbol of phosphorus is shown over a golden woven background. The lower silver section depicts a black frigatebird, which sits on a perch over blue ocean waves. The lower right section is blue and contains a branch of calophyllum flowers. The shield is surrounded by images of tribal chief gear, which was worn to ceremonies - ropes from palm leaves, feathers of the frigatebird and shark teeth. The star centered above the shield is taken from the flag. The ribbon above it bears the name of the island in Micronesian Nauruan: Naoero.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:51:53 PM
Palau, 5 dollars.  Collector coin. 

Palau is self-governing, in free association with the USA. It uses the US dollar.

The Palau flag represents a yellow moon on a pale blue background. The Palau coat of arms, which is really just a seal, does not include stars or a sun of any kind. However, the obverse of the collector coin shown above includes an unknown star or sun. This obverse has been used on several collector coins, but it does not seem to represent any official emblem of Palau.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 10:56:02 PM
(http://i1192.photobucket.com/albums/aa337/AdityaKulkarni3/KK1_zpsb22c295c.jpg)(http://i1192.photobucket.com/albums
/aa337/AdityaKulkarni3/KK2_zps3883ca9a.jpg)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands.  Official 5 dollar token.

The Islands are a Territory of Australia. They use the Australian dollar.  I do not know what the stars on these tokens represent.

The flag of the Islands, seen below, includes the Southern Cross.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on August 07, 2013, 11:13:15 PM
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Coat_of_arms_of_Brazil.svg/395px-Coat_of_arms_of_Brazil.svg.png)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12667.0;attach=29623;image)

Brazil, 25 centavos, 2005.



Curiously, there is one other country that uses the Southern Cross on its coins, and it is not located in Australasia or Oceania. The large star often seen on the coins of Brazil is taken from the Brazilian coat of arms. Within that star, the smaller stars represent the constellation of the Southern Cross.

During its various currency changes, Brazil has often used the cruzeiro, from the word cruz, meaning cross. This currency name is a reference to the Southern Cross itself.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: Pabitra on August 08, 2013, 08:57:16 PM
The Federated States of Micronesia, 1 dollar, 2004.  This is a collector coin only.

Micronesia is a self-governing state, in free association with the USA. It uses the US dollar.

The four stars on the coin represent the states in the federation: Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Yap.

Sometimes, Micronesia issues collector coins with both designs, with and without stars on the obverse
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on October 27, 2013, 04:23:53 PM
Australia, $5, 2012.  Dome-shaped coin. The Southern Cross is shown as a celestial image, while the rim of the coin features a compass design.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on December 25, 2014, 05:42:55 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10413.0;attach=72294;image)

Australia, 1 shilling, 1938.



Remember the Australian seven-pointed Commonwealth star, as seen above? Below is another one, on the New Guinea shilling of 1935.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on June 02, 2015, 10:35:28 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=31133.0;attach=54675;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=31133.0;attach=54676;image)

Cook Islands, 5 dollars, 2015.  This catamaran is known locally as a vaka.  And look at those stars! A wonderful design.

Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on October 09, 2015, 10:51:09 PM
(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26997.0;attach=50362;image)

Brazil, 2000 reis, 1900.  A generic Portuguese carrack (nau) from the fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral.  And look at the Southern Cross. I really think the South Americans should pay a fee to Australia and New Zealand for stealing the concept of the Southern Cross.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: davidrj on October 10, 2015, 01:56:06 AM
The best Brazillian depiction in my view is on the 40 reis 1889-1912

(http://i593.photobucket.com/albums/tt14/microtome/Ru.288.849%2040%20Reis%201910.jpg) (http://s593.photobucket.com/user/microtome/media/Ru.288.849%2040%20Reis%201910.jpg.html)
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on October 10, 2015, 02:03:38 AM
Nice one. I can't remember seeing this one before.
Title: Re: Australasia and Oceania: The Southern Cross and Other Stars
Post by: <k> on October 12, 2015, 12:30:53 PM
Brazil: 2 pattern pieces from 1941, in silver (large "2") and nickel silver (small "2"). The actual piece, with a small "2", was not released until 1942. Images courtesy of sixbid.com.