World of Coins

Modern European coins except the euro => UK and Ireland => Regular circulating decimal coins => Topic started by: <k> on November 01, 2011, 10:30:20 PM

Title: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on November 01, 2011, 10:30:20 PM
The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area

Europe has the euro, and with currently 17 members of the euro zone, there are lots of coins to collect. The UK uses the pound sterling, but it also has a set of related coinages: Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and three British overseas territories also use the pound.  So there are seven different coinages, and that’s without counting all the different design series. And in the 1970s, there was Ireland too.

The "sterling area" is no longer an official term, but I will be using it informally in this topic. After all, these seven coinages all have coins of the same denominations, with matching size, shape, weight and metal content. They are all exactly equal in value, and they all now show the Queen’s effigy on the obverse. But unlike the euro, they do not all form a single currency, and there are lots of other anomalies too, which I will try to guide you through in this topic.

To read about the decimal coinage of each territory, dependency or country of the sterling area, click on the links below:

1] The UK (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12072.0.html)

2] Jersey (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11503.0.html)

3] Guernsey (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11469.0.html)

4] The Isle of Man (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11994.0.html)

5] The Falkland Islands (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11487.0.html)

6] Gibraltar (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12037.0.html)
 
7] St. Helena and Ascension (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11473.0.html)

8] Ireland (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,43366.0.html)



To post comments, criticisms, amendments etc. regarding this topic, please click on the link below:

Comments on "The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area" (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12288.0.html)



See also:

1] Alderney (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,36582.0.html)

2] Index of topics about "Other Sterling Area Territories" (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,47523.0.html)

3] Where to find the British Overseas Territories on this forum (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,46574.0.html)
 
 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on November 01, 2011, 10:32:05 PM
Countries that gave up the pound.

Under the British Empire, some of Britain’s colonies used so called Homeland coinage (i.e. coins of the pounds, shillings and pence system, as used in Britain itself) and continued  to do so up to independence. Others, such as Australia and New Zealand, kept the pound after independence, but later switched to their own national version of it, in which their coins and banknotes carried suitable national designs.

After the Second World War, Britain realised that its empire was not sustainable and began preparing its colonies for independence. Those countries that kept the pound after independence generally retained it for only a few years, before adopting their own decimal currency. In 1960 Britain itself decided that it would make the transition to decimalisation, which took place on 15th February 1971.

During the 1960s and 1970s, most of the remaining countries still using the pounds, shillings and pence system adopted their own national currency. Here is a list of the last countries to switch, the year they switched, and the name of their new national currency:

Country Year Currency
Australia 1966 Dollar
Bahamas 1966 Dollar
Bermuda 1970 Dollar
Fiji 1969 Dollar
Gambia 1971 Dalasi
Ghana 1967 Cedi
Jamaica 1969 Dollar
Malawi 1971 Kwacha
Malta 1972 Lira
New Zealand 1967 Dollar
Nigeria 1973 Naira
Rhodesia 1964 Dollar
South Africa 1961 Rand
Tonga 1967 Pa'anga
Western Samoa 1967 Tala
Zambia 1968 Kwacha

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on November 09, 2011, 01:37:52 AM
Countries and territories that kept the pound.

At the time of decimalisation in 1971, Britain still had some overseas possessions left. They were no longer called “colonies”, which was by then a politically incorrect term, but “overseas dependencies”. These dependencies, which are nowadays known as “overseas territories”, also had significantly more autonomy than in the old Imperial days. Some of them, such as Bermuda and Hong Kong, used their own local currencies; others, such as Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands, still used the pound, and these automatically decimalised along with the UK.

The countries and dependencies using a predecimal pound system, and who decimalised in 1971, along with the UK, can be categorised as follows:


Ireland.  

An independent republic.


The British Crown Dependencies.

1] The Isle of Man
2] Jersey
3] Guernsey.


British overseas territories.

1] The Falkland Islands
2] Gibraltar
3] St Helena and its dependencies of Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
4] British Indian Ocean Territory  *
5] British Antarctic Territory  *
6] South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. *  **

  * These territories are not permanently inhabited, merely hosting scientists and/or the military.
** South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands were originally administered as a Falkland Islands dependency but became a separate territory in 1985.

NOTE: The list above includes only those British overseas territories that use the pound. For a full list of current British Overseas Territories and their currencies, click on the link below:

British overseas territories and their currencies (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,10156.msg68594.html#msg68594)
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on November 09, 2011, 01:38:23 AM
Before UK decimalisation:

Ireland had already been issuing its own banknotes and coinage since 1928. It had its own central bank but pegged its pound, or punt, to the UK pound at a ratio of one to one. UK currency was not legal tender in Ireland, just as Irish currency was not legal tender in the UK, but both currencies co-circulated in border areas of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Jersey and Guernsey each issued their own coinage, but each with only two circulating denominations (immediately before decimalisation), equivalent to a UK penny and threepence. UK coinage also circulated. Both Jersey and Guernsey issued their own banknotes. Jersey coins and banknotes circulated freely on Guernsey, and vice versa.

The Isle of Man used only UK coinage but issued its own banknotes. Irish currency, from the many Irish holidaymakers, also circulated freely on the island.

UK coinage and banknotes circulated freely in all the Crown Dependencies.


The British overseas territories using the pound used UK coinage only, but the Falkland Islands and Gibraltar also issued their own banknotes.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on November 09, 2011, 01:38:55 AM
At and after UK decimalisation:

Ireland issued a full set of its own circulating coinage in stages, from 1969 up to and after 15th February 1971, with the same denominations and the same specifications as the UK’s decimal coinage. In 1978, Ireland broke the punt’s link with the UK pound sterling, and the new denominations and reduced size coins it issued in the 1980s and 1990s no longer followed the UK’s specifications.

Jersey and Guernsey each issued a full set of their own circulating coinage in stages, from 1968 up to and after 15th February 1971, with the same denominations and the same specifications as the UK’s decimal coinage.

The Isle of Man issued a full set of its own circulating coinage on 15th February 1971, with the same denominations and the same specifications as the UK’s decimal coinage.


British overseas territories that developed their own coinage.

* the Falkland Islands issued its own decimal coinage set in 1974 but did not include a 50 pence coin until 1980.

* St Helena and Ascension issued their own joint decimal coinage in 1984 but did not include a 20 pence coin until 1998.

* Gibraltar issued its own set of decimal coinage in 1988.


NOTE.  St Helena has issued its own banknotes since 1976. These also circulate on Ascension.


British overseas territories that used, and continue to use, UK coinage only.

* Tristan da Cunha. *

* British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. **


NOTES.

* Tristan da Cunha has in recent years issued COLLECTOR sets in its own name, and in the name of three of its uninhabited islands: Gough Island, Nightingale Island, and Stoltenhoff Island. The three islands have no legal autonomy, and the collector sets issued in their name (which do NOT circulate) are to be regarded as legally authorised collector coins of Tristan da Cunha.

** These territories have in recent years issued legal tender COLLECTOR coins: these do NOT circulate.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:41:29 PM
The end of the crowned / uncrowned hierarchy.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4354.0;attach=62757;image)



Prior to decimalisation, Jersey used the crowned effigy of the Queen, created by Cecil Thomas, while the UK used the uncrowned effigy by Mary Gillick. Before 1964, those crown dependencies (in practice only Jersey) and overseas territories who portrayed the Queen on their coins were required to use the crowned effigy, while Britain and full Commonwealth members, such as Australia, were allowed to use the uncrowned effigy. With the creation in 1964 of the Machin portrait, first used by Rhodesia, the Queen decreed that any country who wanted to should be able to use it. The Machin portrait therefore had a democratising effect, in that it put an end to the crowned/uncrowned hierarchy, and Jersey no longer had to use a different portrait from the UK.



To read about the crowned and uncrowned effigies in the British Empire and Commonwealth, click on the links below:

Use of the Crowned and Uncrowned Effigies in the Commonwealth (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,4364.0.html)

Comments on Use of the Crowned and Uncrowned Effigies in the Commonwealth (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,4354.0.html)
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:42:38 PM
The Machin portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89643;image)



Arnold Machin’s famous effigy of the Queen was especially created for use on the UK’s first decimal coins. It was also adopted for use on the decimal coins of Jersey, the Isle of Man, St Helena and Ascension, and the Falkland Islands. It became more or less synonymous with decimalisation in the 1960s, being adopted also by Rhodesia, Australia, New Zealand and the Gambia for use on their new decimal currencies.

Guernsey did not use an effigy of the Queen on its coins until 1985. From 1971 until 1984 it used the Guernsey coat of arms on the obverse of its coins, and from 1985 until 1997 it used the portrait by Raphael Maklouf. Gibraltar did not introduce its own coins until 1988 and therefore also used the Maklouf portrait.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:43:41 PM
Were any predecimal coins retained after decimalisation?



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89644;image)



The UK and Ireland were the only countries in the sterling area with a full set of their own coins before decimalisation. Jersey and Guernsey each had their own short set, consisting of two denominations, equal in value to a UK predecimal penny and a UK threepence, but the full set of UK coins also circulated alongside them.

After decimalisation, Ireland kept the shilling and florin, which had exact decimal counterparts (the five pence and ten pence coins). The UK kept the shilling and florin, and also the sixpence, which was equivalent to 2½ pence: the sixpence did not have a decimal counterpart but was still widely used in vending machines.

The UK sixpence was unpopular after decimalisation and was demonetised in 1980. The UK shilling and florin were demonetised in 1990 and 1993 respectively, along with the large five pence and ten pence coins, which were replaced by smaller versions. The Irish shilling and florin were demonetised in 1993 and 1994 respectively, along with the large five pence and ten pence coins, which were replaced by smaller versions.

It had made sense to keep the shilling and florin in circulation, as they were the same size as their decimal counterparts. After the five pence and ten pence coins were reduced in size, that logic no longer applied.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:44:19 PM
Design continuity from the predecimal system to decimal changeover.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89648;image)

Jersey maintained the greatest design continuity: the reverse of all its predecimal coins and all its first decimal coins carried the Jersey coat of arms.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89645;image)

Ireland transferred three of its predecimal reverse designs to its decimal coins: the bull went straight from the shilling to its decimal counterpart, the five pence coin, while the salmon moved from the florin to its decimal counterpart, the ten pence coin; and the woodcock from the defunct farthing moved to the decimal fifty pence.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89647;image)

(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10347.0;attach=72192;image)

(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10347.0;attach=72191;image)

Guernsey transferred the cow on its predecimal threepence to the decimal ten pence, and the Guernsey lily on its four doubles moved to the decimal five pence coin.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12288.0;attach=62744;image)

The UK transferred Britannia from the predecimal penny to the decimal fifty pence, though the two Britannia designs were two very different versions by different artists; and the portcullis moved from the predecimal threepence to the decimal penny, though again the two designs were by different artists, and they were similar but not identical.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:45:20 PM
Uniformity of specification within the sterling area.

Before decimalisation, the specifications of the coins in one part of the sterling area did not always match those of their counterparts in other parts of the sterling area. For instance, the Irish threepence was small, round and thick and in cupro-nickel, whilst the Guernsey threepence was small and scalloped and also in cupro-nickel, whereas the UK threepence was small, thick and twelve-sided but made of nickel-brass. It seemed that the smaller the denomination, the smaller the likelihood of uniform specifications throughout the sterling area. Going further afield and further back in time, a lot of the pennies and halfpennies in the British Empire had a central hole (Fiji, New Guinea, British West Africa, etc.).

After decimalisation, however, all the coins of the remaining sterling area matched their denominational counterparts in size, weight, shape and colour. I say "colour", because it is likely that pound coin changed its metal content at various times in various places, while still remaining a brassy colour. The one denomination in which we do see minor variations, though none that would be detected by a vending machine, is the twenty pence. This coin was first issued in the UK in 1982, and in addition to its heptagonal shape, it was also countersunk. making it look even more distinctive. However, not all the twenty pence versions of the sterling area are or were countersunk.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12073.0;attach=62676;image)

UK twenty pence, first issued in 1982: countersunk surface.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11506.0;attach=62674;image)

Jersey twenty pence, first issued in 1982: flat surface.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=15003.0;attach=62342;image)

Guernsey twenty pence, first issued in 1982: flat surface.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=44901.0;attach=88214;image)

Falkland Islands twenty pence, first issued in 1982: flat surface.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12048.0;attach=62675;image)

St. Helena and Ascension twenty pence, first issued in 1998: countersunk surface.

P.S. I am not to blame for the labelling of the image. "FRONT" and "BACK" (!) are reversed, of course.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12038.0;attach=62694;image)

Left: Gibraltar twenty pence, first issued in 1988: countersunk surface.

Right: Gibraltar twenty pence, first issued in 2004: countersunk surface - but notice that the rim is wider than in the previous version.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=6039.0;attach=62279;image)

Isle of Man twenty pence, first issued in 1982: flat surface.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89649;image)

Left: Isle of Man twenty pence, 1992: flat surface. Right: Isle of Man twenty pence, 1993: countersunk surface.

From 1993 onward, all the Manx twenty pence coins had a countersunk surface. The Isle of Man is the only part of the sterling area to have switched the surface type of its twenty pence coins.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38020.0;attach=71411;image)(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38020.0;attach=71412;image)

The 20 pence of the Isle of Man's new design series of 2017 is countersunk on the obverse but flat on the reverse - another Isle of Man first!

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:53:07 PM
The decimal halfpenny.

Of the current sterling area, only Gibraltar and St Helena and Ascension have not produced a decimal halfpenny. St Helena and Ascension did not issue its own decimal coins until 1984, by which time the halfpenny was due to be phased out in the UK. Gibraltar did not issue its own decimal coins until 1988, by which time the halfpenny had been demonetised in all parts of the sterling area.

Jersey's last decimal halfpenny was dated 1981.

Guernsey's last circulation decimal halfpenny was dated 1971. A 1979-date version exists in mint sets.

Ireland's last decimal halfpenny was dated 1986, but by that time Ireland was already outside the sterling area.

The UK's last decimal halfpenny for circulation was dated 1983; the last version in sets only was dated 1984.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89650;image)

The Isle of Man's last decimal halfpenny was dated 1985. It is the only decimal halfpenny of the sterling area to carry the Maklouf effigy of the Queen. All the others that used a portrait of the Queen only ever carried the Machin portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4024.0;attach=62254;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4024.0;attach=62255;image)



The Isle of Man issued two FAO-themed halfpenny coins, one in 1977 and one in 1981. These are the only two coins of the sterling area to have referenced F.A.O. (Food and Agricultural Organisation) in their legends.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:54:28 PM
The decimal penny and two pence coin.

The penny and two pence coins are the only decimal two coins of the sterling area that still retain their original size and weight. The decimal halfpenny has been demonetised, and the large 5p, 10p and 50p coins have been replaced by smaller versions. This means that the penny and two pence coins are the only coins that can still be found with the word "NEW" in the legend (meaning new pence, or decimal pence). They still circulate and are not valuable. There are a few UK two pence coins, dated 1983, that were mistakenly minted with the word NEW, but these were only included in mint sets.

Note: only the UK and the crown dependencies originally included the word "NEW" in the legend.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:55:39 PM
The reduced size five pence coin.

In 1990 the UK, Jersey, Gibraltar, Guernsey and the Isle of Man reduced the size and weight of their five pence coins.

Ireland followed suit in 1992, though it was outside the sterling area by then, and its smaller five pence coin was slightly larger than the sterling area versions.

The Falkland Islands, and St Helena and Ascension, did not follow suit until 1998.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:56:07 PM
The reduced size ten pence coin.

In 1992 the UK, Jersey, Gibraltar, Guernsey and the Isle of Man reduced the size and weight of their ten pence coins.

Ireland followed suit in 1993, though it was outside the sterling area by then, and its reduced size ten pence coin was slightly smaller than the sterling area versions.

The Falkland Islands, and St Helena and Ascension, did not follow suit until 1998.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:56:49 PM
The twenty pence coin.

The UK, the Falkland Islands, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man all issued their first twenty pence coin in 1982.

St Helena and Ascension issued their own decimal coins in 1984 but did not add a twenty pence denomination until 1998.

Gibraltar did not issue its own decimal coins until 1988, and it included a twenty pence coin in the set.

Ireland issued a twenty pence coin in 1986, but it was already outside the sterling area by then, and the new coin was very different from the sterling area version, being made of nickel-brass, round in shape, and close in size to the two pence coin.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 07:59:13 PM
The fifty pence coin.

The fifty pence coin is now commonly used for commemorative issues throughout the sterling area. St Helena and Ascension is the only part of the sterling area that has never issued a circulating commemorative heptagonal fifty pence coin, but it has issued collector fifty pence coins that were round and 38.1mm in diameter.

The Falkland Islands was the only territory that did not initially include a fifty pence coin in its decimal set. It issued its own decimal coins in 1974 but did not add a fifty pence denomination until 1980.

The Isle of Man is the only part of the sterling area, and anywhere in the world, to have issued a heptagonal fifty pence coin with edge inscriptions: it commemorated the Millennium of Tynwald in 1979.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:00:16 PM
The reduced size fifty pence coin.

In 1997 the UK, Jersey, Gibraltar, Guernsey and the Isle of Man reduced the size and weight of their fifty pence coins.

The Falkland Islands followed suit in 1998.

St Helena and Ascension did not issue a reduced size fifty pence until 2003.

Ireland never reduced the size of its fifty pence, and kept the original specifications until the coin was made defunct by the adoption of the euro.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:01:44 PM
Fifty pence banknotes.

In the UK, the 50 new pence piece replaced the 10 shilling note in October 1969, as part of the transition to full decimalisation in 1971, and in order to familiarise the public with the decimal system beforehand. The 10 shilling note ceased to be legal tender on 22nd November 1970.

Instead of replacing the 10 shilling note with a coin, the Isle of Man replaced it with a 50p banknote in 1969. At the time the Isle of Man used only UK coins, but it introduced its own decimal coins in 1971.

The Falkland Islands also introduced a 50p banknote in 1969. At the time it used only UK coins, but it introduced its own decimal coins in 1974.

St. Helena did not issue its own banknotes until 1976, after decimalisation, and did not issue its own coins until 1984. It issued a 50p banknote in 1979.



See also: Fifty pence banknotes that appeared BEFORE decimalisation (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12410.0.html).
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:03:47 PM
The round pound - part 1.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4847.0;attach=62677;image)



I wrote in an earlier post that, in the sterling area, all the coins matched their counterparts (with minor exceptions in the case of the twenty pence coins). By that, I meant where they actually had counterparts. Usually the UK would take the lead and issue a circulation coin, then the other parts of the sterling area would follow suit. In 1978, however, the Isle of Man issued the sterling area's first modern decimal pound coin.

Unlike the current pound coins of the sterling area, this first Manx pound coin was not thick but light and thin. Its diameter was 22.5mm, close to the 23.6 mm of the large 5 pence coin of the time, with an edge that alternated between smooth and milled. The coin was made of virenium, a new alloy at the time, which was silvery in colour but had a goldish tint when you turned it in the light.

Apparently the Manx government did intend the coin to circulate, but when I visited the Isle of Man in 1981, I did not find any in circulation. The denomination apparently did not find acceptance with the Manx public, who preferred the one pound note. In 1983, when the UK issued its own pound coin of very different specifications (a thick, chunky nickel-brass coin), the Isle of Man followed suit and produced a new pound coin with matching specifications. Since then, the Isle of Man has always followed the UK's lead with regard to its circulation coins, rather than going off in its own direction.

The Manx "round pound" was issued from 1978 to 1982 inclusive. It should probably be regarded as a failed experiment: a circulation coin that didn't circulate.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:06:33 PM
The round pound - part 2.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=13166.0;attach=89651;image)



In 1981, Guernsey proved to be the second part of the sterling area to issue a circulation pound coin. It was very similar in specification to the later standard round pound coins, being made of nickel-brass, 22mm in diameter (compared to 22.5mm for the later standard pound coins)) and weighing 7.9g (as opposed to 9.5g for the later standard pound coins). Guernsey, however, is one of those parts of the sterling area where the population is not fond of pound coins, for the simple reason that Guernsey one pound notes are still issued. So again, perhaps we should call this a non-circulating circulation coin.

As already mentioned, the UK usually takes the lead in issuing new coins, then the other parts of the sterling area follow. In this case the UK did not release a circulation pound coin until 1983. Like the Guernsey pound coin of 1981, it was thick, heavy and made of nickel-brass, but with very slightly larger dimensions. It is curious that Guernsey's pound coin of 1981 was so close in its specifications to the UK round pound coin of 1983 onwards. Both coins were made by the Royal Mint, so Guernsey possibly had advance news of the UK's forthcoming pound coin and its specifications.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38893.0;attach=73470;image)



Guernsey did not issue a pound coin in 1982, but in 1983 it issued one with a new reverse design (H.M.S. Crescent, a frigate), with slightly different specifications, that matched those of the UK round pound coin. It did not issue a pound coin in 1984, but in 1985 it issued one with another new reverse design (a pound sign, representing Guernsey's financial industry), which it has retained to this day.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:07:57 PM
The round pound coin - part 3.



Specifications.

Since 1983, all the round pound coins of the sterling area have matched the UK's in weight, dimensions and colour. In the UK, Jersey, Gibraltar, and the Isle of Man, there has arisen a tradition of altering the reverse design of the circulation pound coins most years, but the Falkland Islands and St Helena and Ascension have kept the same reverse design all these years. Guernsey has only had three different reverse designs, and the current one has been in place since 1985.

Ireland did not issue a pound coin until 1990, when it was no longer part of the sterling area, and its specifications were very different from the sterling area pound coins; Ireland issued only one commemorative pound design of an ancient boat in the year 2000, otherwise the reverse of the punt coin always carried the standard design of a red deer.



Latecomers.

Although the Falkland Islands has issued its own decimal coins since 1974, it did not issue a circulation pound coin until 1987. All the other parts of the sterling area issued a circulation pound coin in 1983, except for St Helena and Ascension (1984) and Gibraltar (1988), who did not have their own coinage in 1983 but issued a pound coin as part of their first sets. As already mentioned, Ireland did not issue a pound coin (or punt coin) until 1990, but it had left the sterling area in 1978.



The UK 12-sided pound.

The UK 12-sided bimetallic pound coin was issued on 28 March 2017. So far, none of the other sterling users have issued their own version of this coin.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:09:23 PM
The pound sign.

So many pound coins but so few pound signs. How many pound coins show the pound sign? Three.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89652;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11471.0;attach=72194;image)

Since 1985 the reverse of the Guernsey pound coin shows a detail from the pound note - but it also spells out the denomination in words. So really it's just a picture of a pound sign. Does that count? It depends on your point of view.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10882.0;attach=72195;image)

Another coin to show the pound sign was Ireland's - except the Irish called it the punt.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26382.0;attach=70259;image)

The UK 12-sided pound coin, issued in 2017, does include the pound sign - but only as a latent image.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:13:58 PM
The two pound coin.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89462;image)



The UK, Gibraltar, and the Isle of Man each issued a circulation bimetallic two pound coin in 1997.

Jersey and Guernsey followed suit in 1998.

St Helena and Ascension issued a two pound coin in 2002, but it was monometallic. I do not know whether it was meant to circulate. It released a bimetallic version of similar design in 2003.

The Falkland Islands did not issue a circulating bimetallic two pound until 2004.



One design or many?

Jersey, Guernsey, and St Helena and Ascension have only ever used one standard reverse design for their circulation two pound coin, whereas the UK, Gibraltar, and the Isle of Man have issued various commemorative designs. The Falkland Islands has had two reverse designs for the circulation 2 pounds coin. The UK has a standard reverse design but in most years also issues two pound coins with one or sometimes more different commemorative reverses, and these also can be found in circulation.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:14:29 PM
"£2" or "TWO POUNDS" ?

As of 2011, only 6 two pound coins have used "£2" in the legend.

(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11506.0;attach=72197;image)

Jersey uses "TWO POUNDS" on the obverse but "£2" appears in the latent image on the reverse.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89653;image)

Guernsey uses both figures and words on the reverse of its two pound coin.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12288.0;attach=62690;image)

In 2002 the UK issued four special two pound coins to commemorate the Commonwealth Games, one for each constituent country of the UK. The one above shows the flag of England. Each coin showed the denomination in figures but not words. These coins were, up to that date, the only two pound coins not to include the denomination in words. All other UK two pound coins carried the denomination in words only.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:16:14 PM
The two pound coin: does it circulate?

How frequently do the two pound coins turn up in circulation in the various parts of the sterling area? Fellow forum members tell me that they are scarce or not to be found in the Channel Islands and Gibraltar. All the crown dependencies retain one pound notes, which means that pound coins and two pound coins are much less likely to circulate in significant numbers, though Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, and St Helena and Ascension no longer issue one pound notes.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:17:59 PM
The Maklouf portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=24203.0;attach=62560;image)



In 1985, the UK updated the obverse of its coins by replacing the Machin effigy of the Queen with a new one by Raphael Maklouf.

Guernsey and the Isle of Man also adopted the Maklouf portrait in 1985. Guernsey had previously never used a portrait of the Queen on its circulation coins but had used its state coat of arms instead.

Jersey never adopted the Maklouf portrait for its standard circulation coins. Instead, it retained the Machin portrait until the end of 1997 and adopted the Rank-Broadley portrait in 1998.

The Falkland Islands did not adopt the Maklouf portrait until 1987, and only on its one pound coin. It did not adopt the portrait on any other of its circulating coins, which retained the Machin portrait until 2003. In 2004 all the circulation coins adopted the Rank-Broadley portrait.

Gibraltar did not issue its own decimal set until 1988, and the Maklouf portrait appeared on the obverse of all the coins.

St Helena and Ascension issued no circulation coins from 1985 to 1990, and the Maklouf portrait did not appear on their coins until 1991. It is still used on all their circulation coins, and the Rank-Broadley portrait has not been adopted.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:19:45 PM
The Maklouf special portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=5036.0;attach=62231;image)



When the standard Maklouf effigy of the Queen was released in 1985, another portrait, also by Maklouf, was issued, but it was meant to be used only for special occasions, that is, on commemorative coins. Gibraltar issued a special set of commemorative circulation coins in 2004, to remember the Battle of Trafalgar, and it used a slightly modified version of Maklouf's special portrait on the obverse of the coins, replacing the Rank-Broadley effigy. It has since retained the Maklouf special portrait on its circulation coins up to the present day.

Technically speaking, the special portrait is referred to as the uncouped effigy. This is because it is not cut off at the neck but includes the shoulders. The standard portrait shows the couped effigy.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:21:11 PM
The Rank-Broadley portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10347.0;attach=62570;image)



In 1998 the UK replaced the Maklouf portrait with a new effigy by Ian Rank-Broadley.

Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and Gibraltar also adopted the Rank-Broadley portrait in 1998.

The Falkland Islands did not adopt the Rank-Broadley portrait until 2004.

St Helena and Ascension have never adopted the Rank-Broadley portrait and still use the standard Maklouf portrait on all their circulation coins.
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:22:17 PM
NEW pence or not?



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89658;image)

When the UK went decimal, the legend on its coins included the word "NEW", to indicate that these were decimal pence, and not the old predecimal pence.  The word "NEW" appeared on the UK's decimal coins from 1968 to 1981 inclusive.

See also: The "Illegal" 50p and the Death of "NEW PENCE" (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,42424.0.html).



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11995.0;attach=62673;image)

The word "NEW" appeared on the Isle of Man's decimal coins from 1971 to 1975 inclusive.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11471.0;attach=62743;image)

The word "NEW" appeared on Guernsey's decimal coins from 1968 to 1976. Whilst Guernsey dropped the word "NEW" from its coins in 1977, the only coins with "NEW" were dated 1968, 1969, 1970 and 1971.  No coins dated 1972 to 1976 inclusive were struck in any form.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89657;image)

The word "NEW" appeared on Jersey's decimal coins from 1968 to 1980 inclusive.




(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11489.0;attach=62695;image)

The Falkland pound coin.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=4024.0;attach=72202;image)

The original circulation coins of the Falkland Islands carried the denomination only in figures; neither "NEW" nor "PENCE" were used in the legend. However, the one pound and two pound coins, released in 1987 and 2004 respectively, both carry the denomination in words only; the lower denominations still carry only figures.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89660;image)

Gibraltar, and St Helena and Ascension, have never used the word "NEW" on their circulation coins; by the time they were released in the 1980s, no other parts of the sterling area used it any longer. Gibraltar did, however, use the legend "25 NEW PENCE" on some of its collector coins of the 1970s.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89645;image)

Ireland used both words and numerals for the denominations on its predecimal coins, but its decimal coins used only numerals, along with "P" for pence; the word "NEW" was never used in the legends.



So, of those who used the word "NEW" in the coin legends, the Isle of Man dropped it in 1976; Guernsey in 1977; Jersey in 1981; and the UK in 1982. Usually the UK takes the lead in making changes to the standard coinage; in this case it was the last to adopt a change.

   
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:24:13 PM
Styles and titles.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89662;image)

The coins of the UK are different from those of the other parts of the sterling area, in that the obverse legend contains abbreviations in Latin, and there is no reference to the country of origin on the coins. The legend translates as: Elizabeth II, by the grace of God: Queen and Defender of the Faith. The final title refers to her position as Head of the Church of England.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89663;image)

Until the end of 1984, Guernsey used a Norman French legend on the obverse of its coins, and instead of a portrait of the Queen the state coat of arms was depicted. However, since 1985 Guernsey has used a portrait of the Queen on the obverse of its coins, and the legend is now in English.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11471.0;attach=62741;image)

Guernsey's obverse legend, like the UK's, includes the words "ELIZABETH II".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12038.0;attach=62742;image)

Gibraltar initially followed the same pattern as Guernsey: "ELIZABETH II".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=5036.0;attach=62231;image)

From 2012 to 2016, Gibraltar used the legend "ELIZABETH II QUEEN OF GIBRALTAR".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=105002;image)

Since 2017, Gibraltar uses the legend "ELIZABETH II · D · G · REGINA · GIBRALTAR".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=12288.0;attach=62693;image)

From 1971 to 1979 the Isle of Man's coins referred to "ELIZABETH THE SECOND".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11995.0;attach=62735;image)

From 1980 onwards, the Manx coins refer to "ELIZABETH II"", though their one pound coins did not do so until 1988.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=38020.0;attach=71411;image)

The legend on the Manx coins issued since 2017 reads: "QUEEN ELIZABETH II • ISLE OF MAN".



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11506.0;attach=62739;image)

Jersey always uses the word "QUEEN" in the legend and spells out "THE SECOND" in full.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=89664;image)

The legend on the coins of the Falkland Islands initially fell into the same pattern as that of Jersey, above.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=105028;image)

The Falkland Islands issued a new set in 2019 with an amended legend (left).
The 5 pence alone (right) had yet a different legend.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=2194.0;attach=62171;image)

St Helena and Ascension use the word "QUEEN" in their legend but do NOT spell out the "THE SECOND".  So, their version of the legend is unique.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:25:43 PM
Country/territory name.

You will notice that Guernsey, Gibraltar, and St Helena and Ascension always place the country/territory name on the obverse, while the Falklands Islands and Jersey always place it on the reverse.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=11995.0;attach=62698;image)



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=39617.0;attach=90762;image)

From 1971 until 1980, the place name, "ISLE OF MAN", appeared on the reverse of the Manx coins. Since 1980, it has always appeared on the obverse. However, the circulation pound coin retained the practice of showing "ISLE OF MAN" on the reverse until 1986. In 1987, the pound coin showed the Manx version of the name only: "Ellan Vannin" - on the REVERSE. After 1988 it fell into line with the other denominations.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 08:34:38 PM
Design series.

The UK has had two design series since decimalisation:

1] The Heraldry series, 1968 to 2007, created by Christopher Ironside.

2] The Jigsaw series, 2008 to date, by Matthew Dent.

Dent's series is also a heraldic series, but it uses only the Royal Shield of arms. The series does not use numerals for the denominations but spells them out in words, and the fifty pence is turned "upside down", so that the pointed tip appears at the bottom of the design. The set was controversial because Britannia did not appear on the coins for the first time in centuries.



The Falkland Islands have had only one design series, from 1974 to date. It depicts the local wildlife.



St Helena and Ascension have had one main design series since 1984, depicting the local wildlife, but in 1998 they changed the designs on the reverse of the five and ten pence coins; this coincided with the reduction in size of those coins.



Jersey has had two design series. Their first series, from 1968 to 1982, showed the Jersey coat of arms on the reverse of all the coins. The second, from 1983 to date, depicts Jersey's local landmarks.



Guernsey has had two design series. Their first series, from 1968 to 1984, showed local wildlife, a windmill, and the ducal cap. The second series, from 1985 to date, coincided with the adoption of the effigy of Queen Elizabeth on the obverse of their coins, which previously had shown only the coat of arms. The series depicts local Guernsey industries.



Gibraltar has had, arguably, seven design series, depending on your point of view.

1] Local wildlife and landmarks, issued from 1988 to 2003.

2] In 2004, Gibraltar celebrated the 300th anniversary of British administration. To commemorate this, Gibraltar issued a one-year circulation set of special designs, depicting themes and episodes from its history.

3] In 2005 Gibraltar continued the same themes as in 2004. However, most of the designs of 2004 were actually placed on different denominations in 2005. This is a phenomenon I have not noticed on the coins of any other country or territory.

In 2010, Gibraltar issued amended versions of the 1998 penny partridge design and the 2005 five pence Barbary ape design.

4] In 2014 Gibraltar began circulating a new design series.

5] In 2017 Gibraltar issued a circulation set commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1967 referendum.

6] In 2018 Gibraltar issued a circulation set commemorating New Calpe House.

7] In 2019 Gibraltar issued a circulation set commemorating the 2019 Island Games.



The Isle of Man has had nine design series.

1] The Christopher Ironside series, 1971 to 1975: Manx culture: history, landmarks and wildlife.

2] The Barry Stanton series, 1976 to 1979, with some similar themes to the previous set.

3] The Leslie Lindsay series, 1980 to 1983. The themes were similar to those of the previous two sets, but the designs were heavily stylised.

4] The Quincentenary of the College of Arms series, 1984 to 1987.

5] The Technology series, 1988 to 1995.

6] The Sport series, 1996 to 1999.

7] The Millennium series, 2000 to 2003.

8] The Landmarks series, 2004 to date.

9] The series issued in 2017, mainly of Manx animals.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 09:25:33 PM
A single currency or not?

Unlike the euro, the coinages of the sterling area do not form a single currency.

The UK pound sterling is an independent floating currency, supported by a central bank.

Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man, along with The Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, and St Helena and Ascension each maintain their own separate pound, each of which is maintained at par with the UK pound sterling. They manage their currencies through a currency board. Unlike a central bank, a currency board does not create an independent currency, but holds reserves of another currency, against which they back their own currency. The three territories back their individual currencies with the UK pound sterling, which is known as the anchor currency. Instead of using the UK currency directly, they keep their UK sterling reserves in interest-bearing accounts that help to pay for their currency boards. While their own banknotes and coins, with their own local designs, circulate throughout their territories, their reserves are busy earning interest.

The Irish pound was an independent currency, supported by a central bank, but pegged to the UK pound sterling at a ratio of one to one.


To learn more about currency boards, currency unions, national currencies and dollarisation, click on the link below:

There are only four basic currency systems in the world (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,6679.0.html)



NOTE.

Previously I wrote that Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man were in currency union with the UK. That was wrong, however.  The crown dependencies like to keep their financial affairs opaque, but in 2014, during the debate about which currency an independent Scotland might use, the UK Chancellor, George Osborne, pointed out that the Channel Isles and the Isle of of Man ran currency boards.

Due to the lack of transparency of these systems, the monetary systems of the crown dependencies are "currency-board-like" - even if they are not orthodox currency boards.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 09:29:19 PM
Status and usage of the coinages.

Only UK coinage is legal tender in the UK. Nevertheless, coins from the Crown Dependencies, and from the British overseas territories that also use their own pound currency, often do slip into circulation in the UK, because they are of similar specification to UK coins and all carry the Queen's portrait on the obverse. Unless you look closely, you are unlikely to notice the difference, and not all shop assistants or members of the public are even aware that they are not British. A few years ago, I saw a post on a UK coin forum by a member of the public who admitted that he did not collect coins. However, he wanted to know why the five pence coin he had received in change had "a picture of a monkey on it". If he had read the obverse legend, he would have noticed the word "GIBRALTAR", but he had not, and he was astounded to learn that Gibraltar issued its own versions of our UK coins.

UK coinage also circulates freely and is freely accepted in the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, and St Helena and Ascension. This makes sense: technically these seven different coinages are part of seven different currencies, but the currencies are all equal in value. But again, only UK coinage is legal tender in the UK. Surprisingly, the overseas territories do not accept each other's coins or banknotes. I once read a post on a St Helena forum, by someone from St Helena, who complained that when he had visited the Falkland Islands, the Falklanders had refused to accept his St Helena notes and coins.

In the Channel Islands, Jersey and Guernsey both freely accept each other's coins and banknotes, which circulate freely on both islands. I have read that Channel Island coins and notes are accepted on the Isle of Man, and vice versa, but I do not know whether this is true. I have visited Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man, but I never found any Channel Islands money in circulation on the Isle of Man, or vice versa - though even if they do accept each other's coins and notes, the chances of finding Manx money in your change in the Channel Islands, or vice versa, would be very slim.

In the UK, pound coins and two pound coins are heavily used. Each of the Crown Dependencies, unlike the UK, still issues its own one pound note, in addition to its own pound coin and two pound coin. In practice, the islanders prefer pound notes to coins, so it is unusual to find any pound or two pound coins in circulation there, and when you do find them, they are usually from the UK. By contrast, the British overseas territories that use their own pound currrency do not issue their own one pound notes these days.

Conclusion: in the euro zone, you can spend your euros anywhere. In the sterling area, things are not so simple.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 09:29:33 PM
The Clark portrait.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=29332.0;attach=62759;image)



In March 2015 the UK adopted a new effigy of the Queen, designed by Jody Clark. It replaced the Rank-Broadley portrait, which had been in use since 1998. So far, no other country, crown dependency or British overseas territory has adopted this portrait.

 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 09:29:50 PM
A new type of pound coin.



(http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=26382.0;attach=70259;image)



The UK announced in 2014 that it would adopt a new bimetallic 12-sided pound coin. The coin would be counterfeit-proof. It was issued into circulation in March 2017. 

The Isle of Man aims to issue its own version of the new coin by 2019. Gibraltar expects to issue its own version in 2018. Jersey, Guernsey, the Falkland Islands, and St Helena-Ascension have not yet made any commitment to do so.
 
Title: Re: The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area
Post by: <k> on June 17, 2016, 09:30:04 PM
To read about the decimal coinage of each territory, dependency or country of the sterling area, click on the links below:


1] The UK (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12072.0.html)

2] Jersey (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11503.0.html)

3] Guernsey (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11469.0.html)

4] The Isle of Man (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11994.0.html)

5] The Falkland Islands (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11487.0.html)

6] Gibraltar (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12037.0.html)
 
7] St. Helena and Ascension (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,11473.0.html)



To post comments, criticisms, amendments etc. regarding this topic, please click on the link below:

Comments on "The Decimal Coins of the Sterling Area" (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,12288.0.html)



See also:

Coins of Britain's uninhabited overseas territories (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,22965.0.html).

The pound: predecimal to decimal design continuity (http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php/topic,40487.0.html).