Author Topic: Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?  (Read 6624 times)

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Offline Rangnath

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Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?
« on: November 18, 2007, 10:18:36 PM »
Akbar half dam?:  3.2 grams and 11mm sqare

I saw great silimilarity in this coin with a dam from Akbar on display in the Fitzwilliam museum.  What do you think?
richie
« Last Edit: November 24, 2007, 03:45:04 AM by Rangnath »

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #1 on: November 18, 2007, 10:19:25 PM »
here is the Akbar dam from the museum:

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #2 on: November 18, 2007, 10:22:15 PM »
This is the obverse

Offline Oesho

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #3 on: November 19, 2007, 12:49:08 AM »
This is a problematical issue. The legend seems to be in the name of Great Mughal Akbar. It?s a provincial issue of Malwa. Akbar annexed Malwa in AH968 (1561). There are several issues of Malwa-type in the name of Akbar.
Despite the few specimen in my collection, I haven?t been able to reconstruct the full legend satisfactory, neither have the coins been properly published. On account of the weight it should be a 1/2 falus.
Part of the legend on the obverse reads: Jalal al-Din Muhammad ??
On the reverse part of the legend reads: Sanah (971) wa Sultan // Khalad Allah Mulkahu.
It?s not unlikely that the coins were issued by the Malwa Sultan Baz Bahadur (AH963-968, 969/AD1555-1561/2) as on some copper coins he used a new kunya which appears to be Abu?l muzahir (father of the protector). On some of the coins with Jalal al-Din Muhammad? this new kunya is also found, which may point out to Baz Bahadur as the issuing authority.

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #4 on: November 19, 2007, 10:59:05 PM »
Oesho, if the legend on the obverse reads "Jalaluddin Muhammad", wouldn't that mean that Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the one who had the coin minted? If the date was 971, was not that two years after Baz Bahadur's death?

A brief history:

When Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur declared himself Sultan, young Akbar was but 13 years old.  A Sultan of Malwa would have been looking over his shoulders towards the Moghuls, but probably thought he was not in immediate threat. I understand that Baz Bahadur had a rather sensational romance with the woman who was to become his queen, Roopmati and that Baz was more the poet, musician and romantic than an astute ruler.  According to once source, songs are still sung about this love story. 
When Akbar was 19, his foster brother, Adham Khan, led an army against Baz Bahadur and Roopmati. Some suggest that the foster brother was smitten with the Malwa Rani (Queen), but it seems much more likely that Adham had grander plans:  a military success could be a step towards replacing the teenaged ruler.  Anyway, in 1562, Malwa had fallen to the Moghuls, atrocities were committed by them, Roopmati had poisoned herself rather than submit to Adham's desires, and Baz Bahadur no longer was Sultan of Malwa. Not too long afterwards, Adham was eliminated by Akbar by being thrown from a high wall head first. Akbar would go on to become one of India's greatest rulers; he died in 1605 at the then ripe old age of 62, just days before his 63rd birthday on November 23.

Richie


Offline shariqkhan

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #5 on: November 22, 2007, 07:16:21 AM »
This coin is in very worst condition so it is diffcult ot interpret. Followinf is the best example on Akbar's Malwa type coin
http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1423/1266958664_2548844ee8_o.jpg



Another Example is 1/4th Tanka of Akbar
http://coincollectorsofindore.blogspot.com/2007_10_01_archive.html
« Last Edit: November 22, 2007, 01:26:00 PM by Figleaf »

Offline Oesho

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #6 on: November 22, 2007, 01:04:36 PM »
The Akbar falus shown by Shariq Khan is also of Malwa fabric, but of a complete different type as initial shown by Rangnath. Of course the condition of the initial coin could be much to be desired, but nevertheless to example of the Ashmolean Museum shows all details sharp and clear. The discussion was about this particular Malwa type issue with the name Jalal al-Din.
I have about a half dozen different issues in the name of Akbar or with his kunya "Jalal al-Din" in copper and one in silver. All of Malwa fabric!!

The annexation of Malwa was a rather disturbed period of in the history of this province. Just a brief history from Goron/Goenka?s book: In AD 1561 (AH968), the Mughal emperor Akbar decided to invade Malwa. His army, under Adham Khan, arrived in the area of Sarangpur and in due course a battle was fought which resulted in Baz Bahadur?s hasty retreat to Khandesh. The victorious Mughal army entered the city and took possession of the palace and all that was within it. Adham Khan divided Malwa into four administrative divisions: Sarangpur, Mandu, Handia and Mandasor. He, himself, remained at Sarangpur, Pir Muhammad was put in charge of Mandu; and the two other divisions were handed to two other officers. Akbar was not content with the meagre spoils sent to him and marched to Sarangpur, where Adham Khan was advised to divulge all. This done, Akbar departed content, having conformed the the officers in their places. Adham Khan was recalled soon afterwards and Pir Muhammad put in charge of the whole province.

Pir Muhammad?s treatment of his subjects was brutal and he became very unpopular. Baz Bahadur turned up again and succeeded in gaining considerable support. Pir Muhammad in the meantime was busy plundering Burhanpur and on its way back, heavily laden with booty, he decided to do battle with Baz Bahadur. Pir Muhammad was defeated and, attempting to cross the Narmada river, he was drowned. This demoralised the Mughal army in Malwa and Baz Bahadur was able to regain his throne, but only for a short time. Akbar sent another army to Malwa, which defeated the Malwa sultan who was forced to flee into Gondwana. This was in AD1562 (AH969) and the independent sultanate of Malwa had finally come to an end.

The Mughul authority, as one may imagine, was not immediately fully established over all the districts of the former Sultanate and this must be the reason that at certain provincial or district mints, coins of local fabric where struck which imitated, or used the name of the Mughal emperor. As pointed out earlier, some even mention Baz Bahadur?s new kunya "abu?l muzahir" in combination of "Jalal al-Din".
Baz Bahadur fled into Gondwana and probably got shelter with the Gond ruler. Some crude and even undecipherable square coppers may originate from there too.

Offline Oesho

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #7 on: November 22, 2007, 01:38:07 PM »
With reference to Shariq Khan's blogspot with coins of the Malwa Sultanate: here. This is one of those indecipherable square coppers of Malwa fabric. They are often referred to as being issues of Baz Bahadur, but his name isn?t mentioned on it, nor does this specimen show a date.


« Last Edit: November 23, 2007, 12:30:37 AM by Figleaf »

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #8 on: November 22, 2007, 06:15:54 PM »
I am beginning to realise the complexity of the situation in Malwa of 1561 and 1562. Tomorrow is Akbar's birthday, at least in the calendar with which I am familiar.  What a perfect time for this discussion!
Richie

Online Figleaf

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #9 on: November 23, 2007, 12:37:24 AM »
I met Oesho tonight. Apparently, Baz Bahadur withdrew into the mountains, disastrously leaving his harem to Adham Khan, who left it to Pir Mohammed, whose reign as governor was so cruel that Baz Bahadur could stage a comeback, beating Pir Mohammed on the battlefield and killing him. Akbar formed a new army and took Malwa again. This explains why during a couple of years minters weren't sure any more in whose name to mint.

That Goron/Goenka book must be awesome. Were you planning to buy it, Rangnath?

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Akbar half dam?
« Reply #10 on: November 23, 2007, 01:34:49 AM »
Ah, Peter. You seem in a festive mood today!
I have an incredible fondness for the name Baz Bahadur.
And YES, I want a copy of Goron/Goenka! 
Happy Thanksgiving,
Richie

Online Figleaf

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Re: Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?
« Reply #11 on: November 27, 2007, 09:06:20 AM »
Here are some pictures Oesho took.

7052: Roopmati's paviljoen
7023: Jahaz Mahal, built by Ghiyas al-Din for his harem, reputed to number more than 15,000 maidens.

Talk about coins coming to life ...
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?
« Reply #12 on: November 27, 2007, 03:42:12 PM »
What a wonderful way to wake up in the morning! 
During Thanksgiving, I was talking with a College student about Baz Bahadur and Roopmati. She said that
her class (in literature?) had discussed them! 
As for Ghiyas al-Din's harem, surely that has to be an exaggeration! 
richie

Online Figleaf

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Re: Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?
« Reply #13 on: November 27, 2007, 04:38:45 PM »
As for Ghiyas al-Din's harem, surely that has to be an exaggeration!

Necessarily. Either Ghyas' prowess, or the girls' virginity.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Malwa half falus: circa 1561 AD Akbar or Baz Bahadur?
« Reply #14 on: November 27, 2007, 09:24:19 PM »
Alas, what I am learning through numismatics!  ::)
richie