Author Topic: Double-headed Eagles  (Read 27440 times)

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Offline <k>

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Double-headed Eagles
« on: March 12, 2011, 04:36:30 PM »
Some countries of Eastern Europe, e.g. Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, seem to be fondest of double-headed eagles on coins - or at least on their flags, if, like Montenegro, they don't issue their own coins. I always thought that the double-headed eagle was a monarchical symbol only, but apparently not. It has however been used by monarchs, such as Alexander I of Yugoslavia.

These are marvellous Yugoslavian examples of that beast. What is interesting is that the 1931 coins use the Roman alphabet, whereas those of 1932 use the Cyrillic.
« Last Edit: March 24, 2019, 02:14:14 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #1 on: March 12, 2011, 04:46:32 PM »
Here's a hybrid double-headed eagle, sharing its space with the fasces. It was issued by Italian-occupied Albania. After the war, the communists of Albania retained the double-headed eagle on some of their coins, rather surprisingly.



 
« Last Edit: March 24, 2019, 02:15:21 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #2 on: March 12, 2011, 04:50:23 PM »
Here's a more modern Russian eagle from 1998.
« Last Edit: March 24, 2019, 02:15:49 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #3 on: March 12, 2011, 04:53:40 PM »
A splendid older Russian beast from 1850.

« Last Edit: March 12, 2011, 05:08:30 PM by coffeetime »

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #4 on: March 12, 2011, 04:55:27 PM »
It seems the eagles were different in different reigns. This is a 1917 20 kopecks.


Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #5 on: March 12, 2011, 04:58:45 PM »
Montenegro, 20 para, 1906.


Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #6 on: March 12, 2011, 05:10:23 PM »
This is a 20 para of 1883 from Serbia: a beautiful photo, taken by our forum member Zantetsuken.


Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #7 on: March 12, 2011, 05:16:32 PM »
The Serbian double-headed eagle survived on the nasty zinc coins of the Nazi occupation, which I won't illustrate. On the modern Serbian coins the eagle remains hidden away in the coat of arms.


Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #8 on: March 12, 2011, 05:21:19 PM »
Austria-Hungary had a variety of eagles too. This is a florin from 1858, followed by a one Thaler coin of 1868.





« Last Edit: May 07, 2012, 04:22:00 PM by coffeetime »

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #9 on: March 12, 2011, 05:28:17 PM »
As recently as 1937, modern Austria had a double-headed eagle on a two schilling coin. After World War 2, the eagle only had one head (see 10 schilling, 1986). Did the Allies chop one head off as a punishment, I wonder? In any case, I always thought that one of the heads referred to Hungary, which was no longer relevant to Austrian coins after World War 1.





 
« Last Edit: March 24, 2019, 02:18:28 PM by <k> »

Offline chrisild

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #10 on: March 12, 2011, 06:30:48 PM »
As recently as 1937, modern Austria had a double-headed eagle on a two schilling coin. After World War 2, the eagle only had one head (see 10 schilling, 1991). Did the Allies chop one head off as a punishment, I wonder?

Not sure whether the two-headed eagle has always implied a "duality". Initially it simply meant a higher rank or status ("if an eagle means power, two eagles mean more power"), I think. Later it usually referred to various dual systems - king and emperor, east and west, etc.   The eagle of the Holy Roman Empire had one head first, and later two.

Austria used the double-headed eagle until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Then a one-headed eagle (with a mural crown, a hammer and a sickle) was introduced as the symbol of the (First) Republic. The authoritarian regime ("Austrofascism") between 1934 and 1938 used the double-headed eagle again - without a crown, but each head had a halo. Between 1938 and 1945 Austria was part of the German Empire and used that eagle.

After WW2, Austria went back to the eagle of the First Republic; the only element added was the broken chain. That represents the new freedom of the country.

Christian

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #11 on: March 12, 2011, 07:14:57 PM »
After WW2, Austria went back to the eagle of the First Republic; the only element added was the broken chain. That represents the new freedom of the country.

Christian

Though the Soviets remained in their occupation zone of Austria until 1955, I believe.

Offline <k>

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #12 on: March 12, 2011, 07:18:00 PM »
Not sure whether the two-headed eagle has always implied a "duality". Initially it simply meant a higher rank or status ("if an eagle means power, two eagles mean more power"), I think. Later it usually referred to various dual systems - king and emperor, east and west, etc.

The difference between a king and emperor isn't always clear to me. I used to think that he was a king of kings, but that isn't always the case. Some kings have ended up calling themselves emperor when they ruled over their own country only and nobody else's.

Offline chrisild

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #13 on: March 12, 2011, 07:55:33 PM »
In the particular case of the Holy Roman Empire (not really holy, not really Roman, not really an empire ;D ), the king was the elected head of the empire. Then the Pope would crown this king who would thus become emperor. Later, from around 1500 until the end of the HRE about 300 years later, the "Papal OK" was not considered necessary any more - the king elected by the princes also used the emperor title ...

Christian

Offline chrisild

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Re: Double-headed Eagles
« Reply #14 on: March 12, 2011, 07:57:45 PM »
Though the Soviets remained in their occupation zone of Austria until 1955, I believe.

Both Austria and Germany were "under allied occupation" until 1955. But that did (apart from the GDR) not affect the symbols of the countries ...

Christian