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Double-headed Eagles

Started by <k>, March 12, 2011, 04:36:30 PM

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<k>

Yugoslavia 50 dinar 1932.jpg

Yugoslavia, 50 dinar, 1932.


Yugoslavia 10 dinar 1931.jpg

Yugoslavia, 10 dinar, 1931.


Some countries of Eastern Europe, e.g. Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, seem to be fondest of double-headed eagles on coins - or at least on their flags, if, like Montenegro, they don't issue their own coins. I always thought that the double-headed eagle was a monarchical symbol only, but apparently not. It has however been used by monarchs, such as Alexander I of Yugoslavia.

These are marvellous Yugoslavian examples of that beast. What is interesting is that the 1931 coins use the Roman alphabet, whereas those of 1932 use the Cyrillic.
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<k>

#1



Here's a hybrid double-headed eagle, sharing its space with the fasces.
It was issued by Italian-occupied Albania.

After the war, the communists of Albania retained the double-headed eagle on some of their coins, rather surprisingly.
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<k>

#2
Russia.jpg

Here's a more modern Russian eagle from 1998.
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<k>

#3


A splendid older Russian beast from 1850.
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<k>

#4


It seems the eagles were different in different reigns. This is a 1917 20 kopecks.
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<k>

#5


Montenegro, 20 para, 1906.
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<k>

#6


This is a 20 para of 1883 from Serbia: a beautiful photo, taken by our forum member Zantetsuken.
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<k>

#7



As recently as 1937, modern Austria had a double-headed eagle on a two schilling coin.

After World War 2, the eagle only had one head (see 10 schilling, 1986).

Did the Allies chop one head off as a punishment, I wonder?

I always thought that one of the heads referred to Hungary, which was no longer relevant to Austrian coins after World War 1.
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chrisild

Quote from: coffeetime on March 12, 2011, 05:28:17 PM
As recently as 1937, modern Austria had a double-headed eagle on a two schilling coin. After World War 2, the eagle only had one head (see 10 schilling, 1991). Did the Allies chop one head off as a punishment, I wonder?

Not sure whether the two-headed eagle has always implied a "duality". Initially it simply meant a higher rank or status ("if an eagle means power, two eagles mean more power"), I think. Later it usually referred to various dual systems - king and emperor, east and west, etc.   The eagle of the Holy Roman Empire had one head first, and later two.

Austria used the double-headed eagle until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Then a one-headed eagle (with a mural crown, a hammer and a sickle) was introduced as the symbol of the (First) Republic. The authoritarian regime ("Austrofascism") between 1934 and 1938 used the double-headed eagle again - without a crown, but each head had a halo. Between 1938 and 1945 Austria was part of the German Empire and used that eagle.

After WW2, Austria went back to the eagle of the First Republic; the only element added was the broken chain. That represents the new freedom of the country.

Christian

<k>

Quote from: chrisild on March 12, 2011, 06:30:48 PM
After WW2, Austria went back to the eagle of the First Republic; the only element added was the broken chain. That represents the new freedom of the country.

Christian

Though the Soviets remained in their occupation zone of Austria until 1955, I believe.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

<k>

Quote from: chrisild on March 12, 2011, 06:30:48 PM
Not sure whether the two-headed eagle has always implied a "duality". Initially it simply meant a higher rank or status ("if an eagle means power, two eagles mean more power"), I think. Later it usually referred to various dual systems - king and emperor, east and west, etc.

The difference between a king and emperor isn't always clear to me. I used to think that he was a king of kings, but that isn't always the case. Some kings have ended up calling themselves emperor when they ruled over their own country only and nobody else's.
Visit the website of The Royal Mint Museum.

See: The Royal Mint Museum.

chrisild

In the particular case of the Holy Roman Empire (not really holy, not really Roman, not really an empire ;D ), the king was the elected head of the empire. Then the Pope would crown this king who would thus become emperor. Later, from around 1500 until the end of the HRE about 300 years later, the "Papal OK" was not considered necessary any more - the king elected by the princes also used the emperor title ...

Christian

chrisild

Quote from: coffeetime on March 12, 2011, 07:14:57 PM
Though the Soviets remained in their occupation zone of Austria until 1955, I believe.

Both Austria and Germany were "under allied occupation" until 1955. But that did (apart from the GDR) not affect the symbols of the countries ...

Christian

Afrasi

Here is another double eagle. ;D  From the Zangids of Sinjar:
A copper dirhem of 'Imad al din Zangi ibn Modud (AH 566 - 594 / AD 1171 - 1198).


ciscoins

#14
0001tg91.jpg

Double-headed eagle is one of the earliest state symbols in the World.
It first appeared in Sumerian civilization more than 5800 years ago.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-headed_eagle
Ivan
Moscow, Russia