Author Topic: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage  (Read 556 times)

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Offline <k>

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Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« on: October 16, 2020, 10:50:29 PM »


Nur-Sultan, the capital city of Kazakhstan.



From Wikipedia:

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country mainly located in Central Asia with a smaller portion west of the Ural in Eastern Europe. It is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth-largest country in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq miles). Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.

Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes plains, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Since 1997, the capital is Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana. It was moved from Almaty, the country's largest city.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First and Second Turkic Khaganates, have inhabited the country throughout its history.

In the 13th century, the territory was subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first president of Kazakhstan, was characterised as an authoritarian, and his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media. Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019 but was made the Kazakh Security Council's chairman-for-life.

Senate chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev succeeded Nazarbayev as president. In the 21st century, Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry.

According to the 2009 census, Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (65.5% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Per 2009 census, Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed.
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Offline <k>

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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #1 on: October 16, 2020, 10:52:26 PM »


Map of Kazakhstan.





Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus.
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Offline <k>

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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #2 on: October 16, 2020, 10:58:36 PM »



From Wikipedia:

The emblem of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. The emblem is an image of a shanyrak, the upper dome-like portion of a yurt, against a sky blue background which radiates sun rays and is  set off by the wings of mythical horses, inspired by Tulpar, a winged horse in Turkic mythology, which represents bravery. The circular shape of the emblem symbolizes life and eternity. The shanyrak symbolizes the well-being of family, and peace and calm.

The emblem consists of two colours: gold and sky blue. The golden colour corresponds to a light, clear future of the Kazakh people, and the blue sky colour is a symbol of aspiration to peace, consent, friendship and unity with all people.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #3 on: October 16, 2020, 11:03:17 PM »



From Wikipedia:

The flag of Kazakhstan was adopted on 4 June 1992, replacing the flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. It features a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background. The hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz" (the horns of the ram) in gold. The blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity. It also represents the endless sky as well as water. The sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude. The sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity. The eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #4 on: October 16, 2020, 11:11:27 PM »
From Wikipedia:

The tenge is the currency of Kazakhstan. It is divided into 100 tiyin.

After the break-up of the Soviet Union, the Central Bank of Russia was authorized to take over the State Bank of the USSR (Gosbank) on 1 January 1992. It continued to ship USSR ruble notes and coins to the central banks of the fourteen newly independent countries, which had formerly been the main branches of Gosbank in the republics. The political situation, however, was not favorable for maintaining a common currency.

During the first half of 1992, a monetary union existed, and all 15 independent states used the ruble. Since it was clear that the situation would not last, each of them issued huge amounts of money in the form of credit. As a result, some countries began issuing coupons in order to "protect" their markets from buyers from other states. The Russian central bank responded in July 1992 by setting up restrictions on the flow of credit between Russia and other states. The final collapse of the ruble zone began when Russia pulled out of the exchange of banknotes by the Central Bank of Russia on Russian territory at the end of July 1993.

As a result, Kazakhstan and other countries still in the ruble zone were "pushed out". On November 12 1993, a decree of the President of Kazakhstan, "About introducing national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan", was issued. The tenge was introduced on 15 November 1993 to replace the Soviet ruble at a rate of 1 tenge = 500 rubles. The word tenge in the Kazakh and most other Turkic languages means a set of scales (cf the old Uzbek tenga or the Tajik borrowed term tanga). The origin of the word is the Turkic teŋ- which means being equal, balance. The name of this currency is thus similar to the pound, lira, peso, taka, and shekel. The name of the currency is related to the Russian word for money Russian: деньги/ (den'gi), which was borrowed from Turkic.

In 1993 the first series of coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tiyin. The coins featured the national arms and were struck in bronze. The 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 tenge were struck in copper-nickel and depicted stylized and mythical animals. The coins of this period were minted in Germany and circulated alongside tiyin and low denomination tenge notes of equal value.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #5 on: October 19, 2020, 02:25:13 AM »
Here you see the obverse of one of the brass tiyin coins. These all had the same obverse design, which featured the national emblem.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #6 on: October 19, 2020, 02:26:25 AM »
The lowest denomination of the 1993 series of coins was the 2 tiyin. Given that the next denomination up, it was entirely illogical that no 1 tiyin coin was issued.

The 2 tiyin coin weighed 2.2 grams and had a diameter of 17.2 mm.

The 2, 5, 10 and 20 tiyin coins came in both copper-plated zinc and brass-plated zinc. The 50 tiyin coin came in copper-plated zinc and in brass. These coins were otherwise identical in every respect except their colour.

Below you see the reverse of the brass-plated zinc version of the 2 tiyin coin.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #7 on: October 19, 2020, 02:28:07 AM »
Below you see reverse of the copper-plated zinc version of the 2 tiyin coin.

The images of the two types of 2 tiyin coins are of different sizes, but the coins themselves were of the same size and weight.

The coins were all made at the Kazakhstan Mint.

The initials stand for 'National Bank of Kazakhstan'.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #8 on: October 19, 2020, 02:40:21 AM »
Here you see the reverse of a proof version of the brass-plated zinc 5 tiyin coin.

The tiyin coins all had similar designs. For the remainder of the tiyin coins, I will show only the brass / brass-plated versions.


The 5 tiyin coin weighed 2.2 grams and had a diameter of 17.2 mm.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #9 on: October 19, 2020, 02:52:30 AM »
The 10 tiyin coin weighed 3.3 grams and had a diameter of 19.6 mm.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #10 on: October 19, 2020, 02:58:19 AM »
The 20 tiyin coin weighed 4.5 grams and had a diameter of 22 mm.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #11 on: October 19, 2020, 03:06:27 AM »
The 50 tiyin coin weighed 7.4 grams and had a diameter of 25 mm.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #12 on: October 19, 2020, 04:28:43 PM »
The 1 tenge coin was made of copper-nickel-zinc and issued in 1992 and 1993.

The obverse of the coin featured the stylised head of an argali (Ovis ammon), a wild mountain sheep.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #13 on: October 19, 2020, 04:32:20 PM »
The reverse of the 1 tenge coin showed the year and the denomination within a motif of interlocking geometric shapes.

Note the way in which the word 'TENGE' and the foot of the numeral '1' are sloped, in order to appear parallel to the shape at the bottom right of the design.

The 1 tenge coin weighed 2.2 grams and had a diameter of 17.3 mm.
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Re: Kazakhstan: post-Soviet coinage
« Reply #14 on: October 19, 2020, 06:07:34 PM »
The 3 tenge coin was made of copper-nickel-zinc and issued in 1993 only.

The obverse of the coin featured the stylised head of a wolf.

Is that meant to be the wolf's paw above its head?
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