Author Topic: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic  (Read 586 times)

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Offline <k>

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Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« on: November 05, 2019, 12:57:32 PM »
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Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #1 on: November 05, 2019, 01:03:45 PM »


Germany was divided into four Allied occupation zones.



At the end of World War II, Germany was occupied by the allied forces, and divided into several zones. These zones consisted primarily of the Allied Occupation zones and also those territories that became parts of Poland etc.

The four occupation zones were:

* the American zone (in the South-East)

* the British zone (in the North-West)

* the French zone (in the South-West)

* the Soviet zone (in the North-East).

Berlin had a special status; the city itself was divided into four occupation sectors.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #2 on: November 05, 2019, 01:21:22 PM »
After World War 2 the Reichsmark continued to exist but had hardly any purchasing power. Bartering was common in those days. In 1948 the three Western allies wanted to introduce a new currency for (all of) Germany, but the Soviet Union was opposed to the project. By this stage the Western Allies and the communist Soviet Union were drifting apart because of their political differences, and the Cold War was beginning.

Thus on 20 June 1948 the currency reform was introduced in the Western zones only.

See: Pre-euro Coinage of the Federal Republic of Germany.


As a reaction, the Eastern zone carried out its own reform three days later. But due to the lack of preparation time, there was no "new cash“ at first. So in the initial phase the old Reichsmark notes continued to circulate there for a short period of time but had special stickers.

See: Soviet occupation stickers.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #3 on: November 05, 2019, 01:21:41 PM »
Coins, which were in any case only low denomination pieces, circulated at their pre-reform value. In July 1948 the Deutsche Notenbank was established as the central bank in the Soviet zone, and the first new coins were minted. They formed a set of four denominations:

1 Pfennig (Al970 Mg30) issued 2 Mar 1950.
5 Pfennig (Al970 Mg30) issued 1 Apr 1949.
10 Pfennig (Al970 Mg30) issued 1 Apr 1949.
50 Pfennig (Cu920 Al64, rest various other metals) issued 1 Sep 1950.

The aluminium coins are dated 1948, 1949 and 1950. The brass-coloured 50 Pfennig coins, made of aluminium-bronze, are dated 1949 (there very few pieces of this date) and 1950.

The first three denominations were minted in the two mints that were located in the Soviet zone: Berlin (mintmark A), and Muldenhütten (mintmark E), which is located about halfway between Dresden and Chemnitz. The 50 Pfennig coin was produced in Berlin only.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #4 on: November 05, 2019, 01:43:27 PM »


Here we see the 1 Pfennig coin.  I regard it as the obverse because it carries the country name.

The design is very plain. Each coin carried the design of the wheat ear and gear wheel on the reverse.

 
« Last Edit: November 07, 2019, 06:56:48 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #5 on: November 05, 2019, 01:48:32 PM »


The 5 Pfennig coin, courtesy of Muenzen.eu - Münzen-Portal

The same reverse design, of an ear of wheat and a gear wheel, appeared on the 1, 5 and 10 Pfennig coins.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #6 on: November 05, 2019, 01:53:21 PM »


The 10 Pfennig coin, courtesy of Ma-Shops.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #7 on: November 05, 2019, 01:59:59 PM »


The obverse of the 50 Pfennig coin.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #8 on: November 05, 2019, 02:01:35 PM »


The reverse of the 50 Pfennig coin.

The design featured a factory and a plough cart, symbolising industry and agriculture.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #9 on: November 05, 2019, 02:09:15 PM »
Two things are interesting here: firstly, the coins say simply "Deutschland“ (Germany). Bear in mind that Germany was not yet two separate countries but one country divided into different occupation zones. Secondl, the reverse of the aluminium coins shows the emblem of the first economic plan in the Soviet zone, a cogwheel and a wheat ear. The Berlin mint, where these coins were designed, "recycled“ a Nazi design: in 1943 it had prepared a 50 kopek coin for the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, but that coin was not ultimately issued.





Unissued 50 kopek coin for the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.

See: The Ear and the Gear.

 
« Last Edit: November 05, 2019, 11:21:14 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #10 on: November 05, 2019, 11:10:11 PM »


The GDR's Five Year Plan symbol of 1951 to 1955.



On 7 October 1949, the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) was founded. However, at that time the central bank kept its original name of Deutsche Notenbank. It was not 1968 until that it was renamed "Staatsbank der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik“. A few years later, on 24 March 1952, a new set of the aluminum coins (1 Pf, 5 Pf, 10 Pf) was issued. The obverse with the face value was not modified, but the reverse now showed symbols of the new Five Year Plan.

Note that these new pieces still said 'Deutschland', not 'German Democratic Republic'. At that time Western Germany already used the country name Bundesrepublik Deutschland on its coins.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #11 on: November 05, 2019, 11:11:38 PM »


The 1 Pfennig coin of 1952.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #12 on: November 05, 2019, 11:15:03 PM »


The obverse of the 5 Pfennig coin. The reverse carried the same design as the 1 Pfennig coin.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #13 on: November 05, 2019, 11:20:35 PM »


The obverse of the 10 Pfennig coin. The reverse carried the same design as the 1 and 5 Pfennig coins.

Offline <k>

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Re: Coinage of the German Democratic Republic
« Reply #14 on: November 05, 2019, 11:23:29 PM »
The Muldenhütten mint produced its final coins in 1953. It was then closed. The mint in Berlin, which had always had a much bigger production share, then made all the GDR's coins.