Author Topic: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2  (Read 5985 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Overlord

  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2 851
  • Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas
    • Collect Old Coins
Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« on: September 26, 2009, 03:31:11 PM »
Info at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_II

St. Petersburg mint; Mint master Appolon Grasgov (1883-1899)

Obverse: Top half: мѢДнАя РоссІИскАя МонEтA (Russian Empire Coin); Bottom half: АВѢ копѢйки (2 Kopeks)


Reverse: Top half: 1895 ГОДА (Year 1895); Inner circle: 2 копѢйки (2 Kopeks); Mint mark CПБ (for St. Petersburg)

Offline Figleaf

  • Administrator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 31 877
Re: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« Reply #1 on: September 28, 2009, 12:27:47 PM »
Good description. I just wanted to add a word on the eagle. It was one of the symbols of the late Roman empire, where the left head stood for the West-Roman empire (Rome) and the right head symbolized the East-Roman empire (Constantinople). When the West-Roman empire fell, Byzantium continued to use the insignia, so it became a symbol of the empire.

When Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the pope, he also got to use the double eagle. From him, it went to his oldest grandson, Lotharius and to Middle Francia, by the Treaty of Verdun. In the Treaty of Meerssen, the imperial titles and symbols went to Louis II in Italy. As Italy fell apart and Germany "unified" under Saxony, it successfully claimed the title of emperor of the holy Roman empire on the basis of the marriage of Otto I with Adelaide of Italy.

Successive German emperors used the double eagle. The title was in the end almost continuously in the hands of the Habsburg family, grand dukes of Austria. When the male line of the Austrian Habsburgs extinguished with Charles VI, Maria Theresa succeeded, resulting in the war of the Austrian succession. Maria Theresa came out with her titles and symbols intact, but without in fact being empress of the holy Roman empire. Germany developed into a separate nation under the single-headed Prussian eagle, suitably modified for the Republic still present on euros. The double-headed eagle stayed on Austrian coins until the introduction of the euro.

So why did Russia use the double-headed eagle? Because, so far, we have followed the course of succession of the West-Roman empire. The East-Roman empire developed on a separate course and with a separate Christian religion, the Greek orthodox church. The Byzantine empire was slowly absorbed by the Ottomans, leaving behind some frontline states, one of which, Bulgaria, claimed to be the successor of the Byzantine empire. Its rulers called themselves Tsar (Caesar). Serb rulers also used the title until they were subsumed by the advancing Ottomans. In 1396, the Ottomans captured the Bulgarian empire.

The title was vacant until Iwan the terrible assumed it, and the double-headed eagle symbol in 1547. His claim on emperorship was recognized by the Habsburgs in 1576. It remained that way until 17th July 1918. As in Austria, the title of emperor was lost when the country became a republic, but upon founding the Russian federation, the double headed eagle returned as a state symbol and on Russian coins.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline Overlord

  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2 851
  • Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas
    • Collect Old Coins
Re: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« Reply #2 on: September 28, 2009, 03:04:42 PM »
Excellent info. Thanks a ton, Peter.

Offline Overlord

  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2 851
  • Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas
    • Collect Old Coins
Re: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« Reply #3 on: November 08, 2009, 02:49:58 PM »
While I was a bit surprised to find a Russian eagle on an Iranian falus, it was truly surprising to find a double headed eagle on South Indian coins! The one on the South Indian coins is called Gandaberunda.


19th century Iranian falus


A coin of the Vijayanagar Empire (Achyutadevaraya, 1530-1542 AD)
« Last Edit: November 08, 2009, 02:55:08 PM by Overlord »

Offline chrisild

  • Moderator
  • Honorary Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 8 843
  • NW · DE · EU
Re: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« Reply #4 on: November 08, 2009, 04:16:32 PM »
Germany developed into a separate nation under the single-headed Prussian eagle, suitably modified for the Republic still present on euros. The double-headed eagle stayed on Austrian coins until the introduction of the euro.

Umm, the German eagle is not the Prussian one. In the Empire (until 1918), the German eagle had a small Prussian eagle in the center. Once the German Reich became a republic, the Prussian eagle was removed, except of course as a state symbol for state use.

As you wrote yourself, in the Holy Roman Empire both the single headed and the doubled headed eagle were used. The double eagle usually represents a dualism: church and state power, east and west, or king and emperor. (In the HRE the king became emperor only in some special sacral ceremony.) Many German countries used an eagle, and German cities that were free cities (not part of some principality etc.) had and still have an eagle, single or double headed, in the CoA.

Austria had a double-headed eagle until 1918, when the monarchy came to an end. The Republic of Austria has always used, and still uses, a single headed eagle. The only exceptions were the "austrofascist" period (1934-38) and Austria as part of Nazi Germany (1938-45). The details and attributes vary, but the eagle is the same ...

Christian

Austrokiwi

  • Guest
Re: Russia, Nicholas II, 2 Kopeks, 1895, St. Petersburg mint, KM#10.2
« Reply #5 on: November 08, 2009, 09:36:53 PM »
Just expanding on what Chisild  pointed out.  Austria's coat of arms in 100AD was a single headed eagle looking left( from viewers perspective)  300 AD was a more basic primitive design.. single headed looking right. 1000AD was a more modern looking single headed eagle looking left. It wasn't unitl 1500 that the double headed eagle was used.