Author Topic: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic  (Read 1088 times)

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Offline <k>

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Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« on: July 06, 2017, 04:26:30 PM »
From Wikipedia:

The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), which the British called the Transvaal and sometimes the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902. The country defeated the British in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. The territory of the ZAR became known after this war as the Transvaal Colony. In 1910 the entire territory became the Transvaal Province of the Union of South Africa.

ZAR's flag, known as the 'Vierkleur' ("four colour"), was raised in Potchefstroom on 6 January 1857, and was ratified by the republic's Volksraad (legislature) on 18 February 1858. The flag was simply the flag of the Netherlands with the addition of a green vertical band at the hoist.

Offline <k>

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #1 on: July 06, 2017, 04:30:47 PM »
Below you see the coat of arms of ZAR, with its references to the voortrekkers and their wagons. It the motto 'Eendragt maakt magt', literally "unity makes might" but better translated in English as "Unity is strength".
« Last Edit: July 06, 2017, 11:19:09 PM by <k> »

Offline <k>

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #2 on: July 06, 2017, 04:33:42 PM »
Here is a map of southern Africa in the 1890s.  In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London. The British established the Cape Colony there, "during the rush for empire."

From Wikipedia:

The British started to settle the eastern border of the colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. They also began to introduce the first rudimentary rights for the Cape's black African population and, in 1833, abolished slavery. The resentment that the Dutch farmers felt against this social change, as well as the imposition of English language and culture, caused them to trek inland en masse. This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.



Below: Bechuanaland is now Botswana, while Basutoland is now Lesotho.

Offline <k>

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #3 on: July 06, 2017, 04:42:05 PM »
From wikipedia:

Stephanus Johannes Paulus "Paul" Kruger (1825 – 1904) was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and President of the South African Republic from 1883 to 1900. Nicknamed Oom Paul ("Uncle Paul"), he came to international prominence as the face of the Boer cause—that of the South African Republic and its neighbour the Orange Free State—against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902. He has been called a personification of Afrikanerdom.

Born near the eastern edge of the Cape Colony, Kruger took part in the Great Trek as a child during the late 1830s. He had almost no education apart from the Bible and, through his interpretations of scripture, believed the Earth was flat. A protégé of the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, he witnessed the signing of the Sand River Convention with Britain in 1852 and over the next decade played a prominent role in the forging of the South African Republic, leading its commandos and resolving disputes between the rival Boer leaders and factions. In 1863 he was elected Commandant-General, a post he held for a decade before he resigned soon after the election of President Thomas François Burgers.

Kruger was appointed Vice-President in March 1877, shortly before the South African Republic was annexed by Britain as the Transvaal. Over the next three years he headed two deputations to London to try to have this overturned and became the leading figure in the movement to restore the South African Republic's independence, culminating in the Boers' victory in the First Boer War of 1880–81. Kruger served until 1883 as a member of an executive triumvirate, then was elected President. In 1884 he headed a third deputation that brokered the London Convention, under which Britain recognised the South African Republic as a fully independent state.

Following the influx of thousands of predominantly British settlers with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush of 1886, "uitlanders" ("out-landers" or foreigners) provided almost all of the South African Republic's tax revenues but lacked civic representation; Boer burghers retained control of the government. The uitlander problem and the associated tensions with Britain dominated Kruger's attention for the rest of his presidency, to which he was re-elected in 1888, 1893 and 1898, and led to the Jameson Raid of 1895–96 and ultimately the Second Boer War. Kruger left for Europe as the war turned against the Boers in 1900 and spent the rest of his life in exile, refusing to return home following the British victory. After he died in Switzerland at the age of 78 in 1904, his body was returned to South Africa for a state funeral, and buried in the Heroes' Acre in Pretoria.

Offline <k>

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #4 on: July 06, 2017, 04:49:18 PM »
In 1892 ZAR introduced coins in denominations of 1, 3 and 6 pence, 1, 2, 2½ and 5 shillings, ½ and 1 pond (pound). The last of these coins were issued in 1900, except for siege 1 pond coins issued in 1902. The coins followed the British system, since the British were the dominant force in the region. All the coins portrayed President Kruger on the obverse.

Offline <k>

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #5 on: July 06, 2017, 04:50:25 PM »


The penny features the coat of arms on the reverse.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #6 on: July 06, 2017, 04:53:21 PM »


The three pence coin features a pair of tied sprays on the reverse. This was a commonly used design on coins in those days.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #7 on: July 06, 2017, 04:55:19 PM »


The six pence coin was of a similar design.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #8 on: July 06, 2017, 04:58:11 PM »


The shilling. The abbreviation of the country name is expanded somewhat on the reverse of the coin.

The sprays are larger and are now tied by a ribbon.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #9 on: July 06, 2017, 05:01:58 PM »


The two shillings coin.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #10 on: July 06, 2017, 05:03:36 PM »


The 2½ shillings coin.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #11 on: July 06, 2017, 05:05:03 PM »


The five shillings coin.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #12 on: July 06, 2017, 05:07:02 PM »
There was also a gold half pound ("pond" in Afrikaans) coin.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #13 on: July 06, 2017, 05:07:35 PM »
And a gold pound ("pond" in Afrikaans) coin.

Image courtesy of Heritage Auctions.

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Re: Paul Kruger and the coinage of the South African Republic
« Reply #14 on: July 06, 2017, 05:09:37 PM »
Interestingly, the three pence, six pence shilling and 2 shillings coins have no text on the obverse, and the country name is shown on the reverse, in contrast to the other coins in the set.

The penny and the 2 shillings show only the shield of the coat of arms on the obverse, but the higher denominations include the full coat of arms with the eagle.