Author Topic: Some Jitals of Ghorid ruler Mahmud bin Muhammad (1206-12AD)  (Read 660 times)

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Offline THCoins

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For the introduction of these coins i have plagiarized some text from this thread. As Overlord's expose there already said it all in a concise manner:
Ghorid ruler Muizz-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm was murdered in 1206. There being no children, the empire was divided. Mahmud, son of Ghiyăs-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm, succeeded in Ghor. The east passed to various generals who had conducted Mu’iz Muhammad’s campaigns. These generals were purchased slaves, hence the terms “Slave kings" or "Slave dynasty". Ghazna and its environs was ruled by slave general Taj Al-Din Yildiz. Sind was administered by Nasir Al-Din Qubacha, while Delhi went to Qutb Al-Din Aybak. Mahmud, meanwhile, was deposed in 1212 by the Khwarezmshah, ‘Ala Al-Din Muhammad.

The best known are the horseman jitals issued under the authority of Mahmud from Lahore. This type is listed in the G&G catalog and therefore was shown under the "Indian early Islamic sultanates". For completeness i also wanted one indexed under the Ghorids on the Islamic board.
Apart from the Horseman Jitals also other types were issued in the Afghanistan area, which largely adhere to the designs of Mahmud's predecessors. The second coin is a Elephant rider Jital, generally attributed to Shafurqan mint. This coin in hand is clearly readable as “Mahmud bin Muhammad Sam”. However, compared to the specimen in Tye Jitals it misses the “abu l’fath” title before the name.
(The Tye Catalog does not include an elephant rider Jital issued under Muizz ud-din Muhammad bin Sam, but these do exist.
This Zeno specimen is listed under Ghiyath, but the legend in the second line clearly names Muizz)


First:      Bi 16 mm, 3.32 grams, Tye#149.
Second:  AR 15 mm, 3.12 grams, Tye#148.

« Last Edit: August 21, 2016, 01:10:08 PM by THCoins »

Offline Figleaf

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Re: Some Jitals of Ghorid ruler Mahmud bin Muhammad (1206-12AD)
« Reply #1 on: August 07, 2016, 05:04:24 PM »
Fascinating coins, TH. Thank you. I am once more impressed by your ability to read them. I wonder if they can be collected without that ability. I know I would be lost with them. A catalogue is not sufficient. Maybe some hand-holding decision chart would make them accessible.

In another thread, we were discussing the coins of Genghis Khan. The first coin of is time and place. The Khwarezmshah, ‘Ala Al-Din Muhammad you mention was deposed by Genghis.

In that sense, the elephant on the second coin tickles me. ‘Ala Al-Din Muhammad used them against Genghis. The Mongols, superb archers, wounded the elephants in the legs. They turned around and stampeded into the Arab army, causing death and destruction. Genghis would have had disdain only for this coin.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Some Jitals of Ghorid ruler Mahmud bin Muhammad (1206-12AD)
« Reply #2 on: August 07, 2016, 05:30:49 PM »
Well, history shows that the Kwarezmshahi underestimated the Mongols. The Ghorids and Khwarezmshahi defeated the Indian raja's because they used a different type of warfare (which the Indians thought of as dishounorable). The elephant likely was the symbol of the victory in India. Just a few years later Genghis again brought along another new type of war, wiping out city after city. The Khwarezmshah army could not defend the empire against this in its turn.