Author Topic: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?  (Read 3664 times)

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Offline THCoins

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Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni was the last of the Khwarezm Shahs. His father, Ala-ud-din Muhammad, had lost the war from the progressive movements of the troops of Chingiz Khan. Mangubarni was forced to leave the central asian heartlands of the Khwarezm empire together with his troops. In Northern India he founded a new temporary power base. Ultimately the ruler and his army marched west upto Georgia. After winning a number of battles here he was ultimately killed.
For a more extensive historical background of this ruler look here.

Under Mangubarni Bull and Horseman Jitals were issued that are traditionally attributed (through indirect evidence) to Nandana mint (located in current Pakistan). Tye catalogs 5 subtypes: Tye 318.1 to 5 based on small design differences.
For comparison i will first show one of the regular types.
This is a Tye#318.1 specimen. It is of fairly good silver. Weight 3.6 grams, 15 mm.
« Last Edit: February 22, 2015, 12:29:56 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #1 on: February 14, 2015, 03:35:58 PM »
Below is the first Mangubarni variant i encountered. The inscription above the bull clearly reads "..LaLaDiNa". It looks to be almost pure copper, but this is not unusual for this type, for example compare with these.
The bull at first seems of the Nandana style but has some small differences. There is one line less at the neck and there are three dots at the rump instead of the V shaped emblem which is usually there. On de Horse side there is a small swirl between the horses legs, in front of the stick of the banner. This would classify this coin as Tye#318.2, where it not for the different bull.
A specimen similar to this one is present in the Fitzwilliam Museum Database. (Hope this direkt link works)
I also found a similar (but not die identical) one on Zeno here. So this type may be elegible to be added as a distinct 6th subtype to  the exisiting 5 in future literature ?
AE 15 mm, 3.43 grams
« Last Edit: February 16, 2015, 05:48:21 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #2 on: February 14, 2015, 03:36:11 PM »
The second variant again looks pure copper. It stands out because the Nagari writing style of the legend is completely different from the usual style. There is a specimen with a similar extra-ordinary writing style on Zeno. Mine is however even more distinctly different from the catalogued types.
The text on the bulls side is unmistakenly read as "Sri Jalaladina" However the "Di" almost looks like nagari "Dhi" and the "Na" looks like Nagari number 3. The symbol on the bulls backside has a Y shape in stead of a V.
The text on the Horsemans side clearly reads "Sri Hamira". The horse almost looks lika a unicorn. The backside of the horse does not show the usual horizontal line and dots but is divided by a cross. Lastly there is a clear indication of a star behind the foot of the horseman which i never saw in any of the described variants. AE 15 mm, 3.52 grams.
« Last Edit: February 14, 2015, 05:46:18 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #3 on: February 14, 2015, 03:36:24 PM »
And naturally i saved the best for last (well i think it is neat  :)) Besides the bull&horseman type of Mangubarni there also is a rare Horseman type with text on the reverse, Tye#317. I could not find an example of this on Zeno.
The Horseman side has the familiar "Sri Hamira" text. The dots on the rump are slightly different than on the Tye specimen.
The Arab text on the reverse is read by Tye as "Jajal ud-duniya/wa ud-din Mangubarni/ bin sultan, divided over 3 lines.
This type is attributed from indirect evidence to Nandana mint.

The special thing about my coin is that it shows a fourth line. And i believe that is the mint name. I am not known for my profound knowledge of Arabic, so please correct me if i am wrong. This last line certainly does not read Nandana. Instead i am fairly sure that the last part of the lower line reads Kurraman. This is another well known mint for Mangubarni but in a totally different region in the northwest of current Pakistan in the borderlands with Afghanistan.
So this coin possibly allows a definite mint attribution that was hitherto unknown of a variant of Tye#317.
AE 17 mm, 3.32 grams
« Last Edit: February 14, 2015, 05:42:28 PM by THCoins »

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #4 on: February 14, 2015, 05:56:22 PM »
That last one is a beauty ! not sure about that last word, if you ignore the last digit it ends in nah

  Goron lists Tye 317  as SS6 ( RR) & also uses the same drawing, however it has an error in the description of the Reverse where is says horseman to right sri hamirah above
Vic

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #5 on: February 14, 2015, 06:06:39 PM »
I think the characters of the mint name are a bit glued together. I looked at various specimen of Tye#326 to compare, both in the book and on the internet. Admit, the dot should have been above the last character. Kurraman remains my best guess untill now.
Possibly someone can provide a better reading ?
« Last Edit: February 14, 2015, 06:41:43 PM by THCoins »

Offline EWC

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #6 on: February 14, 2015, 07:17:55 PM »
Thats a pretty exciting find Anthony!  It looks like Kurraman to me too.  Did all three coins come to you as one lot?

The style of the first two is unusual, as you say.  The metal does look baser then normal, but that could be just a trick of the soil.

Nandana is an idea from the 19th century writer Raverty.  Whether it is actually correct for any of Mangubarni's coins is open to doubt - nobody I know ever dug deeper into that matter........

As I recall, after his defeat on the West Bank of the Indus Mangubarni spent 4 years collecting an army for a reconquest of Afghanistan from the Mongols, and Kurraman would be a good place to launch that offensive from

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #7 on: February 14, 2015, 09:47:51 PM »
How is Kurraman written ? Google refused to translate Kurraman but gave one for Kurman which I presume is the modern name

كورمان
Vic

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #8 on: February 15, 2015, 11:25:16 AM »
Vic, i think the commonly used spelling of Kurraman was کرمان, often with all but the last character connected.
These coins all came from a single lot of unattributed coins, with also some more common types, all copper. No further info on their origin unfortunately.

Offline capnbirdseye

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #9 on: February 15, 2015, 12:05:06 PM »
Vic, i think the commonly used spelling of Kurraman was کرمان, often with all but the last character connected.
These coins all came from a single lot of unattributed coins, with also some more common types, all copper. No further info on their origin unfortunately.

I'm still at a loss to read Kurraman on your coin although if Robert can see it it must be there  ???
Vic

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #10 on: February 15, 2015, 02:32:00 PM »
I admit, looking at the separate characters i also did not get there. I just recognized the initial Kaf and then filled in the rest of the word from how it is written on contemporary specimen. Looking for a seond opinion though.
This is how i read it as [Zarb fi ?] "Kerman":
« Last Edit: February 15, 2015, 02:47:40 PM by THCoins »

Offline Quant.Geek

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #11 on: February 15, 2015, 02:59:26 PM »
As a comparison, here is a recently auctioned Mongol coin that was minted in Kurraman.  Notice the calligraphy of Kurraman on the body of the bull and the calligraphy on your coin  ;) .  Congrats!!!!


A gallery of my coins can been seen at FORVM Ancient Coins

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #12 on: February 15, 2015, 03:08:44 PM »
Thanks for the addition Ram ! That's a very attractive coin, did you buy this one ?

Offline Quant.Geek

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #13 on: February 15, 2015, 03:11:46 PM »
Thanks for the addition Ram ! That's a very attractive coin, did you buy this one ?

I should have bought it, but I let it go ::), why I don't know, but now I regret it  :'(
A gallery of my coins can been seen at FORVM Ancient Coins

Offline THCoins

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Re: Kwarezm Shahs: Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni, some unpublished Jital variants ?
« Reply #14 on: February 16, 2015, 05:42:17 PM »
At the suggestion of mr. Tye i sent a picture of the coin to L. Ilisch, of Tübingen university, for an expert second opinion. I am glad to say that he agrees with the reading of the lower line as Kurraman mint. So, a nice numismatic find !