Author Topic: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD  (Read 4976 times)

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Offline mitresh

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Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« on: April 07, 2014, 09:11:57 AM »
Amirs of Sindh, Silver 'Qandhari' Dirham, 0.5g, 870-1030 AD



Adapted from G&G
Sind has been applied to the territory comprising of all the valley of Indus valley from the Arabian Sea to the Salt Range with Mansura in south and Multan in north. From early 8th century AD this area was ruled by the Governors appointed by the Umayyad and then the Abbasid Caliphs. In ninth century AD separate kingdoms were set up in Mansura and Multan. The rulers of Mansura are usually known as Amirs of Sind or Habbarids. Very little is known about them apart from their coins. In AD 1030 Sind was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni.

Amirs of Sind and their counterparts in Multan also struck copper coins. These copper coins are of two types: one with inscription only and other with a four petal flower on reverse. They struck large number of small silver coins weighing about 0.5g which are called Qandhari Dirhams. These coins seem to have been struck from debased silver and look coppery.

The names of the rulers appearing on the coin include:
  1.   Abd Allah
  2.   Abd Al-Rahman
  3.   Ahmad
  4.   Ali
  5.   Daud
  6.   Hatim
  7.   Isa
  8.   Muhammad
  9.   Umar
 10.  Yahya

Legends found on coins of Amirs of Sind   

A. Metal:  Silver   
Obv.  la ilaha illallah wahdahu la shrikalahu   
Rev.  Muhammad Rasul allah al-amir... 

B. Metal:  Silver 
Obv. billah thiqqa.... wa nasrahu   
Rev.  illah Muhammad Rasul allah 

C. Metal:  Silver 
Obv. billah yathiqu.... wa behi yantasir   
Rev.  illah Muhammad Rasul allah 

D. Metal:  Silver, Copper 
Obv. allah wali ... wa nasarahu 
Rev.  illah Muhammad Rasul allah 

E. Metal:  Copper 
Obv. la ilaha illallah abd allah 
Rev.  Muhammad Rasul allah abd allah 

Grateful if someone can 'read' the names of the Amir appearing on the 8 coins above. The first two rows is the Obverse with bottom two the Reverse.
« Last Edit: May 10, 2014, 11:57:27 AM by capnbirdseye »
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Offline THCoins

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #1 on: April 07, 2014, 03:37:30 PM »
Splendid varied collection you got yourself.
I recognize several parts of the inscriptions. But there are a bit many to confidently attribute
them all to the specific rulers. Would be nice if we could write these out for future reference !

Offline mitresh

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #2 on: April 07, 2014, 05:17:46 PM »
Thanks Anthony. I will try and see how best the missing names of the rulers get deciphered.
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Offline THCoins

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #3 on: April 07, 2014, 07:26:47 PM »
OK quick comparison with some of mine, and some Arab reading practice:

1 and 2: Are similar, of the second obverse and reverse are switched.
Ruler : Abd' Allah عبدالله bottom of reverse.

3: Umar عمر bottom of reverse.

5 and 6: Ali علي centre of obverse

7 and 8: Muhammad محمد centre of obverse

Here i posted one of Abd Al-Rahman earlier.

But please confirmation by our Arab proficient members !
« Last Edit: April 07, 2014, 07:42:12 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #4 on: April 09, 2014, 08:16:41 PM »
Had a bit of a problem reading the fourth.
But on second look, that's also Muhammad, like 7 and 8, but obverse and reverse are switched.

Offline THCoins

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #5 on: May 03, 2014, 05:38:39 PM »
As a small addition. In the opening post also the copper coinage was mentioned.
This is a fairly typical example of the copper coins of the Habbarids of Sindh and Multan.

In the obverse four pellets in a square (flower ?). The reverse shows an Arab inscription (which often is hardly readable).

Ae Fals 11mm, 1.47 gr, uncertain ruler, ca 900-1000 AD.

Offline mitresh

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #6 on: May 03, 2014, 05:58:05 PM »
Gr8 coin with fantastic toning Anthony. Nice to see the copper issue of the Sind-Multan rulers.
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Offline Figleaf

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #7 on: May 03, 2014, 09:29:08 PM »
You two are making some spectacular threads, gentlemen. They are great fun to read. Thank you.

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Offline shashivagale

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #8 on: March 14, 2015, 08:04:02 AM »
Thanks gentlemen,
you guys have been really helpful, i have been racking my brains to decipher this coin.
thanks
shashi vagale

Offline drnsreedhar

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #9 on: July 23, 2018, 09:35:22 PM »
Adding my contributions
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline drnsreedhar

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #10 on: July 23, 2018, 09:38:53 PM »
Amir Muhammad
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline drnsreedhar

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #11 on: July 23, 2018, 09:41:05 PM »
Amir Ali
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline drnsreedhar

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #12 on: July 23, 2018, 09:44:03 PM »
Amir Umar
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline drnsreedhar

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #13 on: July 23, 2018, 09:45:08 PM »
Amir Abdul Rahman
Dr.Sreedhar

Offline shiblius

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Re: Amirs of Sindh: Qandhari dirhams, 870-1030 AD
« Reply #14 on: July 23, 2018, 10:58:41 PM »
Awesome! These overlays look amazing.
Thanks, Dr.Sreedhar Sahab.