Author Topic: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)  (Read 4775 times)

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Offline Overlord

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Shanshabănî or Ghorid Dynasty (1149-1206)

By the beginning of the 12th century the Shanshabănî had extended their authority over the other Ghorid chiefs and their power rivaled that of the Ghaznavids on their southern border and the Seljuks on their northern border. Honoring this strength, Malik al-Jibal (meaning "King of the Mountain") laid out the foundations of a great capital city called Firozkoh, which some believe to have been at Jam where a magnificent minaret now stands. Malik Qutubuddin was unable, however, to finish his city for he had a falling out with his brothers (he had seven) and was forced to leave for Ghazni where he was well received and well respected until Sultan Bahram Shah (1118-1152), jealous of his increasing popularity, served him with a glass of poisoned sherbet (1146). His murder led to a relentless enmity between Ghor and Ghazni.

One by one, the brothers left their mountain capital with their armies: the first brother captured Ghazni and afterwards sent his army back to Ghor whereupon the Sultan returned to torture him to death; the second brother died on his way to revenge the new death (1149); the third, Alauddin, defeated the Sultan Bahram Shah in the vicinity of modern Kandahar (1151). The Sultan fell back in retreat upon Ghazni which "Alauddin took by storm, and during seven nights and days fired the place, and burnt it with obstinacy and wantonness. . . During these seven days, the air, from the blackness of the smoke, continued as black as night; and those nights, from the flames raging in the burning city, were lighted up as light as day. During these seven days likewise, rapine, plunder and massacre were carried out with the utmost pertinacity and vindictiveness." (Juzjani). Thus, Alauddin earned the title of Jahănsűz or "World Burner". Ghazni was, however, occupied by the Seljűks soon after and, later on, by the Guzz Turks. It was only in 1175 that the Ghorids succeeded in reoccupying it.

Ghiyăs-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm, who succeeded his uncle Alăudd-Dîn Jahănsűz at Firuz Koh, appointed his younger brother, Shihăb-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm, as the governor of Ghazni. Shihăb-ud-Dîn (1175-1206) occupied Sindh and Multan, ousted the last Ghaznivid ruler from Lahore, defeated the Chauhăns of Ajmer and the Gahadvalas of Kanauj, and extended his conquests upto the borders of Bengal. His conquests were consolidated mainly by his able general, Qutb-ud-Dîn Aibak. Another general of his, Ikhtiyăr-ud-Dîn Bakhtiyăr Khaljî, ousted the forces of Bengal from Lakhnauti and led an unsuccessful expedition into Assam and Bhutan.

Meanwhile, Shihăb-ud-Dîn had become the king of Ghor on the death of his brother in 1203 and styled himself as Muizz-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm. He is popularly known as Muhammad Ghori, and regarded as the founder of Muslim rule in India. He was murdered in 1206. There being no children, the empire was divided. Mahmud, son of Ghiyăs-ud-Dîn Muhammad bin Săm, succeeded in Ghor. The east passed to various generals who had conducted Mu’iz Muhammad’s campaigns. These generals were purchased slaves, hence the terms “Slave kings" or "Slave dynasty". Ghazna and its environs was ruled by slave general Taj Al-Din Yildiz. Sind was administered by Nasir Al-Din Qubacha, while Delhi went to Qutb Al-Din Aybak. Mahmud, meanwhile, was deposed in 1212 by the Khwarezmshah, ‘Ala Al-Din Muhammad.

Mahmud's coins are scarcer than those of his uncle, and most are rare. On the coins of the type shown below (of Lahore fabric), the Nagari letters follow the models of Sindhi or Punjabi alphabets in the reversal of the lower limb of the "Ha" and the open top of the "Ma". 

Obverse Al Sultan Al Azim Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (The Sultan, the Magnificent, Mahmud son of Mumammad bin Sam)

Here is a crude illustration showing my take on the inscription:


Reverse Horseman to right; Sri Hamira (Amir) above

« Last Edit: September 11, 2013, 08:48:44 PM by capnbirdseye »

Offline Rangnath

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #1 on: January 01, 2009, 08:57:56 PM »
Wonderful Sri Overlord.
I don't mean to quibble sir, but wouldn't "Sir" be a better fit for "Sri" in English than "Mr".  Interesting.. in the military, Mr. is for the non-officer, and Sir is for the officer.  In Feudal society in England, Sir was for nobility and  the priesthood. Mister was from "master", a lower designation than "Sir", sir.
Sri Mr. Richieji

Offline Overlord

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #2 on: January 02, 2009, 04:19:19 PM »
Wonderful Sri Overlord.
I don't mean to quibble sir, but wouldn't "Sir" be a better fit for "Sri" in English than "Mr".  Interesting.. in the military, Mr. is for the non-officer, and Sir is for the officer.  In Feudal society in England, Sir was for nobility and  the priesthood. Mister was from "master", a lower designation than "Sir", sir.
Sri Mr. Richieji
Param Adarniya Sri Rangnath Ji,
That's an interesting point. I think nowadays "Sri" is only considered equivalent to "Mr.". If one wanted to be more respectful, they would just add "Mananiya", "Adarniya", etc., before "Sri". I'm not sure if this was the exact meaning of the term in Medieval India though. Here is a Wikipedia article on "Sri".

Offline Overlord

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #3 on: January 02, 2009, 04:45:19 PM »
Why does the shape of the "Lam" of "Al" appear so different in the second line of the obverse (assuming that it is indeed a "Lam")?

Offline Oesho

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #4 on: January 03, 2009, 12:40:41 AM »
It's the comon way in Arabic of writing Al. The Alif and Lam are twisted. It looks almost like a Brahmi Ma on this particular coin.

Offline Overlord

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #5 on: January 03, 2009, 05:33:14 AM »
It's the comon way in Arabic of writing Al. The Alif and Lam are twisted. It looks almost like a Brahmi Ma on this particular coin.
Thanks Oesho.

Ansari

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #6 on: December 14, 2011, 05:57:17 AM »
It's the comon way in Arabic of writing Al. The Alif and Lam are twisted. It looks almost like a Brahmi Ma on this particular coin.

Oesho i guess link is missing on "On this particular coin". Even i used to wonder for a substantial period of time why this "MA" is written.
I think you are talking about this type...


Ansari

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Re: Ghorids: Jital of Mahmud bin Muhammad bin Sam (602-609 AH, 1206-1212 AD)
« Reply #7 on: December 14, 2011, 06:01:39 AM »

Thanks Overload for giving me link to this topic in another one......actually i have coin of "Mahmud-Bin-Mohammed-Bin Sam" and i never knew that. I was just reading "Mohammed Bin Sam" n attributed to him only.

So i have this scarce coin :D