Author Topic: Ancient Islamic world, Index of this Board (Work in progress)  (Read 6812 times)

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Offline THCoins

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Ummayads to Abassids
« Reply #1 on: December 24, 2013, 10:05:57 PM »
The Umayyads *
Ali, the fourth Caliph, died in the year 661. After this the Umayyad dynasty was formed when the leader of the Umayya clan from Mecca took over power. The seat of the new Umayyad caliph was in Damascus, Syria. Their armies invaded Anatolia, Afghanistan and large parts of central Asia upto North India. Through North-Africa, the Iberian peninsula was conquered. Even if there were continuous internal struggles, the Umayyad caliphate remained in power until 750.
Links to Ummayad coins:

- Arab-Byzantine and Early Arab-Sassanian coinage *
Under early Ummayad rule both Sasanian and Byzantine style coinage were produced, these are sometimes called "Pre-reform coinage".
AE Fals, 680 AD
"standing Caliph" type AE follis
two Arab-Byzantine AE Folles
Anonymous (658-675 AD) Fals (Album-3501)
Anonymous (685-692 AD) Fals, Hims (Emesa) Mint (Album-3524)
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705 CE) Fals, Halab (Aleppo) Mint (Album-3529)
Umar b. 'Ubayd Allah, (686-691AD) AR Drachm AH68, Bishapur
Ubayd Allah b. Abi Bakra, (698-699AD), AR Drachm, Sijistan

- Umayyad/Post-reform coinage *
After the coin reform by Caliph Abd al-Malik, the design is dominated by religious texts. The mintname and year of issue are usually in the margin. The date is generally written not in numbers, but in words in arabic.
Gold Dinar
Suleyman bin 'Abd al-Malik Dirham, AR Dirham AH99, Wasit
Umar bin 'Abd al-'Aziz, AR Dirham AH100, Dimashq, with transcription of legend
Umar bin 'Abd al-'Aziz, AR Dirham AH100, Dimashq
Yazid II bin 'Abd al-Malik, AR Dirham AH105, Wasit
Hisham bin 'Abd al-Malik, AR Dirham AH117, Wasit
Anonymous ND (ca. 760AD) AE Fals NM (North-Africa)  (Album-145)
Anonymous ND (698-705AD) AE Fals NM, (Album-153)
Anonymous (698-705AD) AE Fals, ND, Damascus (Album-174; Walker-835)
Anonymous AE Fals, Filistin mint (Album-175; Walker-911)
Anonymous (65-132) AE fals, Baysan, (SNAT Palestina 272-273)
Anonymous (738+ AD) AE Fals,  Baysan (Album-165)
Anonymous AE fals with tree, al-Ramla mint (Album-185)
al-Walid bin Ta'id (731-739 AD) Fals, al-Mawsil (Album-193)
Anonymous (738 AD) Fals, Wasit (Album-205)
al-Qasim b. U'bayd Allah, finance director 116-124 AH (733-741 AD) AE Fals, Misr (Egypt)
Several AE Folles
Umayyad post reform fals
Umayyad post reform fals

- Umayyad and Later Muslim rulers of of Al-Andalus *
When the Ummayad power was taken over by the Abbasids, one member of the Umayyad nobility, Abd al-Rahman, fled to Spain. In 756 AD he founded the independent Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba. This ruled the largest part of Spain until the 11th century. Then gradually christian forces from the north of Spain gained terrain. The request for muslim assistance from north-Africa led to a period in which the Almoravids and later the Almohads controlled the south of Spain. Eventually in 1212 the Almohads were decisively defeated. Only around Granada and Malaga remained a Semi-autonomous Muslim region of the Nasrids. This sultanate finally fell in 1492 AD.
AE Falus, ca. AH 100-140 / 718-758 AD
Abd al-Rahman I (AH161, 777 AD) AR Dirham
Abd al-Rahman II, AR Dirham 207 AH, Al-Andalus (Cordoba)
Abd al-Rahman II (AH232,846 AD) AR Dirham,
Abd al-Rahman II (AH232,846 AD) AR Dirham,al-Andalus (Cordoba) mint
Hisham II ibn al-Hakam, 1st reign (366-399 AH / 976-1009 CE) AR Dirhem, Qurtubah Mint (Album-354.2)
Iberian imitations of Muwahhid Dirhems


The Abbasids *
Around 750 AD The Umayyads increasingly experienced an uprizing of newly converted Muslims in the territories they had conquered. Eventually power in the largest part of the domain was taken over by the Abbasids. This group claimed to descend from Al-Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed. The capital was moved from Syria to Baghdad in Iraq. The expansion of the territory came to an end, but science and culture flourished for a long period. At a certain stage the Abbasids faced the same problem as the Ummayads before. Local governors still openly acknowledged Abbasid power, but operated independently and did not pay taxes anymore.
In 945 AD the Iranian Shiite Buyids took over power over Bagdad from the Sunni Abbasids.
Links to Abbasid coins:
Abdullah ibn Muhammad As-Saffah (AH132-136), AR Dirham AH135/AD753, Al Kufa (Album 211)
al Mansur (AH136-158/AD754-775) AE Fals
AE Fals, 154 AH Hamzan
Abu Muhammad Musa al-Hadi ibn al-Mahdi (169-170AH / 785-786CE) AR dirham, al-Muhammadiya (Album-217.2)
al-Rashid, AH190, AR Dirham, Medinat al-Selam (Baghdad) Album219.2
AR Dirham, struck in name of al-Ma'mun as a heir, 194 AH, Samarqand
al-Mu`tamid with al-Mu`tadid, AH279, AR Dirham
Sijistan Revolution coinage, AE Fals with pentagram,

- Abbasid Governors of Tabaristan and other semi-autonomous regions
Omar Ibn Al' Ala (771-780AD) AR hemi-drachm
Suleiman (784-788 AD) AR hemi-drachm
Abdallah (790-792) AR hemi-drachm
Mesopotamia: al-Abbas b. Muhammad (750-760 AD) AE Fals, al-Jazira (Album-304; Lavoix-1568)
Transoxiana: Hamza (ca. 770s-790) Cast AE Fals, Kharashket

- Late Abbasids
After the defeat of the Abbasids by the Buyids, the Abassid caliphs remained in place, with a religious function but no real political power. In the 12th century caliph al-Muqtafi and Al-Nasir were able to take advantage of the decline of the Seljuks to restore a political powerbase from Baghdad. This lasted untill 1258AD when Baghdad fell to the Mongols.
Al-Mustansir (1226-1242AD), AE Fals, Irbil (Arbil,Iraq) mint
« Last Edit: April 22, 2018, 01:48:22 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Post-Abbasid Dynasties
« Reply #2 on: December 27, 2013, 12:17:19 PM »
Abassid successor Dynasties *

- The Saffarids *
The Saffarids formed a dynasty based in the Sistan region. From here, starting in 861, the territory expanded to include large parts of Afghanistan and eastern Iran. In the process they were victorious over the Tahirids of Khorasan. Their march against Baghdad however was stopped by the Abassids.
In 900 AD, the Saffarids lost the decisive battle of Balkh to the Samanids. After this their power was confined to the Sistan heartland as Samanid vassals. The last de facto Saffarid ruler was dethroned in 1002 AD when Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded Sistan.
The "Third Saffarid Dynasty", the "Nasrids" or "Saffarids of Sistan" later ruled the Nimruz area for a short period, until the invasion of the Mongols around 1220AD.
Links to Saffarid coins:
Taj-ud-Din Harb (1167-1215AD) BI Jital, Tye#123
Taj-ud-Din Harb BI Jital, Tye#123
Taj-ud-Din Harb (1167-1215AD) BI Jital, Tye#125
Taj-ud-Din Harb BI Jital, Tye#125
Taj-ud-din Nasr bin Bahramshah (1221AD) BI Jital, Tye#127
Taj-ud-din Nasr bin Bahramshah BI Jital, Tye#127
Rukn-ud-din Abu Mansur (1221-2AD) BI Jital, Tye#128

The Samanids *
With the decline of the Abassids, a local noble family clan took over power in the north of Persia in 819 AD and subsequently expanded its power into central Asia. After subdueing the Saffarids in 900 AD the Samanids were the largest Muslim power in the east and held cities like Herat, Samarkand and Bukhara. This gave them over a large part of the Silk route, from which they aquired considerable wealth. Power of the Samanids declined from the second half of the tenth century by attacks from Quarakhanids and Ghaznavids. The last Samanid ruler died in 1105 AD.
Links to Samanid coins:
Nasr I (AH250-279/864-892AD) AE Fals 256AH, Samarqand
Ismail Bin Ahmad (AH279-295, 892-907AD) AE Fals
Ismail Bin Ahmad, AE Fals AH280, Shahs
Nasr II b. Ahmad, AR Dirham, AH329? Balkh
Nasr II b Ahmad, AR Dirham, AH326, Samarqand
Mansur bin Nuh (AH350-365, 961-976AD) AE Fals, AH358/969AD, Bukhara

- The Buyids *
The Buyids(Buwayhids) originally were a group of Shiite mercenaries from Northern Iran. In 945 AD they occupied Baghdad and took over political power from the Abbasids. For ceremonial reasons they allowed the Abbassid Caliphs to remain in place as religious leaders of the Sunni population. The Buyid dynasty was overthrown in 1055 AD by the Seljuks.
Links to Buyid coins:
Imad al-dawla ('Ali) abu 'l-Hasan  (322-338AH/934949AD), AR Dirham
Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali (335-366AH/947-977AD), AR Dirham, Madinat Al-Salam (Baghdad)
'Adud al-Dawla abu Shuja'a (341-372 AH / 952-983 AD), AR dirham, 345 AH, Shiraz

-The Fatimids *
The Fatimid dynasty was founded by Abd Allah in 909 AD in Tunisia. He declared himself Caliph with a family history tracing back to Fatima, the daughter of Muhammed and wife of Ali, the fourth caliph. This Shiite dynasty gradually expanded eastward and overtook Egypt around 969 AD, where the city of Cairo was founded. The peak of political power was during the rule of caliph Al-Mustansir (1036-94). The Fatimids then had extended their power over Syria and the largest part of the Arabian peninsula, and also controlled Baghdad for a short period. In their later period the Fatimids faced attacks by both Seljuk Turks and Christian crusaders. The final downfall came in 1171 through the armies of Ayyubid ruler Salah Al-Din.
Links to Fatimid coins:
Al-Zahir (10211036AD,  AH411-427) AV Dinar, 418AH Misr mint
Mansur Abu Ali (1101-30AD, AH495-524) AV Dinar, Alexandria

- - Kalbid rule of Sicily
Sicily was invaded by Muslims from Tunisia. The Kalbids (948-1053) governed the island on behalf of the Fatimids for over a century. Their rule was ended by Norman invaders, but their cultural influences persisted for a longer period.
« Last Edit: March 27, 2019, 05:52:24 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Ancient Islamic world, Index of this Board (Work in progress)
« Reply #3 on: March 28, 2014, 10:44:46 AM »
Later Dynasties, Middle East, Western regions *

- The Atabegs; Zangids, Artuqids and Luluids *
The Atabegs were local governors in the Seljuk empire. With the decline of the Seljuks in the west several Atabegs became the founders of a number of short-lived city states in the Syria-Iraq region. Most of these were eventually overtaken by the emerging Ayyubid dynasty.
Husam al-Din Timurtash (AH516-547,1122-1152AD) AE Dirham, S&S-25
Artuqids of Mardin, Outb Al-Din Il-Ghazi II (1176-1184AD) AE Dirham
Artuqids of Mardin, Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan (AH597-637,1201-1239AD) , AE Dirham, 598AH, S&S-37.2
Artuqids of Mardin, Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan, AE Dirham, 611AH, S&S-40
Artuqids of Mardin,Al-Muzaffar Da'ud 769-78AH, S&S-56.2, Album-1844
Zengids of Mosul (Al-Mawsil), Nur al-Din Arslan Shah (AH589-607,AD1193-1211), Nisibin, AH594
Zengids of Mosul, Mas'ud II, 1211-1218 AD, , AE Dirham S&S-65
Zengids of Mosul, Badr al-Din Lulu, (AH 631-656/1233-1258AD) Dirham, AH631/1233AD S&S-68
Zangids of Mosul, Badr al-Din Lulu  Dirham, 631 AH
Zangids of Sinjar, Qutb al-din Muhammad (ca1198-1219AD) AE Dirham
Zangids of Sinjar, Qutb al-din Muhammad (ca1198-1219AD) AE Dirham, S&S-81
Zengids of Syria, As-Salih al-Malik Ismail (558-577AH/11631181 AD), AE Dirham, contemporary imitation?

- The Ayyubids *
Salah al-Din was a sunni Kurdish general. Originally in Zangid service he led the conquest of Egypt around 1171 AD, and founded an Ayyubid sultanate here. Soon this expanded to take over Former Zangid and Christian controlled territory.
In coinage a subdivision is usually made into Ayyubid rulers of Egypt, Damascus, Aleppo and Mayafarikin (Mesopotomia)
al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf (I) ibn Ayyub (AH564-589), AE fals, Dimashq
al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf I, AE Fals, Dimashq
al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf I, AR Double obverse mule, Dimashq
al-`Adil Abu Bakr I (Sayf al-Din), (AH591-615),  AR dirham, short legends type, Damascus
al-Aziz Imad ad-Din Uthman (AH589-595/1193-1198 AD) AE fals
al-Muzaffar Shahab ad-Din Ghazi (AH617-642/1220-1244AD) AE fals, Mayafariqin
al-Muzaffar Ghazi (AH617-642), AE Fals
Al-Salih Imad ad-Din Ismail (AH635/1237AD and AH638-643/1240-1245AD) clipped AR Dirham

- The Mamluks *
The Mamluks were slave soldiers of Turkish descent who formed the core of the Ayyubid army. Around 1250 AD these revolted against their former masters and founded an independent Mamluk state. The first dynasty was the Bahri Mamluk dynasty. In 1382, with the ascend of sultan Barkuk, this went over into the Burji Mamluk Dynasty, Burji referring to their base in Cairo.
Al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha'ban II (AH764-778/1363-1377AD), AE Fals, Cairo (Balog-437)
Sha'ban II  AE Fals, 764AH, Hamh (Balog-466)
Sha'ban II, AE fals, Tripoli (Balog-473)
Sha`ban II, AE Fals, Tripoli (Balog-477)
Sha`ban II,  AE Fals, Trablus
Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din) AE fals, undated, Tripolis (Balog-504)
« Last Edit: April 24, 2019, 07:04:31 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Ancient Islamic world, Index of this Board (Work in progress)
« Reply #4 on: September 14, 2014, 02:46:03 PM »
Later Dynasties, Eastern regions *

- The Ghaznavids *
The Ghaznavid dynasty was founded by Alptigin, a Samanid general of Turkish Mamluk descent who was Governor of Ghazna. After the Samanid emir died in 961 AD, Alptigin did not agree with the succession and proclaimed independence. Alptigin was succeeded by his son-in-law Sebuktigin who expanded Ghaznavid rule towards India. Sebuktigin's son Mahmud finally defeated the Samanids in 999AD, through an alliance with the Qarakhanid. Ghaznavid power decreased when the Ghorid took over Ghazna in 1150 AD. The last Ghaznavids were driven into the Punjab where the dynasty came to an end around 1186 AD.
Note: for the Ghaznavid coinage in India, there also is a listing under "Medieval India: Islamic Dynasties & Sultanates".
Sebuktegin, with Samanid overlord Nuh bin Mansur (AH366-387, 977-997AD), AR Dirham (Album-1599)
Sebuktegin, AR Dirham
Isma'il (997AD), AR Dirham)
Mahmud I ibn Sebuktegin (998-1030AD/AH384-421)
- Mahmud as Samanid Governor (994-7AD), AR Dirham (Album-C1602)
- AR Multiple Dirham, (Album-1608)
- AR Multiple Dirham, (Album-1608)
- AR yamini dirham, Type Ic, Ghazna
- AR yamini dirham, Type II, Ghazna (Album-1609)
- AR yamini dirham, Type IV, AH411, Ghazna
- AR Dirham
- AR Dirham
- AR Dirham, Farwan mint
- AR bilingual dirham, 1027AD/AH418, Mahmudpur (=Lahore)
- AR bilingual dirham, AH419 Lahore (Album1610,G&G GZ5)
- AV Dinar, 1017AD/AH407, Nishapur
- AV Dinar, Herat
Mas'ud I (1031-41AD/AH422-432)
- AR broad Dirham, Balkh
- AR Dirham, early type naming caliph al-Qadir and al-Qaim
- AR Dirhams, Andarab & Ghazna mint
- AR 'Zahiri"Dirhams
- AR Bull & Horseman Jital, Tye#89
Mawdud (Maudud) I (1041-50AD/AH432-40)
- AR yamini dirham, Ghazna
- AR yamini dirham
- AR Dirhams, months of Ramadan Rabi and Rajab, Ghazna
Abd al-Rashid, (1050-1053AD/AH440-443) AR Dirham
Farrukhzad (1053-59AD) AR "Yamini" dirham
Ibrahim (1059-99AD) AR Dirham
Ibrahim (1059-99AD) AR "Qahiri" Dirham
Mas'ud III (1099-1115AD) BI "Qahiri" dirham
Masud III, AE Jital, Lahore (Tye#105), Samanta Deva type
Masud III, AE Jital, Lahore (Tye#105), Sultana Deva type ?
Yamin al-daula Bahramshah (1117-52AD), citing caliph Al-Mustarshid and Seljuk overlord Sanjar, AR Dirham, Ghazna (Tye#108)
Bahramshah, AR Dirham
Bahramshah Bull Jital (Tye#111/G&G GZ49)
Khusraw Malik (1160-86AD), BI Jital, Kurraman (Tye#117.2)
Khusraw Malik, AR Jital, Kurraman (Album-1663,Tye#117.3)
Khusraw Malik, AE Bull Jital, Lahore (Tye#119)
Khusraw Malik, AE Jital, Lahore (Tye#120, Album-1664, multiple variants)

- The Karakhanids *
Like the Ghaznavid, the Karakhanid (also spelled Qarakhanid) were a dynasty of central Asia Turkic descent. They took over the Samanid territory ,including Bukhara, upto the Oxus river in the south while the Ghaznavids ruled more southern parts.
In the same period, from the last half of the 10th century, they converted to Islam. In later times there was a seperation between a Western and Eastern Khaganate. The ruler was known by the Turkic title of Khan or Khagan. In the 11th and 12th century Karakhanid autonomy was ended by the ascend of the Seljuks from the west and the Qarakhitay from the east.
Nasr b. Ali, AE fals with empty centre, AH398,1008AD Ferghana, (Album-3303,Kochnev 120)
Mansur bin Ali with Ilak Muhammad bin Ali and Irtash, Silvered AE, AH406, Ilaq (Kochnev-419б)
Muhammad b. Ali, Arslan-ilek, AE Fals with fish, (AH407,1016/7AD), Shahs
Another Fish Fals
Arslan khan Mansur b. Ali and Ilek Muhammad b. Ali, AR Dirham, Khujanda
Adud al-Dawla Chaghry-tegin Husayn b. Hasan (AH407,1016/7AD) AE fals with rabbit/hare, Tunkath (Album-3354)
More rabbits
AE fals (AH420,1029AD) Kharasketh
Ali b. Hasan Tabghach Bugra Khan (424 AH) AE fals, Samarqand (Kochnev-771)
Tabghach Bughra Qarakhaqan 'Ali b. al-Hasan, AE fals, Dabusiya, 425AH/1034AD, (Kochnev 780)
AE fals, Nasr bin Ibrahim ? (ca AH460-470,1068-1078AD) Bukhara
Fals with Lion (AH494), Bukhara
Ala-al Din Arslan Khan bin Ilich Tafgbach Khan (ca 1165 AD) under Kara-Khitan overlordship, AE Dirham, Balkh
Arslan Khan Ibrahim bin Husayn (AH551-74), AE Dirham, Uzjand mint
Rukn al-Din Mas'ud b. Hasan(AH556-66,1161-71AD) AE rukni dirham, Samarqand
Ghiyath al-Dunya wa ud-Din Muhammed bin Mas'ud (AH568-572),AE Dirham, Samarqand
Muhammad bin Mas'ud (AH568-572), AE Dirham, Samarkand
Several Falus with inscription in triangular design
Mansur b. Ali (Arslan-khan) and Muhammad b. Ali (Ilek) Fractional dirham

- The Seljuks *
The Seljuk dynasty was founded around 950 AD by Seljuk Beg. Their origin was from the Oghuz Turks in the region between the Caspian and Aral Sea. From here they migrated into Khwarezm and converted to Islam. Initially they were allies of the Samanid. After the downfall of the Samanid the Seljuks under the rule of Tughril conquered the Ghaznavid under Masud I in 1040 AD and took over power in a large part of the current Iran region. Under the rule of Alp Arslan the Seljuk empire expanded west to Georgia, Armenia and took over Anatolia from the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert in 1071AD.
After 1090AD the Seljuk empire collapsed after disagreements in succession, attacks by adversaries and termination of allegiance by vasal states. The Sultanate of Rum remained as a remnant in Anatolia, until this was invaded by the Mongols around 1260 AD.
Alp Arslan (1063-72AD/AH455-65), AR Dinar 65AH Nishapur and Here
Izz ad-Din Qilij Arslan II bin Mas'ud (1155-1192AD/AH551-588) AE Horseman Fals
Sulayman II bin Qilij Arslan (1196-1204AD/AH592-600) AE Horseman Fals
Kayqubad I (1219-36AD/AH616-34) AE Fals
Izz ad-Din Kayka'us II, (1246-9AD/AH644-7) AE Fals, Brockage

- The Ghorids *
The Ghorid originally were inhabitants of the Ghur region of Turkic descent. For long they had supplied slave soldiers. Initially vassals of the Ghaznavid, Ghorid power expanded rapidly under the rule of Ghiyath al-din Muhammad and his younger brother Muiz al-din Muhammad. In 1193AD Muiz conquered Delhi, while the west part of the realm was ruled by Ghiyath al-din Muhammad. After the death of Ghiyath in 1202AD Muiz became sole ruler. Due to Mongol and Khwarezmshah pressure, Ghorid power collapsed soon after the death of Muiz al-din Muhammad in 1206 AD.
Some more background in this thread.
Note: As the Ghorids also extended their rule into India, that part of their coinage may also be found under the Indian subsection.
Ghiyath-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam(1163-1203 AD)
Bi  Jital, Horseman (Tye#131var)
Bi Jital, Elephant rider with spear, Shafurqan (Tye#134)
AE Jital, Lion rider, (Tye#135)
AE Jital,Elephant, Kurzuwan (Tye#140)
Debased Dinar, (Album-W1754)
Mu`izz al-Din Muhammad bin Sam (1173-1206 AD, 567-602 AH)
Bi Bull&Horseman Jital, provincial issue (Tye#164.4)
BI Bull/Txt Jital, Kurraman (Tye#177)
BI Bull/Txt Jital, Kurraman? (Tye#178)
AR Bull&Horseman Jital, Dehli (Tye#185)
Bi Jital, inscription in square, Ghazna (Tye#190)
AE Jital, "text in square", Ghazna (Tye#190)
AE Horse rider Jital, unpublished
AR Bull's eye dirham with Ghiyath as overlord, Ghazna (Album-1770)
AR dirham with Ghiyath as overlord, Ghazna (Album-1771)
AR dirham, Ghazna (Album-1772)
Other Ghorids
Uncertain ruler, Bi Jital (Tye#136var?)
Mahmud bin Muhammad (1206-12AD) Bi Elephant Jital (Tye#148)
Mahmud bin Muhammad (1206-12AD) AE Horseman Jital, , Lahore (Tye#149)
Baha-ud-din Sam bin Muhammad (1192-1206AD) BI Jital (Tye#154)
Possible Baha-ud-din Sam bin Muhammad (1192-1206AD) AE Jital, Unlisted type
Jalal-al-din Ali (1206-15AD) AE B&H Jitals (Tye#169)
Taj-ud-din Yildiz (1206-15AD)
AE Text Jital, Tye#199
AE Horseman Jital,Tye#200
AE Horseman Jital,Tye#200
AE text Jital,Tye#203

- The Khwarezm Shahs *
The Kwarezmshah started out as governers in Seljuk service over the Kwarezm province. After obtaining independence, the territory was expanded over a large part of central Asia. This mainly under the rule of Al al-din Tekesh and his son Ala al-din Muhammad who subdued the Ghorids. Ala al-din Muhammad ultimately lost his power to the invading forces of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan and died in 1220.
His son Jalal al-din fled with his forces first towards India where he established a temporary powerbase. Later he migrated West with his troops but was ultimately killed in 1231 AD.
AE Fals Ala-ud-din Tekish (1172-1200) (Album-1711)
Ala al-din Muhammad (AH596-617, 1200-1220AD)
Bi Horse Jitals
-Taliqan (Tye#209)
-Not well calassifyable (Tye#208-13)
-Sibi (Tye#218)
-Herat (Tye#221var)
-Herat (Unlisted variant)
-mint ? (Tye#214 or 223.2)
-Baluqan (Tye#226)
-Baluqan or Shafurqan ? (Tye#226)
Bi Elephant+rider Jital, Kurzuwan, (Tye#227)
Bi Elephant Jital, Kurzuwan, (Tye#228)
AE Horse Dirhams
-Bamiyan (Tye#237)
-Bamiyan (Tye#237.5)
-Qunduz (Tye#238)
-Qunduz (Tye#240)
AE Bull&Horseman Jital with title "Sikandar" (Tye#241)
AE Horse Dirham, Qunduz (Tye#243var)
AE Jital with lion, unknown mint (Tye#244)
AE Jital, Kurzuwan, Flip-over double strike (Tye#246)
AE Jital, Kurzuwan (Tye#246.3)
AE Text Jital, Shafurqan (Tye#247)
AE Jital, unknown mint (Tye#248)
AE Text Jital, unknown mint (Tye#248)
AE Bull's eye Jitals
-Mint "Y" (Tye#254 and 255)
-Zamin Dewar (Tye#260)
-Dawar (Tye#262)
-Fivar Mint ? (Tye#264)
-Sangah (Tye#265)
-mint erased from die (Tye#269)
AE Jital, Kurzuwan (Tye#270)
AE Jital, Kurzuwan, naming denomination? (Tye#271)
AE Jital, Kurzuwan (Tye#272)
AE text Jital plus brockage specimen, Dawar (Tye#279)
AE Jital, Ghazna (Tye#283+var)
BI/AE Text Jital (Tye#284)
AE Jital, "The Sultan, the shadow of Allah on earth", Tye#285
AE Text Jital (Tye#288.2)
AE Text Jital (Tye#288.2)
Bi Bull Jitals
-Kurraman (Tye#291)
-Kurraman (Tye#291)
-Peshawar (Tye#293)
-Peshawar (Tye#293)
-Peshawar (Tye#293)
-Ghazna or Kurraman ? (Tye#294)
-Ghazna ? (Tye#294) with flan error
-Naghara (Tye#295)
-Naghara (Tye#295)
-Kurraman (Tye#297.2)
-Kurraman (Tye#297.2)
-Kurraman (Tye#297, different subtypes)
Medium Size AE Fals, Tye#302var
AE Jital, "text in square", Ghazna (Tye#303)
AE cast Jitals, (Tye#303)
AV Dinar,61XAH, Ghazna, (Album-1712)
AV Dinar, mintless, (Album-1713)
AR Dirham, Ghazna (Album-1715)
AR Dirham, Balkh ? (Album-1719)
AR broad Dirham, Balkh  (Album-1719 group)
AR  Dirham, Balkh  (Album-1719)
AR Dirham, Ayyubid 6-pointed star type, (Album-1720)
Silvered AE "Qadiri" Dirham, Balkh, AH616, (Album-1723)
Silvered AE "Fathi" Dirham, Tirmidh(Termez), AH616 (Album-1724)
Silvered AE "Sultani" Dirham, Tirmidh (Album-1724)
AE Broad Dirham, Tirmidh
Jalal-ud-din Mangubarni (1220-24AD)
AE Jital, Sistan (Tye#310)
AE Jital, Sistan (Tye#310var)
AE Jital, Ghazna? (Tye#313)
AE Text Jital, Kurraman? (Tye#314)
Horseman Jital, (Tye#317 but with mint visible as Kurraman)
Horseman Jitals, several variants of rare type, Kurraman (Tye#317)
AE Bull and horseman Jitals, (Tye#318, several variants)
AE Bull and horseman Jital, (Tye#318)
AR 1/2 Star Dirham "Sultan al-Mu'azzam" type

Sharaf Beg (Also in Early Islamic Sultanates under Rulers of Sind and Punjab)
Sharaf Beg, Bull and Horseman Jital, Nandana Mint
"Sri Shaliphati"variant, unlisted

Malik of Kurzuwan
After the flight west of Mangubarni Kurzuwan fell to the Mongols in 1221AD. During the seige of the city copper coins were issued. Most are dated in the month of Rabi II. A scarcer type is dated Jumada I, the month in which the city probably fell.
Malik of Kurzuwan, AE Jital (Album-1971,Tye-324.1 and 324.2)
Malik of Kurzuwan, Rabi II, AE Jital (Album-1971,Tye-324.1)

- The Pishkinids *
Short lasting dynasty of local maliks in the Ahar region of Iran/Azerbaidjan between 1155 and 1231AD. Vassals of the Shaddadids, Khwarezmshah and Eldiguzid.
Pishkin II (ca AH591-601) AE Dirham, Ahar AH591/1195 AD
Mahmud bin Pishkin, as vassal of Khwarezmshah Jalal-ud-din Magubarni, AE Dirham
« Last Edit: November 13, 2019, 03:36:52 PM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Ancient Islamic world, Index of this Board (Work in progress)
« Reply #5 on: September 14, 2014, 02:46:29 PM »
Mongols and descendants *
- The Great Mongols *
Chengiz Khan (1206-1227AD) (also spelled Chingiz/Ghengiz/Ghengis)
- AE Jital with reference to caliph Al-Nasir, Shafurqan (Tye#325)
- AE Jital, Ghazna (Tye#329,Album-1969)
- AE Jital, Ghazna (Tye#332)
- AE Jital, Horserider/Bow, Qunduz (Tye#334)
Gyk Khan (1246-1248AD) AR-fractional Dirham, (Album-1976F)
Mngke Khan (1251-60AD/AH649-658), AE broad dirham, Otrar (Album-1978C)
Mngke Khan, AE Jou, AH655? Ghanza (Album-1978E1)
Unpublished BI/AE anonymous Mongol era Jital, Shafurghan
Anonymous dirham, (AH660,1262AD), Almaligh (Nyamaa-49)

After the death of Kublai Khan (1294 AD) the Mongol empire fell apart in four different branches: The leading branch in name was the Yuan dynasty in China. In the West there were three important descendant dynasties. The rulers of these at some time all took the Islamic faith.

- The Golden Horde *
The Juchid, or Golden Horde dynasty, controlled the north-west of the Mongol territory, along the northern border of the Caspian sea, upto the Black Seas region of Russia.
Jani Beg Khan (AH 741-758) AE Pul, Saray al-Jadidah
Jani Beg Khan, AE Pul, "double headed eagle"
Jani Beg Khan, AE Pul, AH 756, Khwarizm
Juchid AE Pul, Jani Beg ? Khwarizm
Birdibek Khan (also spelled Berdi Beg) (1357-1359AD) AR Dang AH759, Serai al-Jadida
AE Pul, Qulpa (also spelled Kulpa) Khan 1359-1360AD, Khwarizm
Kidr Khan (also spelled Khizr), (1360-1361AD/AH761-762), AR Dang, Saray al-Jadida
Khizr Khan, (AH761-762), AE pul, Saray al-jadida
Ghiyath-al-din (AH771-782/1369-1380AD) AR Dang, Urdu.
Rival Khans, AE Pul, Saray al-Jadidah
Qongirat Sufis period, Anonymous AE pul with horse.
Qongirat Sufis period, AE Pul, AH767, Khwarizm
Juchid AE pul, "Two fishes with bow"

- The Chagatai *
The Chagatayid ruled the central part of the empire, from Bukhara in the West to China in the East.
temp. Alughu (AH659-664/1261-1266AD), AE Dirham, AH663/1265AD, Samarkand (Album-B1979)
temp. Qaidu (662-701AH) AE Fals S-tamgha, Shash
Tuqa Timur (1272-1291AD) AR dirham with "Mam" tamgha, Khotan (Album-1985)
Qutlugh Khwaja (1299AD) Jital, Ghazna ?, (Tye#340, Album-A1987.1)
Qutlugh Khwaja (1299AD) Jital, Ghazna, (Tye#343, Album-A1987.4)
Qutlugh Khwaja (1299AD) Jital, Ghazna, (Tye#341, Album-A1987.5)
Kebek Khan, AR 1/6 Dinar, Bukhara
temp. Khan Tarmashirin (726-734) Tirmidh, 1328AD/AH728, (Album-1992)
Jenkshi (Changshi), AR 1/6 Dinar, 736AH, Otrar

-- The Timurid *
Timur (Tamerlane) was the founder of the Timurid dynasty. He came from a mongol tribe which had settled in Southern Kazakhstan and had intermixed with the Turkic inhabitants. After the adoption of Islam the Timurid also assimilated a lot of classical Persian cultural influences.
Originally Timur was subordinate to the Chagatai Khan. As his power increased he took control over large parts of Chagatai territory and later also Ilkhanid Persia and Iraq. The Golden horde ruler Tokthamysh was defeated in Georgia. After expansion into Pakistan/northern India he gave this into the hands of Kizr Khan whose Sayyid dynasty replaced the Tuqluq als Sultans of Delhi. In later years the Timurid lost control over a larger part of their Western and Pesian territory to the Qara Qoyunlu. From Kabul, Timurid descendant Babur became the father of the Mughal empire from 1526 AD onwards.
Timur, citing Suyurghatmish as overlord, AR Miri, 1382-3 (785 H), Samarkand (Album-2375)
Timur, overlord Mahmud, 799 AH, AR Tanka, Yazd
Timur with Mahmud, AR Tanka, Herat
AE fulus, Samarqand mint (1381-1385 AD/AH783-787)
Shah Rukh (1405-47AD/AH807-50)
- AR Sharukhi, 828AH, Yazd
- AR Sharukhi, 830AH, Yazd
- AR Tanka with countermark abu Sa'id, 829AH?
- AR Tanka, 831AH, Astarabad (Album-2405)
- AR Tanka with countermark, 841AH, Sultaniya
temp. Shah Rukh, anonymous AE Falus, 832AH, Bukhara, with counterstamp "Hisar"
Ulugh Beg (851-853AH), Samarqand
Abd Allah (854-55AH), AR Tanka 854AH, Samarqand
Sultan Husayn (862-911AH,1469-1506AD With interuptions), AR Tanka, Astarabad
Sultan Husayn, AR Tanka, Astarabad

Two unattributed Timurid Falus

Amirs of Qunduz/Kunduz, Khusraw Shah, AE 2 Dinar, 902-10AH, Album-3009
Amirs of Qunduz/Kunduz, crude AE 2 Dinar
Amirs of Qunduz/Kunduz, AE 2 Dinar with antelope, Tirmidh mint

- The Ilkhan *
The Ilkhan ruled the South-West of the Mongol territory, from Kabul in the East, through Persia and Iraq, along the Southern border of the Caspian Sea upto the eastern border of Turkey.
Ilkhan ruler Ghazan was the first to formally declare Islam as his religion around 1295 AD. The ilkhan were at a state of war with the Chagatai khanate.
Hulagu (1256-1265AD/AH654-663) AR Dirham, Mardin
Hulagu ? AE Falus
Abaqa Khan (1265-82AD/AH663-80), AR Dirham, Tiflis
temp Abaqa, anonymous Qa'an al adil, AR Dirham, Tabriz
Ghazan Mahmud (12711304AD) AR 2 dirhams, Type D, AH701, Bazar (Album-2172)
Arghun,(1284-1290AD/AH683-8) AR Dirham, Tiflis, Christian legends
Arghun, AR Dirham, Tabriz (Album-2145)
Uljaytu (1304-16AD/AH703-16)
-AR 2 Dirhams, AH711, Baghdad
-AR 2 Dirhams, AH706, Tabriz
-AR 2 Dirhams, AH710-11, several mints
-AR 2 Dirhams, after AH713, Baghdad
-AR 2 Dirhams, AH714/AD1314, Kashan
- AE "Sunface" Fals
Abu Sa'id (1316-1335AD/AH716-736)
-AR 2 Dirhams, Type C (AH719-721) Kashan (Album 2200.1)
-AR 2 Dirhams, type C, AH720, mint unclear
-AR 2 Dirhams AH722, Type D (AH722-724, Pentagon type) Baghdad (Album-2204)
-AR 2 Dirhams Type D, Hamadan
-AR 2 Dirhams AH724, type F (AH723-728, Circle and Square type) Akhlat
-AR Dirham, Type F AH729, mint ?
-AR 2 Dirhams AH729 (Circle/Circle) Baghdad
-AR 2 Dirham AH729, Baghdad
-AR 2 Dirhams AH731, type G (AH729-734, looped octagon type) Bazar
-AR 2 Dirhams, type G, Tabriz
-AR 2 Dirhams, type G, Tabriz
-AR 2 Dirhams, type H (AH734-736, bilingual type), Tabriz (Album-2217)
-AR 6 Dirhams, 33 al-Khania era, Damghan (Album-1217)
-AR 2 Dirhams Type F, Anatolian imitative issue
-AE Fals, Horseman/bird, Arzinjan
-AE Fals with bird, Hilla
-AE Fals with lion, Sinjar
-AE Fals with countermark, Tabriz

With the death of Abu Said Bahadur in 1335 AD, unified Ilkhan supremacy over Persia ended. After this there were several factions who competed for supremacy over Persia, splitting the rule over western and eastern teritories:
-- House of Hasar
Taghay Timur (737-54AH/1336-53AD) AV fractional dinar, Baghdad mint
Taghay Timur Khan, AR 2 dirhams, (Album 2225)
Taghay Timur Khan, after 741 AH, AR 2 Dirham, Baghdad
-- House of Hulagu
Sulayman Khan (AH739-746/1339-1346AD), AR 2 Dirham, 741 AH, Mardin
Anushirwan, AR 6 Dirham (753-6AH), Rayy
-- The Jalayrid/(Jalayirid)
Dynasty ruling over parts of Iraq, Kurdistan and Azerbeidjan form ca 1336 to 1432.
Hasan Buzurg (1336-56AD), Anonymous Ar Dinar, Baghdad
Hasan Buzurg, Anonymous Ar Dinar, Basra
Jalal-al-din Husayn, AR Dinar, Shustar
Husayn I, (c.AH780-783) AR 2 Dinars, Tabriz (Album 2307)
Ahmad, AR 2 Dinars, AH [7]85, Tabriz
-- The Injuyid/(Injuid)
Initially governing by authority of the Ilkhan. Shortly held an independent status in southern Iran with the decline of Ilkhan power.  Abu Saʿids former governor of Yazd, Mubariz al-Din Muzaffar terminated the reign of Injuid ruler Abu Ishaq in 1357AD, making Shiraz the capitol of the Muzaffarid dynasty.
Abu Ishaq, AR Dinar, mint unclear

« Last Edit: September 01, 2019, 11:12:10 AM by THCoins »

Offline THCoins

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Re: Ancient Islamic world, Index of this Board (Work in progress)
« Reply #6 on: September 14, 2014, 02:58:59 PM »
Post-Mongol dynasties *
- Kara Qoyunlu *
These are the Black Sheep Turkomans. They were a rival dynasty to the White Sheep Turkomans who finally prevailed.
- Aq Qoyunlu *
These are the White Sheep Turkomans. The Aq Qoyunlu were a Eastern Turkish dynasty at the borders of the Byzantine empire. In 1402AD they were granted an autonomous territory by the Timurid ruler Timur Lang. The territory could only be expanded after the defeat of the neighbouring Black Sheep Turkomans in 1467AD under the ruler Uzun Hassan.
Ya'qub Ibn Uzun Hassan (1478-90AD), AR dirham, Amid mint
Yaq'ub (1478-1490AD), AR Tanka, Tabriz
Ya'qub, AR Tanka, Ani (Armenia) Mint (883-896 AH)
Ya'qub, AR Tanka, mint?
Ya'qub, AR Tanka
Anonymous fals, after 1468 AD 13 mm, 2.4 gr. Album-2563A
« Last Edit: September 01, 2019, 10:58:45 AM by THCoins »